Cutting Edge Self-renewable During Operation Patents (Class 175/379)
  • Patent number: 9540884
    Abstract: A method of producing a drill bit, such as for drilling a well into an earth formation, includes forming a bit body having a plurality of blades. Each of the plurality of blades includes a forward facing face with respect to a direction of rotation of the bit. The forward facing face includes individual cutter pockets at least partially recessed into the forward facing face. The method also includes securing a cutting element at least partially within each of the individual cutter pockets. Each cutting element has an abrasion resistance. Each of the plurality of blades is formed of a blade material having an abrasion resistance that is less than the abrasion resistance of the cutting element.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 16, 2014
    Date of Patent: January 10, 2017
    Assignee: BAKER HUGHES INCORPORATED
    Inventors: Robert M. Welch, Eric E. McClain, L. Allen Sinor
  • Patent number: 9506296
    Abstract: A drill bit matrix is provided that contains a powdered abrasive material and a refractory metal powder in which the refractory metal powder is a coated powder in which each granule of the refractory metal powder is coated by a coating material. A core drill bit is further provided, containing a powdered abrasive material, a refractory metal powder and a steel tube onto which the powdered abrasive material and refractory metal powder are alloyed. The refractory metal powder is a coated powder in which each granule of the refractory metal powder is coated by one or more coating materials. A method is finally provided for manufacturing a core drill bit. First a matrix is formed by mixing together a powdered abrasive material and a coated refractory metal powder. The matrix is placed in a mould and a steel tube is placed on top of the mould to form a drill bit assembly. The drill bit assembly is then heated under atmospheric conditions.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 6, 2010
    Date of Patent: November 29, 2016
    Inventor: Robert Kenneth Miller
  • Patent number: 9441723
    Abstract: A steel gear 1 includes a generally cylindrical outer peripheral ring portion 2, on an outer peripheral surface 20a of which a toothed shape 10 is formed, and a flange portion 3 provided to extend radially inward from an inner peripheral surface 20b of the outer peripheral ring portion 2. The outer peripheral ring portion 2 includes a first projecting portion 21 that projects toward one side in the axial direction with respect to a coupling position at which the first projecting portion 21 is coupled to the flange portion 3, and a second projecting portion 22 that projects toward the other side in the axial direction with respect to a coupling position at which the second projecting portion 22 is coupled to the flange portion 3. The axial length of the first projecting portion 21 is longer than the axial length of the second projecting portion 22.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 1, 2012
    Date of Patent: September 13, 2016
    Assignee: AISIN AW CO., LTD.
    Inventors: Koji Obayashi, Keita Taguchi, Yasutaka Miyake, Takaaki Ogiso
  • Patent number: 9399892
    Abstract: Earth-boring tools may have a body, a cutting element attached to the body at a first location, and a formation-engaging structure attached to the body at a second location. The formation-engaging structure may be movable during a drilling operation between a first position and a second position. In the first position, the formation-engaging structure may be located rotationally behind the cutting element at a first radial distance from a longitudinal axis of the body at which the cutting element will at least initially shield the formation-engaging structure from engaging a formation. In the second position, the formation-engaging structure may be located at a different second radial distance from the longitudinal axis of the body at which the formation-engaging structure will engage a formation.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 13, 2013
    Date of Patent: July 26, 2016
    Assignee: Baker Hughes Incorporated
    Inventors: Eric Do, Juan Miguel Bilen, Philip Christof Schulte, Jason E. Hoines
  • Patent number: 9388476
    Abstract: A steel gear includes a substantially cylindrical outer peripheral ring portion having a toothed shape formed on its outer peripheral surface; and a flange portion extended radially inward from an inner peripheral surface of the outer peripheral ring portion. The steel gear has a thermal history layer formed in the outer peripheral ring portion, and the depth of the thermal history layer in the direction inward from the tooth bottom of the toothed shape of the outer peripheral surface is greater in the first protruding portion and the second protruding portion than in the coupling portion with the flange portion, and is substantially the same between the first protruding portion and the second protruding portion. As a result, even if the ‚Äúcarburization/slow cooling/high-frequency quenching treatment‚ÄĚ is used as a manufacturing method of the steel gear, the steel gear has high dimensional accuracy.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 1, 2012
    Date of Patent: July 12, 2016
    Assignee: AISIN AW CO., LTD.
    Inventors: Koji Obayashi, Keita Taguchi, Yasutaka Miyake, Takaaki Ogiso
  • Patent number: 9334730
    Abstract: Tips for pick tools and pick tools comprising same are provided. The tip comprises an impact structure formed joined at a non-planar boundary surface of a substrate. The boundary surface includes a depression. The impact structure comprises super-hard material and has a working end including an apex opposite the depression. The boundary surface of the substrate comprises a ridge at the periphery of the depression and a generally tapered circumferential region depending away from the ridge towards a side of the tip, a lowest point of the depression being directly opposite the apex.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 25, 2012
    Date of Patent: May 10, 2016
    Assignee: Element Six Abrasives S.A.
    Inventors: Matthew Alan Sanan, Cornelis Roelof Jonker
  • Patent number: 9309723
    Abstract: A drill bit may include a bit body including at least one blade extending at least partially over a cone region of the bit body. Additionally, the drill bit may include a plurality of cutting structures mounted to the at least one blade and a rubbing zone within the cone region of the at least one blade, wherein cutting structures within the rubbing zone have a reduced average exposure. Additionally, a method of directional drilling may include positioning a depth-of-cut controlling feature of a drill bit away from a formation to prevent substantial contact between the depth-of-cut controlling feature and rotating the drill bit off-center to form a substantially straight borehole segment. The method may also include positioning the depth-of-cut controlling feature of the drill bit into contact with the formation to control the depth-of-cut and rotating the drill bit on-center to form a substantially nonlinear borehole segment.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 5, 2010
    Date of Patent: April 12, 2016
    Assignee: BAKER HUGHES INCORPORATED
    Inventors: Thorsten Schwefe, Cara D. Weinheimer
  • Patent number: 9103170
    Abstract: A drill bit that includes a body having a lower end face for engaging a rock formation. The end face having a plurality of raised ribs extending from the face of the bit body and separated by a plurality of channels therebetween At least one of the plurality of ribs has a varying width along at least a portion of a rib height.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 16, 2008
    Date of Patent: August 11, 2015
    Assignee: Smith International, Inc.
    Inventors: Bala Durairajan, Jonan Fulenchek, Gregory T. Lockwood
  • Patent number: 8875812
    Abstract: A polycrystalline diamond cutting (PDC) element of a drill bit of a downhole drilling tool is provided. The PDC element having a substrate, a diamond table and at least one pattern. The diamond table has an initial cutting edge along a periphery thereof. The pattern integrally formed within the diamond table. The pattern(s) defining at least one discontinuity about the diamond table that, in operation, selectively breaks away upon impact to create new cutting edges in the diamond table whereby a sharp cutting edge is continuously exposed to a material being cut.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 22, 2011
    Date of Patent: November 4, 2014
    Assignee: National Oilwell DHT, L.P.
    Inventors: Deepthi Raj Setlur, John Christopher Troncoso, Michael D. Hughes
  • Patent number: 8807247
    Abstract: Cutting elements for use with earth-boring tools include a cutting table having at least two sections where a boundary between the at least two sections is at least partially defined by a discontinuity formed in the cutting table. Earth-boring tools including a tool body and a plurality of cutting elements carried by the tool body. The cutting elements include a cutting table secured to a substrate. The cutting table includes a plurality of adjacent sections, each having a discrete cutting edge where at least one section is configured to be selectively detached from the substrate in order to substantially expose a cutting edge of an adjacent section. Methods for fabricating cutting elements for use with an earth-boring tool including forming a cutting table comprising a plurality of adjacent sections.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 21, 2011
    Date of Patent: August 19, 2014
    Assignee: Baker Hughes Incorporated
    Inventors: Danny E. Scott, Timothy K. Marvel, Yavuz Kadioglu, Michael R. Wells
  • Patent number: 8800692
    Abstract: Cutting elements for earth-boring tools may generate a shear lip at a wear scar thereon during cutting. A diamond table may exhibit a relatively high wear resistance, and an edge of the diamond table may be chamfered, the combination of which may result in the formation of a shear lip. Cutting elements may comprise multi-layer diamond tables that result in the formation of a shear lip during cutting. Earth-boring tools include such cutting elements. Methods of forming cutting elements may include selectively designing and configuring the cutting elements to form a shear lip. Methods of cutting a formation using an earth-boring tool include cutting the formation with a cutting element on the tool, and generating a shear lip at a wear scar on the cutting element. The cutting element may be configured such that the shear lip comprises diamond material of the cutting element.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 1, 2010
    Date of Patent: August 12, 2014
    Assignees: Baker Hughes Incorporated, Element Six Ltd
    Inventors: Danny E. Scott, Marcus R. Skeem, Jeffrey B. Lund, John H. Liversage, Moosa Mahomed Adia
  • Patent number: 8720609
    Abstract: A method of optimizing drill bit design and an optimized drill bit for drilling a well into an earth formation comprising a bit body; a number of blades spaced around the bit body, each blade having a curved outer edge and a forward face; a first row of cutter pockets recessed into the face along the outer edge of each blade; a second group of cutter pockets recessed into the face of each blade offset from the first row; and a plurality of cutting elements, each cutting element being brazed into a different one of the cutter pockets.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 13, 2008
    Date of Patent: May 13, 2014
    Assignee: Baker Hughes Incorporated
    Inventors: Robert M. Welch, Eric E. McClain, L. Allen Sinor
  • Patent number: 8448726
    Abstract: A bearing element for a rotary, earth boring drag bit effectively reduces an exposure of at least one adjacent cutting element by a readily predictable amount, as well as a depth-of-cut (DOC) of the cutter. The bearing element has a substantially uniform thickness across substantially an entire area thereof. The bearing element also limits the amount of unit force applied to a formation so that the formation does not fail. The bearing element may prevent damage to cutters associated therewith, as well as possibly limit problems associated with bit balling, motor stalling and related drilling difficulties. Bits including the bearing elements, molds for forming the bearing elements and portions of bodies of bits that carry the bearing elements, methods for designing and fabricating the bearing elements and bits including the same, and methods for drilling subterranean formations are also disclosed.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 2, 2012
    Date of Patent: May 28, 2013
    Assignee: Baker Hughes Incorporated
    Inventor: Thomas Ganz
  • Patent number: 8141665
    Abstract: A bearing element for a rotary, earth boring drag bit effectively reduces an exposure of at least one adjacent cutting element by a readily predictable amount, as well as a depth-of-cut (DOC) of the cutter. The bearing element has a substantially uniform thickness across substantially an entire area thereof. The bearing element also limits the amount of unit force applied to a formation so that the formation does not fail. The bearing element may prevent damage to cutters associated therewith, as well as possibly limit problems associated with bit balling, motor stalling and related drilling difficulties. Bits including the bearing elements, molds for forming the bearing elements and portions of bodies of bits that carry the bearing elements, methods for designing and fabricating the bearing elements and bits including the same, and methods for drilling subterranean formations are also disclosed.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 12, 2006
    Date of Patent: March 27, 2012
    Assignee: Baker Hughes Incorporated
    Inventor: Thomas Ganz
  • Patent number: 8109346
    Abstract: A drill bit has cutting elements with multiple cutting surface geometries that are positioned so that their cutting profiles overlap, but do not completely contain or engulf one another. The different cutting surface geometries and the specific overlap create a zone of high density in the middle regions of the cutting profiles and low density in the periphery, resulting in a cutting profile that becomes sharper with increasing wear. Such an arrangement is more effective and stable as the drill bit encounters hard and abrasive formation materials. Moreover, cutting elements with larger axial volumes may be combined with cutting elements having smaller axial volumes.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 18, 2010
    Date of Patent: February 7, 2012
    Assignee: Varel International Ind., L.P.
    Inventor: Graham Mensa-Wilmot
  • Publication number: 20100230174
    Abstract: A diamond impregnated drill bit features layered encapsulation of the diamond grit where the innermost layer is hardest or most abrasion resistant while succeeding layers are generally softer and less wear resistant. This can be accomplished by manipulating several variables in the encapsulation layers such as particle size or hard particle concentration. The outer layers can have added binder to make them softer. The encapsulated grit can be sintered or pre-sintered to make it less friable when handled. As a result the encapsulated diamonds are retained in the matrix longer with higher protrusion to improve bit longevity and penetration rates.
    Type: Application
    Filed: March 13, 2009
    Publication date: September 16, 2010
    Applicant: Baker Hughes Incorporated
    Inventors: Dan E. Scott, Wesley D. Fuller
  • Patent number: 7677333
    Abstract: A drill bit has cutting elements with multiple cutting surface geometries that are positioned so that their cutting profiles overlap, but do not completely contain or engulf one another. The different cutting surface geometries and the specific overlap create a zone of high density in the middle regions of the cutting profiles and low density in the periphery, resulting in a cutting profile that becomes sharper with increasing wear. Such an arrangement is more effective and stable as the drill bit encounters hard and abrasive formation materials. Moreover, cutting elements with larger axial volumes may be combined with cutting elements having smaller axial volumes, resulting in an even more effective drill bit in terms of durability and ability to drill efficiently in hard and abrasive formations.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 18, 2006
    Date of Patent: March 16, 2010
    Assignee: Varel International Ind., L.P.
    Inventor: Graham Mensa-Wilmot
  • Patent number: 7594553
    Abstract: A tool insert comprises a substrate (10) having a support surface and a support ring extending laterally from the support surface. The support ring is sized to define a recess (14) within the confines thereof and a shelf about the periphery thereof. A layer (12) of ultra-hard abrasive material is located within the recess and bonded to the substrate and the support ring (16), and presents a primary cutting edge (22) for the tool insert. A protective layer (18) is bonded to the shelf about the support ring so as to protect the primary cutting edge. The protective layer provides a secondary cutting edge (20) for the tool insert, the depth of the protective layer being selected so as to be sufficient to protect the primary cutting edge whilst cutting, milling or drilling through a first substance but to expose the primary cutting edge upon encountering a second substance.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 12, 2003
    Date of Patent: September 29, 2009
    Inventors: Klaus Tank, Raymond Albert Chapman, Roy Derrick Achilles
  • Publication number: 20080110673
    Abstract: Apparatus and methods for drilling with casing. In an embodiment, methods and apparatus for deflecting casing using a diverter apparatus are disclosed. In another embodiment, the apparatus comprises a motor operating system disposed in a motor system housing, a shaft operatively connected to the motor operating system, the shaft having a passageway, and a divert assembly disposed to direct fluid flow selectively to the motor operating system and the passageway in the shaft. In another aspect, methods and apparatus for directionally drilling a casing into the formation are disclosed. Methods and apparatus for measuring the trajectory of a wellbore while directionally drilling a casing into the formation are also described.
    Type: Application
    Filed: October 31, 2007
    Publication date: May 15, 2008
    Inventors: Richard L. Giroux, Gregory G. Galloway, Tuong Thanh Le, Raymond H. Jackson, Gregory R. Nazzal, James C. Swarr, David J. Brunnert, William M. Beasley, Brent J. Lirette, Albert C. Odell, Jim Terry, Dave McKay, Samir Alkhatib, Mike Wardley
  • Patent number: 6962217
    Abstract: A long lasting rotary drill bit for drilling a hole into variable hardness geological formations that has a self-actuating mechanism responsive to the hardness of the geological formation to minimize the time necessary to drill a borehole. A long lasting rotary drill bit for drilling a hole into variable hardness geological formations that has a mechanism controllable from the surface of the earth to change the mechanical configuration of the bit to minimize the time necessary to drill a borehole. A monolithic long lasting rotary drill bit for drilling a hole into a geological formation having hardened rods composed of hard material such as tungsten carbide that are cast into a relatively soft steel matrix material to make a rotary drill bit that compensates for wear on the bottom of the drill bit and that also compensates for lateral wear of the drill bit using passive, self-actuating mechanisms, triggered by bit wear to drill relatively constant diameter holes.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 14, 2003
    Date of Patent: November 8, 2005
    Assignee: Smart Drilling and Completion, Inc.
    Inventor: William Banning Vail, III
  • Patent number: 6932172
    Abstract: Cutter elements including pointed contact structures and elements, and rock tools or bits for carrying those elements, for chipping, cutting, and breaking non-ductile materials are disclosed. The cutter elements, the ends of which directly contact and cut through rock and other materials, have tapered contact structure ends which are flatter than those known to the prior art, obtaining increased durability. The contact elements which may be part of the contact structures are selected of materials having hardness and other characteristics in relation to those of the mounting structures, including the tapered and projecting portions, which also add durability and wear-resistance to the elements. Fixed, replaceable, and rotatable cutter elements are disclosed. Rock tools including bits are also disclosed for carrying the cutter elements, having sockets for threaded or rotatable cutter elements arranged in straight or curved rows on the head opposite the drill-string-engaging base of the tool.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 30, 2000
    Date of Patent: August 23, 2005
    Inventor: Harold A. Dvorachek
  • Patent number: 6843333
    Abstract: A drill bit employing a plurality of discrete, post-like, abrasive, particulate-impregnated cutting structures extending upwardly from abrasive, particulate-impregnated blades defining a plurality of fluid passages therebetween on the bit face. Additional cutting elements may be placed in the cone of the bit surrounding the centerline thereof. The blades may extend radially in a linear fashion, or be curved and spiral outwardly to the gage to provide increased blade length and enhanced cutting structure redundancy. Additionally, discrete protrusions may extend outwardly from at least some of the plurality of cutting structures. The discrete protrusions may be formed of a thermally stable diamond product and may exhibit a generally triangular cross-sectional geometry relative to the direction of intended bit rotation.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 20, 2002
    Date of Patent: January 18, 2005
    Assignee: Baker Hughes Incorporated
    Inventors: Volker Richert, Van J. Brackin, Matthew R. Isbell, Douglas J. Bobrosky, M. MacLean Price
  • Publication number: 20040188148
    Abstract: A novel and improved roller cone drill bit and method of design are disclosed. A roller cone drill bit for drilling through subterranean formations having an upper connection for attachment to a drill string, and a plurality cutting structures rotatably mounted on arms extending downward from the connection. A number of teeth are located in generally concentric rows on each cutting structure. The actual trajectory by which the teeth engage the formation is mathematically determined. A straight-line trajectory is calculated based on the actual trajectory. The teeth are positioned in the cutting structures such each tooth having a designed engagement surface is oriented perpendicular to the calculated straight-line trajectory.
    Type: Application
    Filed: January 28, 2004
    Publication date: September 30, 2004
    Applicant: Halliburton Energy Service, Inc.
    Inventor: Shilin Chen
  • Publication number: 20030201125
    Abstract: The present invention relates to providing a drill bit stabilizing system and methods which overcome the above noted problems. The at least one stabilizing member is biased to a second extended operating position. The body member further comprises at least one fixed stabilizing surface positioned in axially spaced relationship to the at least one movable stabilizing member. In another aspect, the invention is directed to a drill bit stabilizing system comprising a body member and at least one stabilizing member, being moveable from an extended operating position to a retracted position within the body member. The at least one stabilizing member comprises outer contact faces adapted to engage the walls of a bore hole when in an operating position, and an inner slide surface adapted to slidingly engage a corresponding slide surface formed in the body member. There is also provided a method of drilling a bore hole using a drill bit rotated in conjunction with a drill string.
    Type: Application
    Filed: April 30, 2002
    Publication date: October 30, 2003
    Inventor: Richard C. Raney
  • Patent number: 6547017
    Abstract: A long lasting rotary drill bit for drilling a hole into variable hardness geological formations that has a self-actuating mechanism responsive to the hardness of the geological formation to minimize the time necessary to drill a borehole. A long lasting rotary drill bit for drilling a hole into variable hardness geological formations that has a mechanism controllable from the surface of the earth to change the mechanical configuration of the bit to minimize the time necessary to drill a borehole. A monolithic long lasting rotary drill bit for drilling a hole into a geological formation having hardened rods composed of hard material such as tungsten carbide that are cast into a relatively soft steel matrix material to make a rotary drill bit that compensates for wear on the bottom of the drill bit and that also compensates for lateral wear of the drill bit using passive, self-actuating mechanisms, triggered by bit wear to drill relatively constant diameter holes.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 16, 1998
    Date of Patent: April 15, 2003
    Assignee: Smart Drilling and Completion, Inc.
    Inventor: William Banning Vail, III
  • Patent number: 6510906
    Abstract: A drill bit employing a plurality of discrete, post-like diamond grit impregnated cutting structures extending upwardly from abrasive particulate-impregnated blades defining a plurality of fluid passages therebetween on the bit face. PDC cutters with faces oriented in the general direction of bit rotation are placed in the cone of the bit, which is relatively shallow, to promote enhanced drilling efficiency through softer, non-abrasive formations. A plurality of ports, configured to receive nozzles therein are employed for improved drilling fluid flow and distribution. The blades may extend radially in a linear fashion, or be curved and spiral outwardly to the gage to provide increased blade length and enhanced cutting structure redundancy.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 10, 2000
    Date of Patent: January 28, 2003
    Assignee: Baker Hughes Incorporated
    Inventors: Volker Richert, Van J. Brackin, Matthew R. Isbell, Douglas J. Bobrosky
  • Patent number: 6454028
    Abstract: A wear resistant drill bit of the matrix bodied type has a bit body comprising a tungsten carbide material bound with a binder material, wherein the tungsten carbide material includes at least some tungsten carbide particles of generally spherical shape. The tungsten carbide material includes particles having a relatively hard central core and a softer skin. The skin includes a large proportion of a high temperature phase of tungsten carbide.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 4, 2001
    Date of Patent: September 24, 2002
    Assignee: Camco International (U.K.) Limited
    Inventor: Stephen M. Evans
  • Publication number: 20010035302
    Abstract: A dual function drag bit is used in a method for both milling well casing or liner and subsequently drilling rock formation without the sequential removal of a milling assembly and replacement with a drilling assembly. The method employs a cutting tool that is capable of both milling steel pipe casing in a well bore and subsequently drilling rock formation outside the well bore after passing through the casing. In one embodiment an insert embedded into the surface of the cutting tool comprises at least an outer layer, such as cemented tungsten carbide, capable of milling steel casing, and at least a second layer, such as polycrystalline diamond, capable of drilling formation, the two layers being bonded together and to a carbide substrate. In another embodiment, inserts with a polycrystalline diamond cutting face for drilling rock formation are in parallel with cemented tungsten carbide cutters for milling steel casing.
    Type: Application
    Filed: March 10, 2000
    Publication date: November 1, 2001
    Inventors: Praful C Desai, Charles H Dewey
  • Patent number: 6095265
    Abstract: The present invention provides a diamond impregnated bit with an adaptive matrix in the ribs. The ribs have at least two different areas of metal-matrix composite impregnated with diamonds with different wear resistance such that during boring of formation, the areas will wear at different rates and provide fluid flow spaces across the surface of the ribs.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 29, 1998
    Date of Patent: August 1, 2000
    Assignee: Smith International, Inc.
    Inventor: Shelton W. Alsup
  • Patent number: 5868125
    Abstract: An abrasive tool for cutting extremely abrasive-resistant materials includes a novel, abrasive segment with a generally crenelated, rectangular appearance. The segment has a single piece vein of a primary abrasive and first bond material extending completely along the length of the segment. The vein transverses the width of the segment at least once in a non-linear path and alternately coincides with inner and outer faces. Gaps between the vein and the faces opposite the vein coincident faces are occupied by a second bond material, and optionally, a secondary abrasive, thus forming multiple, separated abrasive regions. The bottom surface of the segment is attached to a core at an operative perimeter which defines the cutting edge of the tool. The segment can be adapted to conform to the curvature of diverse cutting edges, and thus can be used in rotary and reciprocating saw blades and core drilling bits.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 21, 1996
    Date of Patent: February 9, 1999
    Assignee: Norton Company
    Inventor: Mohammed Maoujoud
  • Patent number: 5836409
    Abstract: A monolithic long lasting rotary drill bit for drilling a hole into a geological formation having at least one hardened rod which has a length of at least three times its diameter composed of hard material such as tungsten carbide that is cast into a relatively soft steel matrix material to make a rotary drill bit that compensates for wear on the bottom of the drill bit and that also compensates for lateral wear of the drill bit using passive, self-actuating mechanisms, triggered by bit wear to drill relatively constant diameter holes.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 31, 1997
    Date of Patent: November 17, 1998
    Inventor: William Banning Vail, III
  • Patent number: 5679445
    Abstract: Methods for making, methods for using and articles comprising cermets, preferably cemented carbides and more preferably tungsten carbide, having at least two regions exhibiting at least one property that differs are discussed. Preferably, the cermets further exhibit uniform or controlled wear to impart a self-sharpening character to an article. The multiple-region cermets are particularly useful in wear applications. The cermets are manufactured by juxtaposing and densifying at least two powder blends having different properties (e.g., differential carbide grain size or differential carbide chemistry or differential binder content or differential binder chemistry or any combination of the preceding).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 23, 1994
    Date of Patent: October 21, 1997
    Assignee: Kennametal Inc.
    Inventors: Ted R. Massa, John S. Van Kirk, Edward V. Conley
  • Patent number: 5677042
    Abstract: Methods for making, methods for using and articles comprising cermets, preferably cemented carbides and more preferably tungsten carbide, having at least two regions exhibiting at least one property that differs are discussed. Preferably, the cermets further exhibit uniform or controlled wear to impart a self-sharpening character to an article. The multiple-region cermets are particularly useful in wear applications. The cermets are manufactured by juxtaposing and densifying at least two powder blends having different properties (e.g., differential carbide grain size or differential carbide chemistry or differential binder content or differential binder chemistry or any combination of the preceding).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 6, 1995
    Date of Patent: October 14, 1997
    Assignee: Kennametal Inc.
    Inventors: Ted R. Massa, John S. Van Kirk, Edward V. Conley
  • Patent number: 5615747
    Abstract: A monolithic long lasting rotary drill bit for drilling a hole into a geological formation having at least one hardened rod which has a length of at least three times its diameter composed of hard material such as tungsten carbide that is cast into a relatively soft steel matrix material to make a rotary drill bit that compensates for wear on the bottom of the drill bit and that also compensates for lateral wear of the drill bit using passive, self-actuating mechanisms, triggered by bit wear to drill relatively constant diameter holes.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 17, 1996
    Date of Patent: April 1, 1997
    Inventor: William B. Vail, III
  • Patent number: 5301762
    Abstract: Self-shaping disk-shaped cutting edge of a drilling tool, comprising an outer diamond-impregnated polycrystalline layer (22) applied onto a tungsten carbide layer (24), each cutting edge being mounted on a support (18) which is integral with the body (12) of the drilling tool. The cutting edge and/or its support (18) have areas (26) of least resistance, such as grooves, which are likely to cause successive fractures, thereby forming an acute relief angle (.alpha.) with the rock to be drilled (28).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 12, 1993
    Date of Patent: April 12, 1994
    Assignee: Total
    Inventor: Alain Besson
  • Patent number: 5135061
    Abstract: A preform cutting element for a rotary drill bit for use in drilling or coring holes in subsurface formations includes a cutting table 12, 13 of superhard material such as polycrystalline diamond. The rear face of the cutting table is bonded to a substrate 11 of less hard material, such as cemented tungsten carbide. A front portion 12 of the cutting table comprises a form of superhard material which is less wear-resistant than the superhard material forming the remainder 13 of the cutting table. The provision of the less wear-resistant superhard material at the front cutting faces reduces the tendency of the cutting table to spall.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 3, 1990
    Date of Patent: August 4, 1992
    Inventor: Thomas A. Newton, Jr.
  • Patent number: 5025873
    Abstract: The present invention comprises a rotary drill bit including a cutting structure comprising an array of cutting elements oriented and arranged to facilitate concentration of the load on bit on groups of cutting elements until the elements become dulled or worn, at which point fresh cutting elements are exposed to engage the formation and tube the concentrated bit loading. Preferably, the cutting elements are configured and/or supported to break away from the cutting structure when worn to a certain extent, thereby facilitating exposure of fresh cutting elements to engage the formation.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 29, 1989
    Date of Patent: June 25, 1991
    Assignee: Baker Hughes Incorporated
    Inventor: Jerry Cerkovnik
  • Patent number: 5012863
    Abstract: A blade (8) for a pipe milling tool having a body (1) and a longitudinal axis (100) has a plurality of slots (12) extending both in a generally radial direction and in an intended direction of rotation of the milling tool about the longitudinal axis. Located in each slot (12) is at least one cutting element (13), the slot and the cutting element both having a greater depth in the blade in the intended direction of rotation than height in the longitudinal axis direction. The provision of such dimensions for the slot and cutting element affords the blade with improved life. The cutting elements may each have a negative axial rake angle (A) and the cutting elements are preferably brazed in each of the slots. In a preferred embodiment the slots and the cutting elements are both similarly decreasingly tapered from a forward (leading) face (221) to a rearward face (218) with respect to the intended direction of rotation of the tool by an angle in the range 1.degree. to 20.degree..
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 12, 1989
    Date of Patent: May 7, 1991
    Assignee: Smith International, Inc.
    Inventor: Johann Springer
  • Patent number: 4898252
    Abstract: A cutting structure for a rotary drill bit includes a cutting element 30 having a front layer 32 formed of polycrystalline diamond, bonded to a backing layer 33 formed of tungsten carbide. The cutting element is bonded to a carrier 33 which is formed of a number of detachable individual elements having means holding them in position such that, upon wear of the cutting structure in use, the holding means of an element engaging the formation will eventually fail, causing detachment of that element from the carrier, and thereby reducing the area of the cutting structure in contact with the formation.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 10, 1988
    Date of Patent: February 6, 1990
    Assignee: Reed Tool Company Limited
    Inventor: John D. Barr
  • Patent number: 4813500
    Abstract: A fishtail type drag bit having abradable cutter blades attached to a body of the bit is disclosed. A multiplicity of axially aligned tubes are welded together to form a blade each blade being sustantially parallel with an axis of the bit body. Each tube of the blade contains an annulus of a diamond cutter material matrix. The center of the annulus forms a fluid conduit that communicates with a fluid plenum chamber formed by the body of the bit. The cutting edge of the diamond matrix therefore, is always immediately adjacent the fluid nozzle regardless of the degree of blade erosion during operation of the bit in a subterranean formation.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 19, 1987
    Date of Patent: March 21, 1989
    Assignee: Smith International, Inc.
    Inventor: Kenneth W. Jones
  • Patent number: 4727946
    Abstract: A rotary drill bit, for drilling wells in subsurface earth formations, and designed for rotation in a given direction, comprises a bit body having an internal passageway for drilling fluid. The bit body has an operating end face and at least one opening through that face communicating with the passageway. Cutters on the bit body form at least one elongate cutting region extending generally radially along a substantial portion of the operating end face. The cutters have cutting surfaces facing in the forward direction and generally continuous cutting edges at the outer extremity of the cutting surfaces. An elongate fence is carried on the bit body, extending generally parallel to the cutting region and spaced from the cutting region in a leading direction.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 20, 1986
    Date of Patent: March 1, 1988
    Assignee: NL Industries, Inc.
    Inventors: John D. Barr, Terry R. Matthias
  • Patent number: 4719979
    Abstract: Drag-type drilling bits are disclosed which have at least one blade and a plurality of fluid flow channels incorporated in the blade for conducting drilling fluid or drilling mud from the hollow interior of the bit to discharge or ejection ports located in the front cutting edge of the blade. Rods of diamonds or of like "hard" cutter insert materials are incorporated in the blade in such a configuration that as the blade wears away or erodes and small pieces of diamonds are lost during drilling, more diamonds are exposed to the formation for drilling. During erosion or wear of the blades, the fluid discharge ports continue to operate to eject drilling fluid adjacent to substantially each diamond rod, whereby the flushing away of cuttings and cooling of the diamonds is greatly improved. In some embodiments of the invention rods of alternating hard and soft materials are also disposed substantially parallel with the diamond or like "hard" cutter insert rods.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 24, 1986
    Date of Patent: January 19, 1988
    Assignee: Smith International, Inc.
    Inventor: Kenneth W. Jones
  • Patent number: 4690228
    Abstract: A roller cone bit may be used as a rotating drag bit by treating the roller cones as carriers for a plurality of distinguishable types of drag cutters. The roller cones are each coupled to a mechanism which selectively allows rotation of the roller cones. The roller cones are otherwise fixed and as the bit is rotated, the drag cutters are brought into engagement with the rock. However, where the roller cones are selectively allowed to rotate, rotation of the drag bit rotates the roller cones to bring a second set of drag cutters into a configuration for cutting the rock formation. A mechanism then selectively locks the roller cones to prevent further rotation, keeping the second set of drag cutters fixed in place. By selectively permitting and preventing rotation of the roller cones, a plurality of sets of drag cutters can be brought into a configuration for cutting the rock.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 14, 1986
    Date of Patent: September 1, 1987
    Assignee: Eastman Christensen Company
    Inventors: Dieter Voelz, Roland Illerhaus
  • Patent number: 4596296
    Abstract: A rotary drill bit, for use in subsurface formations, comprises a bit body, a passageway for drilling fluid within the body, communicating with nozzles in the external surface of the body, preform cutting elements mounted on the body for cutting or abrading the formation, and a number of elongate fences upstanding from the external surface of the body to control the flow of fluid from the nozzles and past cutting elements. Each fence is resiliently deformable, for example being in the form of a brush having metal bristles, so that, in use, the free elongate edge of the fence is urged resiliently into contact with the surface of the formation being cut or abraded by the cutting elements. Since each fence is resiliently deformable it will at all times firmly engage the formation to provide an effective seal, regardless of variations in depth of cut of the cutting elements.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 26, 1984
    Date of Patent: June 24, 1986
    Assignee: NL Petroleum Products Limited
    Inventor: Terry R. Matthias
  • Patent number: 4593777
    Abstract: A drill bit comprises a bit body having an operating end face. A plurality of self-sharpening cutters are mounted in the bit body and extend through the operating end face. The cutters have cutting faces adapted to engage an earth formation and cut the earth formation to a desired three-dimensional profile. The cutting faces define surfaces have back rake angles which decrease with distance from the profile. The individual cutting faces may be inwardly concave in a plane parallel to the intended direction of motion of the cutter in use. Each of the cutting members has a stud portion disposed in a respective recess in the bit body and defining the inner end of the cutting member, the cutting face being generally adjacent the outer end and having an outer cutting edge. The centerline of the stud portion is rearwardly inclined, from the outer end to the inner end, with respect to the direction of movement in use, taken at the midpoint of the cutting edge, at a first angle from 80.degree. to 30.degree. inclusive.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 8, 1984
    Date of Patent: June 10, 1986
    Assignee: NL Industries, Inc.
    Inventor: John D. Barr
  • Patent number: 4558753
    Abstract: A drill bit comprises a bit body having an operating end face. A plurality of self-sharpening cutters are mounted in the bit body and extend through the operating end face. The cutters have cutting faces adapted to engage an earth formation and cut the earth formation to a desired three-dimensional profile. The cutting faces define surfaces having back rake angles which decrease with distance from the profile. The individual cutting faces may be inwardly concave in a plane parallel to the intended direction of motion of the cutter in use.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 22, 1983
    Date of Patent: December 17, 1985
    Assignee: NL Industries, Inc.
    Inventor: John D. Barr
  • Patent number: 4533004
    Abstract: A self-sharpening rotary drag bit assembly comprises:(a) a carrier body adapted to be rotated about a first axis, and having a drilling end,(b) cutters carried by the body to be exposed for cutting at the drilling end of the body, the cutters having thereon layers of hard materials defining cutting edges to engage and cut the drilled formation as the body rotates, the cutters also including reinforcement material supporting said layers to resist deflection thereof under cutting loads,(c) said body and said reinforcement material being characterized as abradable by the formation as the bit drilling end rotates in engagement with the formation.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 16, 1984
    Date of Patent: August 6, 1985
    Assignee: CDP, Ltd.
    Inventor: Gunes M. Ecer
  • Patent number: 4478296
    Abstract: A drill bit for drilling a subterranean bore hole which includes a housing having a cap plate adapted for connection to a drill pipe and a base block axially aligned with and spaced from the cap plate by guide members. A plurality of elongated drill rod impact members are carried by a drill rod holder plate disposed between the cap plate and base block for movement longitudinally of the housing. The free ends of the drill rods extend through guide bores in the base block to define exposed working ends for chipping and crushing the formation upon rotation of the drill bit and the introduction of drilling fluid into the housing in a manner to effect a hammer-like action of the drill rods and progressively move them longitudinally outwardly from the base block as they undergo wear.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 14, 1981
    Date of Patent: October 23, 1984
    Inventor: Charles D. Richman, Jr.
  • Patent number: 4394882
    Abstract: A continuous chain bit for hard rock drilling is capable of downhole cycling. A drill head assembly moves axially relative to a support body while the chain on the head assembly is held in position so that the bodily movement of the chain cycles the chain to present new composite links for drilling. A pair of spring fingers on opposite sides of the chain hold the chain against movement. The chain is held in tension by a spring-biased tensioning bar. A head at the working end of the chain supports the working links. The chain is centered by a reversing pawl and piston actuated by the pressure of the drilling mud. Detent pins lock the head assembly with respect to the support body and are also operated by the drilling mud pressure. A restricted nozzle with a divergent outlet sprays drilling mud into the cavity to remove debris.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 17, 1981
    Date of Patent: July 26, 1983
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the United States Department of Energy
    Inventors: Don F. Ritter, Jack A. St. Clair, Henry K. Togami
  • Patent number: 4359335
    Abstract: A method of fabricating a rock bit insert which has improved wear characteristics is disclosed. Selected surfaces of the insert are implanted with a harder grade of tungsten carbide and sintered thereto. The special insert then would find application in the gage row of, for example, a roller cone rock bit.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 5, 1980
    Date of Patent: November 16, 1982
    Assignee: Smith International, Inc.
    Inventor: Lloyd L. Garner