Plural Chambers Patents (Class 177/103)
  • Patent number: 11116332
    Abstract: A dispensing device for holding, presenting, and removing baked bakery goods includes at least one dispensing tray having a supply section that enables stocking of the dispensing tray with bakery goods, a removal section for removing the bakery goods, a transport surface arranged between the supply section and the removal section, and a measuring device. The bakery goods pass the measuring device on their way from the supply section to the removal section, and the measuring device registers the presence or absence of the bakery goods and generates corresponding electrical signals.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 7, 2017
    Date of Patent: September 14, 2021
    Inventor: Reinald Weiss
  • Patent number: 10173794
    Abstract: Packaging machine and method for filling dusting product such as bulk material into open-mouth bags via a filling process. The filling process is controlled by weight via a control device and a weighing device. A batching element conveys product and introduces it through a filling spout into an open-mouth bag appended for the filling process. The filling spout is connected with a collecting tank through a flow connection such that a pressure surge occurring during the filling process is utilized for transferring into the collecting tank the displacing air contained in the open-mouth bag and including the dusting product to receive and settle the displacing air in the collecting tank and to deposit at least part of the dust content of the displacing air in the collecting tank as deposited product.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 17, 2014
    Date of Patent: January 8, 2019
    Assignee: HAVER & BOECKER OHG
    Inventor: Uwe Breulmann
  • Patent number: 9354092
    Abstract: The Application discloses an in-line, high capacity apparatus and method for measuring a flowable component, such as seed, grain or other material. The apparatus and method generally function by measuring the pressure applied to a rounded cap by the flowing material. In certain embodiments, the apparatus and method comprise a housing containing a sensing unit, with the housing further comprising a rounded cap in mechanical communication with a load cell. In certain exemplary embodiments, the apparatus and method also comprise a processor, wherein the sensing unit is in communication with the processor so as to measure the flow rate of material passed through the housing by measuring the pressure of the material on the rounded cap. In certain embodiments, the apparatus and method allow the user to regulate the flow rate.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 14, 2013
    Date of Patent: May 31, 2016
    Assignee: Flometrix
    Inventors: Yuh-Yuan Shyy, Manjit Misra
  • Patent number: 9341600
    Abstract: A deflection gauge configured for use with a floor test apparatus is provided. The gauge includes a housing, a string potentiometer mounted on the housing, and a channel extending from the housing and pivotably supporting a pivot beam. The pivot beam has a contact button at one end and an attachment point on an opposite end configured for receiving a string of the potentiometer. Deflection of the contact button due to floor sample weight stresses causes the attachment point to pivot and cause linear extension of the string, which is measured by the potentiometer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 6, 2014
    Date of Patent: May 17, 2016
    Assignee: UNITED STATES GYPSUM COMPANY
    Inventors: Robert W. Cavaliero, Robert Peddle
  • Publication number: 20120181093
    Abstract: An arrangement for weighing bulk materials includes plural hoppers each having its own weighing system for accurately determining material discharge rate (lbs/minute) and for directing the contents of the hoppers to a product processing stage either sequentially from one hopper at a time while the other hoppers are being re-filled to provide continuous, non-stop operation, or in the alternative, from two or more hoppers simultaneously for blending the materials under the precise control of a programmed controller. Material discharge rate from each hopper is determined by continuous weighing of each hopper and its contents and is controlled in real time by precise computer controlled positioning of each hopper's slide gate. In the blending mode of operation, accurate monitoring of the material discharge rate is coordinated with processing of the material in a subsequent processing stage to allow for variation of the discharge rate to precisely match the subsequent processing parameters.
    Type: Application
    Filed: January 17, 2012
    Publication date: July 19, 2012
    Applicant: KSI Conveyors, Inc.
    Inventors: Dona M. Fehr, Paul Kaeb, Dominic Meyer
  • Patent number: 7390981
    Abstract: A weighing device includes a supply unit, a weighing unit, a stock unit, a discharge unit, a transfer unit, and a revolving mechanism. The supply unit supplies a target object to a container revolving in the weighing unit. The weighing unit weighs the container while revolving the same. The stock unit stocks a plurality of containers while holding the plurality of containers three-dimensionally and revolving them. The discharge unit discharges the target object from the container while revolving the container.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 16, 2004
    Date of Patent: June 24, 2008
    Assignee: Ishida Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Yoshihiro Nakamura, Kazuhiro Suhara, Takashi Kimura, Masayoshi Nakajima, Shuji Murata, Yukio Wakasa, Fumitaka Tokuda
  • Patent number: 7332679
    Abstract: A weighing section includes a plurality of weighing members and a power supply mechanism. The weighing members weigh an object while moving. The power supply mechanism includes a fixed section, a rotatable section moving along the movement of the weighing members, a primary coil provided on the fixed section, and a secondary coil provided on the rotatable section. The power supply mechanism supplies power to the primary coil, retrieves an induced electromotive force from the secondary coil, and supplies power to the weighing members.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 8, 2004
    Date of Patent: February 19, 2008
    Assignee: Ishida Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Shuji Murata, Yukio Wakasa, Takashi Kimura, Masayoshi Nakajima
  • Patent number: 7259338
    Abstract: A measuring device includes a first measuring hopper, a first supply portion arranged above the first measuring hopper to supply the objects to the first measuring hopper, a second measuring hopper, a second supply portion fixedly arranged above the second measuring hopper to supply the objects to the second measuring hopper, a plurality of accommodating hoppers circumferentially arranged below the first and second measuring hoppers, and a control portion configured to control the second supply portion and the plurality of accommodating hoppers such that an accommodating hopper discharges the objects only if the total weight of the objects in the accommodating hopper that are discharged from the first and second measuring hoppers is substantially and no smaller than the predetermined weight. The plurality of accommodating hoppers are intermittently circulated such that each of the accommodating hoppers successively receives the objects from the first and second measuring hoppers.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 24, 2004
    Date of Patent: August 21, 2007
    Assignee: Ishida Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Yukio Sugioka, Isao Noguchi, Teruo Hayakawa, Hiroshi Kishimura, Kazuhisa Chimura, Masayuki Yamanaka, Akiyoshi Katsumi
  • Patent number: 7057118
    Abstract: The present invention provides an automatic method and apparatus for weighing into portions. Feeding of single units is performed by separating the feeding channels for rough feeding and fine feeding so that the feeding up to the weighing station is separated. When weighed portions are too large compared to a predetermined value, the apparatus rejects the portions and returns them back to the feeding stream. By separating the stream of units into fine weighing and rough weighing, with a rejection of unsatisfied portions, the portions can accurately be weighed with high performance with apparatus that is both inexpensive and space saving.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 24, 2002
    Date of Patent: June 6, 2006
    Assignee: Skaginn hf
    Inventors: Ingolfur Arnason, Kristjan Thor Gudmundsson, Hordur Gardarsson, Johannes Simonssen, Einar Brandsson, Asgeir Marino Rudolfsson, Sigurdur Magnus Skulason
  • Patent number: 7053318
    Abstract: The machine has a regular structure symmetrical with respect to a central axis and provided with limiting end faces, said structure being disposed with its horizontal axis rotatably supported on its axis of symmetry on the frame of the machine, and bearing a plurality of longitudinal frames in the direction of the generatrices, on which are incorporated the “cups” or buckets carrying the pieces of fruit or the like, each of said “cups” or buckets being freely rotatable on a horizontal axis, and the machine having means for the rotatable support on its horizontal axis of said structure carrying the “cups” for the pieces of fruit, and also means for effecting the rotation of said structure on its horizontal axis.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 30, 2003
    Date of Patent: May 30, 2006
    Inventor: Rosalina Paniagua Olaechea
  • Patent number: 7053317
    Abstract: The object of the present invention is to provide a hopper having a simplified structure that can prevent fragments of component parts generated by vibrations and bolts, nuts, etc., that have fallen out of place from intermixing with the articles in the weighing hoppers or on the conveyor of a combination weighing apparatus. A link mechanism for opening and closing a gate is arranged on a plate provided on one side of the box-like body of a pool hopper. A cover that covers the entire link mechanism is provided and the cover is configured such that it can be freely attached to and detached from the box-like body. The cover can be attached to and detached from the box-like body by engaging and disengaging an engaging member of the cover with and from a nut coupled to the box-like body.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 23, 2003
    Date of Patent: May 30, 2006
    Assignee: Ishida Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Yoshiharu Asai, Shizuo Minamino, Hiroshi Hattori, Shingo Yamamoto
  • Patent number: 7019224
    Abstract: A powder-weighing apparatus and a powder-weighing method having a high weighing speed and a high weighing accuracy are provided. For weighing powder within a predetermined allowable range of a target weight Wt, the powder-weighing apparatus may be configured to have a primary-charge weighing portion for weighing and retaining a weight W1 of primary-charge powder smaller than the target weight Wt and at least two auxiliary-charge weighing portions each for weighing and retaining a weight W2 of auxiliary-charge powder within a predetermined range of an auxiliary-charge weight Ws. When a weight W1 of the powder retained in the primary-charge weighing portion is smaller than a lower limit of the predetermined allowable range of the target weight Wt, one of the two weights W2 may be selected so that a sum (W1+W2) becomes closest to the target weight Wt, and the powder retained in the primary-charge weighing portion and the powder retained in the selected auxiliary-charge weighing portion are discharged.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 16, 2003
    Date of Patent: March 28, 2006
    Assignee: Yamato Scale Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Shozo Kawanishi, Kazuo Usui, Atsushi Watanabe
  • Patent number: 6683261
    Abstract: The combination weighing apparatus is an apparatus that conducts combination weighing of articles based upon weight data from a plurality of weight hoppers, and is comprised of a plurality of supply buckets that supply articles to any of a plurality of weighing hoppers, a rotation mechanism that rotates the supply buckets so that they move along an arrangement of the weighing hoppers in a weighing area, and a control computer. The control computer controls the supply of articles from the supply buckets inside the weighing area to the weighing buckets, and from amongst the plurality of weighing hoppers that request a supply of articles, priority is given to the weighing buckets that are downstream in the direction of rotation, and article supply takes place.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 8, 2002
    Date of Patent: January 27, 2004
    Assignee: Ishida Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Shuuji Murata, Kazuhisa Chimura
  • Patent number: 6448511
    Abstract: An automatic product weighing machine, for food products having two buckets radially arranged in two concentric paths on a horizontal plane, with frames having an intermediate cross-member, each of which loosely houses a pair of buckets joined to the frame by pairs of flexible, resilient and parallel straps. Two radially aligned weighing apparatuses are respectively arranged below two buckets at the weighing area. Rollers at the free ends of the frames and on two sides of the buckets, stand on respective track sectors, and the buckets are lifted in the sector of the weighing area. Control metering of products to be delivered into buckets comprise of displaceable laminar belts.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 24, 1999
    Date of Patent: September 10, 2002
    Assignee: Talleres Daumer, S.A.
    Inventor: Agustín Dauder Guardiola
  • Patent number: 6235998
    Abstract: An improved method and apparatus for distributing a food product, such as potato chips, which reduces the problem of staling. A plurality of stopper gates are placed adjacent to a plurality of slide doors on the downstream end of a distribution conveyor such that when the gate is closed the product is held over the slide door.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 13, 1999
    Date of Patent: May 22, 2001
    Assignee: Recot, Inc.
    Inventor: Marvin Vincent Brewer
  • Patent number: 6127635
    Abstract: A combinational weighing device comprises a plurality of weighing cells and corresponding associated weighing hoppers (W.sub.1 . . . W.sub.10) and an outlet-side transfer device (5) for supplying weighed products into a package to be arranged therebelow. In conventional manner a controller (6) has an input connected with the output of the load cells and an output connected to respective drives for the closable outlets of the weighing hoppers. The drives of the outlets of the weighing hoppers are controlled in such a manner that a corresponding subcombination of several weighing hoppers is selected for forming a total amount to be supplied into a package. In order to increase the speed in cases where the individual weights of the articles differ by a sufficiently small amount the controller is designed to be switched to a second operational mode wherein the controller drives the outlets of the weighing hoppers so that each weighing hopper can be selected independently of the other weighing hoppers.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 17, 1999
    Date of Patent: October 3, 2000
    Assignee: Multipond Wagetechnik GmbH
    Inventors: Bernd Zeyer, Tony Pain
  • Patent number: 5959258
    Abstract: A multiple hopper system for improved forming of solid, flowing product into sequential batches or charges, transferring the batches between the hoppers, combination weighing/selection and discharging to a packaging machine is provided. A computer senses the batch weight and assigns the weight in sequence first to the transfer hopper, and then to the holding hopper. Both the transfer and holding hoppers participate in each computerized weighing/selection cycle. The forming hopper includes a shell and double-acting clam shell doors; the upper curved portion of each door extending into the hopper when the doors are open, thereby intercepting any late product in flight and initiating formation of the next batch. The transfer and holding hoppers also incorporate pairs of clam shell type doors. A curved transition chute is positioned below the holding hopper. The holding hopper doors slope at an angle in the direction along the closing lips of the door.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 21, 1998
    Date of Patent: September 28, 1999
    Assignee: Kliklok Corporation
    Inventor: W. Stamps Howard
  • Patent number: 5767453
    Abstract: This invention provides a combined metering apparatus in which the convey efficiency of a target metering object from an upper-stage hopper to a lower-stage hopper is improved. For this purpose, the direction in which a bottom plate 33 of a pool hopper 25 is moved to open the lower open surface of a cylindrical body 26 and the direction in which a bottom plate 43 of a lower-stage metering hopper 35 is moved to close the lower open surface of a cylindrical body 36 are set the same. Also, the direction in which the bottom plate 43 of the metering hopper 35 is moved to open the lower open surface of the cylindrical body 36 and the direction in which a bottom plate 59 of a lower-stage timing hopper 50 is moved to open the lower open surface of a cylindrical body 51 are set the same.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 16, 1996
    Date of Patent: June 16, 1998
    Assignee: Anritsu Corporation
    Inventors: Kazuyoshi Wakou, Fumihiro Tsukasa, Sadao Kobayashi
  • Patent number: 5719355
    Abstract: Combinational weighing is carried out firstly by calculating combinations of weight signals from a plurality of weighing devices each weighing a batch of objects to be packaged and selecting a combination having a total weight satisfying a specified criterion with respect to a target value, and secondly by re-checking the weight signals from the weighing devices of the selected combination before discharging the objects therefrom. The value of the difference between the total weights obtained at the time of the combinational calculations and at the re-checking time is stored cumulatively after each cycle of operation, and a new target value is calculated and set after each cycle from many stored difference values from previous cycles in order to improve the work efficiency and the yield at the same time.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 29, 1994
    Date of Patent: February 17, 1998
    Assignee: Ishida Co., Ltd.
    Inventor: Ryoji Nishimura
  • Patent number: 5353960
    Abstract: An apparatus for continuous gravimetric metering of pourable material includes a housing having arranged therein a rotor. The material is supplied to pockets of the rotor through a charging inlet and blown out of the pockets at a discharging outlet arranged on a side of the housing opposite to a charging device. The housing is mounted at a frame and is pivotal about an axis extending through centers of elastic coupling members connecting a supply bin and a feed-away duct, respectively, to the housing. The axis may extend inclined to the horizontal. Pressurized fluid for blowing out the pockets of the rotor may be used for cleaning an interior space of the rotor prior to being applied to the pockets of the rotor.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 23, 1991
    Date of Patent: October 11, 1994
    Assignee: Pfister GmbH
    Inventor: Hans W. Hafner
  • Patent number: 4874048
    Abstract: A combination weighing machine structure including a feed hopper and an underlying weigh hopper, in which the weigh hopper has two chambers laterally partitioned side by side and the feed hopper is adapted to move laterally and selectively to above either chamber. The weigh hopper is provided with a weighing unit for producing an electric signal indicative of the weight of product in both chambers and the weighing unit is arranged to provide the weight of product in each chamber for storage by measuring first the weight of product in one chamber when only this chamber is filled, measuring the total weight of product in both chambers when the other chamber is also filled and calculating the difference of both weights.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 4, 1987
    Date of Patent: October 17, 1989
    Assignee: Yamato Scale Company, Limited
    Inventors: Shozo Kawanishi, Tadashi Higuchi
  • Patent number: 4658965
    Abstract: A point of sale wood chip classifier includes apparatus for receiving and discharging unclassified wood chips onto a longitudinally extending downwardly angled trough-shaped vibratory classification bed which includes a plurality of rotating disks for promoting tumbling of the chips toward an overflow end, the bed including openings between the disks defining a plurality of classification zones of increasing size along the bed in the downhill direction. A plurality of collection bins are located below the classification zones for receiving the classified chips, the classification bins being carried on respective load cells which signal the individual weights of a sample to a microcomputer for calculation of totality of chips and percentages of each classified component.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 24, 1985
    Date of Patent: April 21, 1987
    Assignee: Beloit Corporation
    Inventor: William C. Smith
  • Patent number: 4621664
    Abstract: Disclosed are method and apparatus for determining and assuring correct fill weight of containers. In one embodiment electro-optical weigh cells are employed in conjunction with weigh dump receptacles. A second embodiment discloses addition of a second container weighing operation with addition of optional additional fill operations.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 3, 1984
    Date of Patent: November 11, 1986
    Assignee: Diffracto Ltd.
    Inventors: Timothy R. Pryor, Omer L. Hageniers
  • Patent number: 4618012
    Abstract: A combination weighing machine, which is used typically for packing a plurality of articles in each bag or the like so as to render the total weight of each bag to satisfy a predetermined weight condition, including a plurality of weighing units for weighing the articles each at the same time, arithmetic means for selecting some of these units the total weight of which satisfies the predetermined weight condition, and means for unloading the selected weighing units for delivery of the articles for packing and then loading them with new articles; each adjoining pair of weighing units being provided with a common auxiliary hopper for receiving weighed articles from either unit of the pair and keeping them for participating in the combination selecting operation together with those articles on the weighing units, thereby improving weighing accuracy without increasing the number of expensive weighing units.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 14, 1985
    Date of Patent: October 21, 1986
    Assignee: Yamato Scale Company, Limited
    Inventors: Shoji Yamano, Yoshitaka Mikata, Osamu Teramoto, Kazuhiro Nishide
  • Patent number: 4605082
    Abstract: An improved combined weighing apparatus is provided for weighing vegetables and fruits, confectionary articles, secondary products, perishables and other articles having high variations in single weight with high accuracy to produce packages having a predetermined weight. System for measurement of feeded products and for combination of weights which is equal or most approximate to the target value are improved in a way to eliminate the dead time of combining operation during weighing time for increasing the speed of combining operation while maintaining high accuracy.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 23, 1984
    Date of Patent: August 12, 1986
    Assignee: Teraoka Seiko Co., Ltd.
    Inventor: Yoshikazu Matsuura
  • Patent number: 4538692
    Abstract: A weighing system for making a predetermined weight of a product comprised of individual articles having variable weights by selecting the product stored in a combination of a predetermined number of storage cups. Quantities of the product having targeted weights are distributed to a plurality of scale-controlled hoppers for accurate weighing. The weighed product is fed from each of the scale-controlled hoppers to a plurality of storage cups associted with each of the hopers, and the product weight associated with each storage cup is registered. Specific combinations of storage cups are tested to determine whether the combined product weights therein add to make the desired weight, within acceptable limits. The first combination found to make the weight is used, and the appropriate storage cups are emptied to a container for receiving the product. The appropriate storage cups are refilled from the scale, and the process repeats.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 18, 1983
    Date of Patent: September 3, 1985
    Assignee: Kliklok Corporation
    Inventors: Nelson R. Henry, Duncan B. Cutler, William L. Warner
  • Patent number: 4528848
    Abstract: A device for continuous, gravimetric metering and pneumatic conveying of pourable material provides that a material stream is conveyed over a measuring path while charging a load measuring device and the product of moment load and conveying speed is formed. The conveyor is in the form of a rotor having an essentially vertical axis and conveyor pockets in the form of chambers or cells which are moved with the rotor in a circular orbit over the measuring path. A housing surrounds the rotor in a pressure tight manner and includes a charging aperture and an emptying aperture which are rotationally displaced from one another. A load measuring device is connected to the housing and a tachometer is provided for measuring the angular velocity of the rotor. A pneumatic conveying system is provided which has feed lines respectively communicating with an air feed aperture in the housing and the emptying aperture.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 6, 1983
    Date of Patent: July 16, 1985
    Assignee: Pfister GmbH
    Inventor: Hans Hafner
  • Patent number: 4418771
    Abstract: A weighing system for making a predetermined weight of a product comprised of individual articles having variable weights by selecting the product stored in a combination of a predetermined number of storage cups. Quantities of the product having targeted weights are distributed to a plurality of scale-controlled hoppers for accurate weighing. The weighed product is fed from each of the scale-controlled hoppers to a plurality of storage cups associated with each of the hoppers, and the product weight associated with each storage cup is registered. Specific combinations of storage cups are tested to determine whether the combined product weights therein add to make the desired weight, within acceptable limits. The first combination found to make the weight is used, and the appropriate storage cups are emptied to a container for receiving the product. The appropriate storage cups are refilled from the scale, and the process repeats.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 1, 1982
    Date of Patent: December 6, 1983
    Assignee: The Woodman Company
    Inventors: Nelson R. Henry, Duncan B. Cutler, William L. Warner
  • Patent number: 4407379
    Abstract: A method is provided for weighing and filling a plurality of containers. The method involves providing a plurality of moving weigh members each comprising a moveable member which is moveable in proportion to the weight of material in a container weighed by the weigh member, and a fixed reference member fixed with respect to the weigh member so as to move therewith. The position of the moveable member of each weigh member is automatically and electrooptically measured relative to the fixed reference member thereof. The weight of the material in the container is determined from the relative position of the moveable member with respect to the fixed reference member. Based on this determined weight, filling of the container, or subsequent filling of similar containers, is terminated, added to or subtracted from.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 12, 1981
    Date of Patent: October 4, 1983
    Assignee: Diffracto Ltd.
    Inventors: Timothy R. Pryor, Omer L. Hageniers
  • Patent number: 4405023
    Abstract: A handling and weighing machine for fruits and the like, characterized by a feed entry having various channels terminating in structure for retaining the product to be weighed and allowing it to rest there, followed by a horizontal transport device for carrying the product from the retention structure to a weighing device and, following this, from the weighing device to a vertical transport which carries the product to a number of ramps which are superposed at differing heights, which ramps discharge into respective storage areas.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 22, 1982
    Date of Patent: September 20, 1983
    Inventor: Agustin D. Guardiola
  • Patent number: 4360070
    Abstract: A combination weighing device, which is typically used for packing a plurality of solid articles in each bag or the like, including a plurality of weighing balances for weighing a plurality of articles each at the same time, and arithmetic means for selecting some of these weighing balances so that the total weight of the articles thereon falls within a predetermined allowable range, the device also including means for checking the number of these selected articles to make them fall within a predetermined allowable range, and collecting these articles in a pack or bag so that each pack is substantially constant in weight and contains a substantially constant number of articles.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 17, 1980
    Date of Patent: November 23, 1982
    Assignee: Yamato Scale Company, Ltd.
    Inventor: Takashi Hirano
  • Patent number: 4081044
    Abstract: A feed control system for a plurality of packaging machines is provided wherein the overall supply to the machines is controlled in accordance with total demand. A pulse is produced by each machine after a filling and sealing operation is completed and a weight constant multiplier is employed to multiply this pulse by a weight constant associated with the package (the number of grams or ounces contained in the package). The outputs of all of the weight constant multipliers are connected to a parallel to series converter which produces a signal in the form of a pulse train representative of the total weight requirements of all packaging machines per unit time. This signal is converted into a corresponding voltage level which is utilized by a storage conveyor motor controller to control the overall feed rate to the machines.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 10, 1977
    Date of Patent: March 28, 1978
    Inventor: Kenneth Martin Allen