Particulate Disparate Solid Patents (Class 201/12)
  • Patent number: 10865345
    Abstract: Disclosed is a process for treating waste plastic materials such as whole tyres, coarsely cut tyres, large plastic pieces, plastic composites such as hoses or combinations of above into gases, liquids and solids by direct heating in a pyrolysis liquid (1) such as molten salt or molten metal. The pyrolysis system is constructed such that the segregation of the light and heavy materials occurs within the pyrolysis chamber. The carbon black is segregated from the pyrolysis vapours via a cyclone and fractions of carbon black may be obtained by installing a number of cyclones in series so that different qualities of carbon black may be produced. Diesel or other oils, steel, carbon black, ZnO and synthesis gas are recovered; all of which can be feed streams to other processes. This process avoids the inefficient procedure of cutting the tyres or other plastic composites into small pieces before treatment by pyrolysis and also recovers valuable components.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 12, 2013
    Date of Patent: December 15, 2020
    Inventor: Frank Riedewald
  • Patent number: 10815440
    Abstract: A solids circulation system receives a gas stream containing char or other reacting solids from a first reactor. The solids circulation system includes a cyclone configured to receive the gas stream from the first reactor, a dipleg from the cyclone to a second reactor, and a riser from the second reactor which merges with the gas stream received by the cyclone. The second reactor has a dense fluid bed and converts the received materials to gaseous products. A conveying fluid transports a portion of the bed media from the second reactor through the riser to mix with the gas stream prior to cyclone entry. The bed media helps manipulate the solids that is received by the cyclone to facilitate flow of solids down the dipleg into the second reactor. The second reactor provides additional residence time, mixing and gas-solid contact for efficient conversion of char or reacting solids.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 6, 2018
    Date of Patent: October 27, 2020
    Assignee: ThermoChem Recovery International, Inc.
    Inventors: Ravi Chandran, Jonathan A. Zenz, Dave G. Newport, Hamilton Sean Michael Whitney
  • Patent number: 10775041
    Abstract: An oxygen fired fluidized bed combustor system (Oxy-FBC) is provided. The system provides means of producing a nearly pure stream of carbon dioxide for storage at high efficiency by controlling the oxygen content within certain regions of the combustor to control the rate of heat release allowing efficient transfer of heat from the combustor to the boiler tubes while avoiding excessively high temperatures that will cause ash melting, and simultaneously remove sulphur from the combustor via sorbents such as limestone and dolomite. The present invention utilizes a coarse oxygen carrier bed material to distribute heat and oxygen throughout an Oxy-FBC, while injecting fine sulphur sorbent that will continuously be removed from the bed.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 24, 2017
    Date of Patent: September 15, 2020
    Assignee: HER MAJESTY THE QUEEN IN RIGHT OF CANADA AS REPRESENTED BY THE MINISTER OF NATURAL RESOURCES
    Inventors: Robin W. Hughes, Dennis Y. Lu, Robert T. Symonds, Firas N. Ridha
  • Patent number: 10532931
    Abstract: The present invention provides a novel cost efficient method for carbonizing lignocellulosic material to carbonized particles or agglomerates, preferably carbon powder. Also uses of said particles or agglomerates are disclosed.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 11, 2015
    Date of Patent: January 14, 2020
    Assignee: Stora Enso OYJ
    Inventors: Stephan Walter, Niklas Garoff
  • Patent number: 10487266
    Abstract: A polygeneration method of biomass downflow circulation bed millisecond pyrolysis liquefaction-gasification coupling is provided.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 5, 2019
    Date of Patent: November 26, 2019
    Assignee: China University of Petroleum (East China)
    Inventors: Yuanyu Tian, Yingyun Qiao, Kechang Xie, Youqing Wu, Huawei Zhang, Zhaohe Yang, Peijie Zong, Fanfan Xu
  • Patent number: 10442996
    Abstract: Ultra-clean char and ultra-clean gaseous hydrocarbons are produced from a carbon-based feedstock to generate maximum efficiency uniform heat and/or electricity in a clean environmentally friendly process. The ultra-clean char and ultra-clean gaseous hydrocarbon streams are produced by pyrolizing organic matter, such as coal or pet coke or any other carbon-based material including land, sea, plastics and industrial waste. The pyrolized organic matter may be combusted in the presence of oxygen to produce heat, which can be used to generate electricity in a conventional boiler/generator system. Further, pyrolized organic matter can be combusted in the presence of carbon dioxide and further processed to produce various hydrocarbons. In other embodiments, the ultra-clean post-combustion ash may be subjected to an extraction process for capturing valuable rare earth elements.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 20, 2018
    Date of Patent: October 15, 2019
    Assignee: SAgA Fuel SYSTEMS, INC.
    Inventor: Deborah Wenzel
  • Patent number: 10358608
    Abstract: A process for the hydrocracking of heavy oils and/or oil residues, the process comprising the step of contacting the heavy oils and/or oil residues with a non-metallised carbonaceous additive in the presence of a hydrogen-containing gas at a temperature of from 250° C. to 600° C. wherein the non-metallised carbonaceous additive has an average pore size of at least 2 nm.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 12, 2015
    Date of Patent: July 23, 2019
    Assignee: BP Corporation North America Inc.
    Inventors: Andreas Schleiffer, Hong Yang
  • Patent number: 10351777
    Abstract: A biomass thermal conversion system including a fixed bed drying zone; a fixed bed pyrolysis zone fluidly connected to the drying zone; a combustion zone fluidly connected to the pyrolysis zone by a material path; and a comminution mechanism arranged across the material path between the pyrolysis zone and the combustion zone, configured to grind char off a pyrolyzed surface of solid biomass and reduce a dimension of the solid biomass below a threshold size.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 20, 2017
    Date of Patent: July 16, 2019
    Assignee: All Power Labs, Inc.
    Inventor: James Mason
  • Patent number: 10220758
    Abstract: A transport vessel and method specifically adapted for safely and efficiently transporting and removing liquid containing unstabilized drill cuttings. Typically drilling waste is stabilized using binding agents like fly-ash, liquids absorbing pellets or sawdust. In many jurisdictions binding agents are required to stabilize the drilling waste prior to transport. A sealed transport vessel is described herein which is specifically sized and positioned over a set of axels so as to provide for safe, non-spilling transport. In addition, the bottom section of the vessel additionally contains one or more heating elements capable of raising the temperature of the drill cuttings at or near the bottom section of the container to a free flowing state for easy removal, even in cold/adverse weather conditions.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 23, 2016
    Date of Patent: March 5, 2019
    Assignee: RECOVER ENERGY SERVICES INC.
    Inventors: Stan Ross, Gregory Steger
  • Patent number: 10059883
    Abstract: The invention relates to a method and apparatus for producing a pyrolysis product, in which raw material are fed to the pyrolysis reactor and gaseous pyrolysis product fractions and by-product fractions are formed from raw material by pyrolysis in a pyrolysis reactor. According to the invention the method comprising steps: combusting at least one by-product fraction from the pyrolysis reactor in at least two combustors, and recovering energy formed in the combustor.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 5, 2013
    Date of Patent: August 28, 2018
    Assignees: Valmet Technologies Oy, Teknologian Tutkimuskeskus VTT Oy
    Inventor: Jani Lehto
  • Patent number: 10053629
    Abstract: Ultra-clean char is used to generate hydrocarbons and/or electricity in a clean environmentally friendly process. The ultra-clean char is produced by pyrolizing organic matter, such as coal or various organic waste. The pyrolized organic matter may be combusted in the presence of oxygen to produce heat, which can be used to generate electricity in a conventional boiler/generator system. Further, pyrolized organic matter can be combusted in the presence of carbon dioxide and further processed to produce various hydrocarbons. In other embodiments, the ultra-clean char may be subjected to an extraction process for capturing valuable rare earth elements.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 28, 2017
    Date of Patent: August 21, 2018
    Assignee: Saga Fuel Systems, Inc.
    Inventor: Deborah Wenzel
  • Patent number: 10023803
    Abstract: Solid fuel in the form of particles is supplied to a pyrolyzer, and pyrolysis conditions are maintained in the pyrolyzer for separating condensable gaseous substances from the fuel. Heat required by the pyrolysis conditions is supplied at least partly with solid fluidized bed material which passes through the pyrolyzer simultaneously as it is fluidized by fluidizing gas in the pyrolyzer. Condensable gaseous substances separated from the fuel are conveyed from the pyrolyzer to a condenser, in which they are separated as so-called pyrolysis oil in liquid form, and solid fluidized bed material taken from the pyrolyzer and containing combustible pyrolysis residue originating from the fuel is circulated through a gasifier, in which product gas, which is burnt in a boiler or a kiln, is formed from the pyrolysis residue.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 7, 2013
    Date of Patent: July 17, 2018
    Assignee: Valmet Technologies, Inc.
    Inventors: Joakim Autio, Timo Honkola
  • Patent number: 9994774
    Abstract: A pyrolysis plant 20 comprises a grinding pyrolyzer 22, being a machine or apparatus in which both particle size reduction and pyrolysis occur simultaneously. Plant 20 also comprises a bin (hopper) 30 for holding wet particulate biomass feedstock. Chute 32 leads from the bin 30 to a biomass dryer 34 which reduces moisture content of the feedstock as low as possible, e.g., to below about 10. Dried feedstock is conveyed from dryer 34 via line 36 to a dried biomass feedstock hopper 38. Dried feedstock is fed from hopper 38 into a chute 40 which leads to an inlet trunnion 42 of grinding pyrolyzer 22. A discharge trunnion 44 of grinding pyrolyzer 22 leads to a char holder 60 for collecting char particles and a condensation train 62 for condensing vapor generated by the pyrolysis to produce oil.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 21, 2011
    Date of Patent: June 12, 2018
    Assignee: Curtin University of Technology
    Inventors: Chun-Zhu Li, Xiaoshan Wang, Hongwei Wu
  • Patent number: 9908092
    Abstract: The present disclosure relates generally to two-stage biomass pyrolysis systems configured to maximize pyrolysis vapor yield from a lignocellulosic biomass while being conducive to commercial-scale throughput of lignocellulosic biomass. The system includes a reactor first stage comprising at least one auger pyrolyzes a lignocellulosic feedstock at a temperature and residence time that produces pyrolysis vapors derived predominantly from cellulose and hemi-cellulose fractions of the feedstock. A reactor second stage is configured to partially-pyrolyzed feedstock from the reactor first stage at a higher temperature for an additional residence time to produce additional pyrolysis vapors that are predominantly derived from of lignin. Certain embodiments arrange multiple reactor first stages around a single reactor second stage.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 17, 2017
    Date of Patent: March 6, 2018
    Assignee: PHILLIPS 66 COMPANY
    Inventors: Dustin L. Dalluge, Steven E. Lusk, Samuel T. Jones, Johnathan T. Gorke
  • Patent number: 9835329
    Abstract: The present invention is an improvement in a number of ways of two issued patents identified in the preamble of the Specification which follows. Such improvement will yield a more reliable process that uses coal and other hydrocarbons but avoids the discharge of hazardous pollutants into the atmosphere and lowers investment costs. This invention offers a unique and comprehensive solution that makes possible the prevention of the ill-effects to health and environment while at the same time would also prevent the closure of badly needed power generation facilities that still provide some 40% of the electricity generated in this country. The herein comprehensive solution converts six pollutants into valuable co-products while low-cost, efficient, electric power is generated to result in attracting industries that will help keep badly needed jobs. This invention is also applicable to other disciplines.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 17, 2014
    Date of Patent: December 5, 2017
    Inventor: Albert Calderon
  • Patent number: 9663733
    Abstract: A biomass pyrolysis process is provided in which biomass feedstock is mixed with a heat carrier. The heat carrier at least partly comprises char. The ratio by weight of biomass to char is in the range 1:1 to 1:20. The process may be carried out by in a screw/auger pyrolysis reactor in which the solid feedstock components are conveyed along the reactor by a first screw. A second screw conveys at least a portion of the solid products of the biomass pyrolysis back to a heat transfer medium input port. Thus, the heat transfer medium includes char from the biomass pyrolysis.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 23, 2014
    Date of Patent: May 30, 2017
    Assignee: Aston University
    Inventors: Andreas Hornung, Andreas Apfelbacher
  • Patent number: 9631145
    Abstract: Processes are provided including quenching a hot vapor stream to improve rapid thermal conversion processes for efficiently converting wood, other biomass materials, and other carbonaceous feedstock (including hydrocarbons) into high yields of valuable liquid product, e.g., bio-oil, on a large scale production.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 9, 2015
    Date of Patent: April 25, 2017
    Assignee: Ensyn Renewables, Inc.
    Inventor: Barry A. Freel
  • Patent number: 9580659
    Abstract: Methods for the conversion of lignites, subbituminous coals and other carbonaceous feedstocks into synthetic oils, including oils with properties similar to light weight sweet crude oil using a solvent derived from hydrogenating oil produced by pyrolyzing lignite are set forth herein. Such methods may be conducted, for example, under mild operating conditions with a low cost stoichiometric co-reagent and/or a disposable conversion agent.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 12, 2014
    Date of Patent: February 28, 2017
    Assignee: The Board of Regents of the University of Texas System
    Inventors: Frederick M. MacDonnell, Brian H. Dennis, Richard E. Billo, John W. Priest
  • Patent number: 9562195
    Abstract: The separation according to the invention of a material-laden hot gas stream substantially consists of the following method steps: the material-laden hot gas stream is separated in a first separator into a gas stream and a material stream, wherein the material stream contains a coarser and a finer fraction, and the material stream is then classified in a classifier with at least a proportion of the gas stream, the coarser fraction of the material stream being discharged, while the finer fraction is carried away together with the gas stream separately from the coarser fraction.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 6, 2012
    Date of Patent: February 7, 2017
    Assignee: ThyssenKrupp Industrial Solutions AG
    Inventors: Olaf Hagemeier, Reinhard Giesemann, Manfred Jasper
  • Patent number: 9206365
    Abstract: Fungible bio-oil compositions with enhanced processability are provided. A process to produce the fungible bio-oil composition is also provided that involves combining a biomass-derived liquid, at least one petroleum-derived composition, and, optionally, one or more additives in order to produce the fungible bio-oil composition.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 16, 2012
    Date of Patent: December 8, 2015
    Assignee: KiOR, LLC
    Inventors: Maria Magdalena Ramirez Corredores, Jennifer Sorrells
  • Patent number: 9120980
    Abstract: A reactor and/or process is disclosed for fluidized cracking of solid particulate biomass material, including a first mixing zone where a particulate stream comprising solid particulate biomass is mixed with a lift gas and becomes fluidized, and including a second mixing zone where a heat carrier material is mixed with the fluidized solid particulate biomass material.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 5, 2010
    Date of Patent: September 1, 2015
    Assignee: KiOR, Inc.
    Inventors: Robert Bartek, Ronald Cordle, Steve Yanik, Paul O'Connor
  • Patent number: 8920609
    Abstract: The device and method are provided to increase anhydrosugars yield during pyrolysis of biomass. This increase is achieved by injection of a liquid or gas into the vapor stream of any pyrolysis reactor prior to the reactor condensers. A second feature of our technology is the utilization of sonication, microwave excitation, or shear mixing of the biomass to increase the acid catalyst rate for demineralization or removal of hemicellulose prior to pyrolysis. The increased reactivity of these treatments reduces reaction time as well as the required amount of catalyst to less than half of that otherwise required. A fractional condensation system employed by our pyrolysis reactor is another feature of our technology. This system condenses bio-oil pyrolysis vapors to various desired fractions by differential temperature manipulation of individual condensers comprising a condenser chain.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 1, 2010
    Date of Patent: December 30, 2014
    Inventors: Philip H. Steele, Fei Yu, Qi Li, Brian Mitchell
  • Publication number: 20140251783
    Abstract: A fluid coking unit for converting a heavy oil feed to lower boiling products by thermal has a centrally-apertured annular baffle at the top of the stripping zone below the coking zone to inhibit recirculation of solid particles from the stripping zone to the coking zone. By inhibiting recirculation of the particles from the stripping zone to the coking zone, the temperatures of the two zones are effectively decoupled, enabling the coking zone to be run at a lower temperature than the stripping zone to increase the yield of liquid products.
    Type: Application
    Filed: February 20, 2014
    Publication date: September 11, 2014
    Applicant: ExxonMobil Research and Engineering Company
    Inventors: Bing Du, Timothy M. Healy, Fritz A. Bernatz, Yi En Huang, Zachary R. Martin, Brenda A. Raich
  • Patent number: 8828191
    Abstract: A method and apparatus for pyrolytic destruction of polymer products including whole vehicle vulcanised rubber tires is disclosed. The apparatus 111 has a reaction chamber 153 into which a tire can be placed, and immersed for pyrolytic decomposition in a molten alloy of zinc with a minor proportion of aluminium. The apparatus 111 has a heated reservoir 155 in which the alloy is maintained in a molten state, and from where it can be transferred to the reaction chamber 153 to immerse the tire. Fluid hydrocarbon byproducts are drawn off for condensation and recovery, and solid zinc sulphides are also recovered. Where steel belted tires are processed, carbon and steel residues are also recovered.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 25, 2009
    Date of Patent: September 9, 2014
    Inventor: Michael John Shaw
  • Patent number: 8821692
    Abstract: Method for fast pyrolysis of lignocellulose including: mechanically comminuting the lignocellulose to lignocellulose particles; at least one of completely drying and preheating the lignocellulose particles; mixing the lignocellulose particles with heat transfer particles so as to provide a mixture; heating the heat transfer particles, prior to the mixing, to a temperature between 500° C. and 650° C.; and heating, in a pyrolysis reactor with oxygen excluded, the lignocellulose particles using the heat transfer particles so as to establish a temperature between 400° C. and 600° C. for 1 to 50 seconds and so as to react the lignocellulose particles so as to provide pyrolysis coke, pyrolysis condensate, and pyrolysis gas.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 22, 2006
    Date of Patent: September 2, 2014
    Assignee: Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie
    Inventors: Edmund Henrich, Friedhelm Weirich, Eckhard Dinjus
  • Patent number: 8574404
    Abstract: In this fast pyrolysis processor the reaction conditions are tailored to minimize the production of gas, while using calcined limestone to provide the heat for fast pyrolysis of biomass and to lower the acidity and oxygen content of the liquid bio-oil which is produced.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 14, 2010
    Date of Patent: November 5, 2013
    Inventor: Douglas Stewart Sinclair
  • Patent number: 8500959
    Abstract: A pyrolysis apparatus comprises a substantially closed pyrolyzer (4), a supply inlet for supplying pyrolyzable fuel to the pyrolyzer (4), an outlet for taking hot bed material in particle form out of the pyrolyzer, one or more exit outlets (6) for taking condensible gaseous substances separated from the fuel to be pyrolyzed out of the pyrolyzer, a condenser (8) for condensing the condensible gaseous substances into pyrolysis oil, and a line (7) for transferring the condensible gaseous substances from the exit outlet of the pyrolyzer (4) to the condenser (8). The means for maintaining pyrolysis conditions in the pyrolyzer (4) comprise an inlet for taking hot bed material in particle form into the pyrolyzer and means (5) for supplying fluidizing gas to the pyrolyzer. The pyrolyzer (4) is a chamber bounded directly by a furnace (1) of a bubbling fluidized bed boiler, through which chamber fluidized bed material is arranged to be circulated between the inlet and the outlet.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 30, 2009
    Date of Patent: August 6, 2013
    Assignee: Metso Power Oy
    Inventor: Jani Lehto
  • Patent number: 8476480
    Abstract: A method of fractionating bio-oil vapors which involves providing bio-oil vapors comprising bio-oil constituents is described. The bio-oil vapors are cooled in a first stage which comprises a condenser having passages for the bio-oil separated by a heat conducting wall from passages for a coolant. The coolant in the condenser of the first stage is maintained at a substantially constant temperature, set at a temperature in the range of 75 to 100° C., to condense a first liquid fraction of liquefied bio-oil constituents in the condenser of the first stage. The first liquid fraction of liquified bio-oil constituents from the condenser in the first stage is collected. Also described are steps for subsequently recovering further liquid fractions of liquefied bio-oil constituents. Particular compositions of bio-oil condensation products are also described.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 31, 2009
    Date of Patent: July 2, 2013
    Assignee: Iowa State University Research Foundation, Inc.
    Inventors: Robert C. Brown, Samuel T. Jones, Anthony Pollard
  • Patent number: 8414743
    Abstract: A method and a device for the thermal decomposition of an initial material, in particular, for the decomposition of meat and bone meal, oil sludges, for example, from cleaning tankers, autofluff (also called autofluffy), basic glycerin, for example, from biodiesel production, paint sludges from paint shops, contaminated soils, coated wood, and plastics such as plexiglass. According to the present method, organic initial materials are thermally decomposed very completely in nearly all cases. The very complete decomposition is achieved by adding foreign particles such as metal spheres to the initial material which is being thermally decomposed.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 30, 2008
    Date of Patent: April 9, 2013
    Assignee: Gebr. Lodige Maschinebau GmbH
    Inventors: Alfons Schmidt, Hans-Jürgen Sickelmann, Armin Grob
  • Publication number: 20130062184
    Abstract: Embodiments of methods and apparatuses for rapid thermal processing of carbonaceous material are provided herein. The method comprises the step of contacting a carbonaceous feedstock with heated inorganic heat carrier particles at reaction conditions effective to rapidly pyrolyze the carbonaceous feedstock to form a product stream comprising pygas, pyrolysis oil, and solids. The solids comprise char and cooled inorganic heat carrier particles. The reaction conditions include a reactor pressure of about 70 kPa gauge or greater.
    Type: Application
    Filed: September 13, 2011
    Publication date: March 14, 2013
    Applicant: UOP LLC
    Inventors: Sathit Kulprathipanja, Paolo Palmas
  • Patent number: 8308912
    Abstract: A method for pyrogasification of organic wastes that employs a vertical furnace filled with metal masses in the shape of metal toroids (2) previously raised to a high temperature (500 to 1100° C.) and organic materials to be pyrolyzed. It also employs a furnace for heating toroids transported by an Archimedes screw driven by a gear motor, as well as a separator for recovering the mineral residues, whereby separation between the toroids and residues is effected with the aid of a screen and an Archimedes screw driven by a gear motor.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 25, 2010
    Date of Patent: November 13, 2012
    Inventors: Francois Hustache, Alain Chantelat
  • Patent number: 8287697
    Abstract: A pyrolysis apparatus comprises a furnace (1) operating by fluidized bed combustion, a pyrolyzer (4) and flow paths, which connect the furnace (1) and the pyrolyzer (4) for arranging the circulation (C) of carrier material of the fluidized bed combustion between the furnace and the pyrolyzer .The apparatus also comprises a supply inlet (14) for supplying fuel to be pyrolyzed to the pyrolyzer (4), fluidizing gas supply means (5) arranged in the pyrolyzer for fluidizing the mixture of carrier material and fuel, and an outlet (6) for taking condensible gaseous substances separated from the fuel to be pyrolyzed out of the pyrolyzer (4), and a condenser for condensing the condensible gaseous substances.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 30, 2009
    Date of Patent: October 16, 2012
    Assignee: Metso Power Oy
    Inventors: Timo Honkola, Pasi Salonen, Jani Lehto
  • Patent number: 8083900
    Abstract: A process and system for separating water from bio-oil by using a partial condenser. The process comprises partially condensing vapor conversion products from a biomass conversion reaction to produce a water-rich overhead stream and a water-depleted stream comprising condensed bio-oil. The partial condenser removes a substantial portion of the water from the bio-oil, while providing an effective and flexible process for producing bio-oil.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 9, 2010
    Date of Patent: December 27, 2011
    Assignee: Kior Inc.
    Inventor: Ronny W. Lin
  • Publication number: 20110278149
    Abstract: A biomass pyrolysis process in which biomass feedstock particles (having a d5o mean particle size of at least 1 mm) are thermally treated substantially in the absence of oxygen to pyrolyse the biomass feedstock particles. The thermal treatment of the biomass feedstock particles includes a heat treatment drying step at a temperature in the range 100° C. to 250° C. Then, at a pre-pyrolysis heating location in a heat treatment system, the biomass feedstock particles are heated to a temperature in the range 280° C. to 350° C., held within the same temperature range for a time of at least 5 seconds and then moved from the pre-pyrolysis heating location to a pyrolysis heating location by a conveyor system for heating to a temperature above 350° C. for pyrolysis.
    Type: Application
    Filed: May 11, 2010
    Publication date: November 17, 2011
    Inventors: Andreas Hornung, Andreas Apfelbacher
  • Patent number: 8057641
    Abstract: A method and apparatus for effective pyrolysis of a biomass utilizing rapid heat transfer from a solid heat carrier or catalyst. Particularly, various embodiments of the present invention provide methods and apparatuses which incorporate progressive temperature quenching and rapid disengagement of the heat carrier material and reaction product.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 19, 2010
    Date of Patent: November 15, 2011
    Assignee: Kior Inc.
    Inventors: Robert Bartek, Ronald Lee Cordle
  • Publication number: 20110139596
    Abstract: A method and apparatus for effective pyrolysis of a biomass utilizing rapid heat transfer from a solid heat carrier or catalyst. Particularly, various embodiments of the present invention provide methods and apparatuses which incorporate progressive temperature quenching and rapid disengagement of the heat carrier material and reaction product.
    Type: Application
    Filed: July 19, 2010
    Publication date: June 16, 2011
    Applicant: KIOR, INC.
    Inventors: Robert Bartek, Ronald Lee Cordle
  • Patent number: 7905990
    Abstract: A rapid thermal conversion process for efficiently converting wood, other biomass materials, and other carbonaceous feedstock (including hydrocarbons) into high yields of valuable liquid product, e.g., bio-oil, on a large scale production. Biomass material, e.g., wood, is feed to a conversion system where the biomass material is mixed with an upward stream of hot heat carriers, e.g., sand, that thermally convert the biomass into a hot vapor stream. The hot vapor stream is rapidly quenched with quench media in one or more condensing chambers located downstream of the conversion system. The rapid quenching condenses the vapor stream into liquid product, which is collected from the condensing chambers as a valuable liquid product. The liquid product may itself be used as the quench media.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 20, 2007
    Date of Patent: March 15, 2011
    Assignee: Ensyn Renewables, Inc.
    Inventor: Barry Freel
  • Patent number: 7862691
    Abstract: A method of decomposing waste plastics, organics, and particularly medical waste composed of a varieties of plastics is described.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 22, 2007
    Date of Patent: January 4, 2011
    Assignee: Kusatsu Electric Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Tatsuo Kitamura, Yoshihide Kitamura, Itsushi Kashimoto
  • Publication number: 20100147670
    Abstract: The invention relates to a method and a device for the thermal decomposition of an initial material, in particular, for the decomposition of meat and bone meal, oil sludges, for example, from cleaning tankers, autofluff (also called autofluffy), basic glycerin, for example, from biodiesel production, paint sludges from paint shops, contaminated soils, coated wood, and plastics such as plexiglass. According to the present method, organic initial materials are thermally decomposed very completely in nearly all cases. The very complete decomposition is achieved by adding foreign particles such as metal spheres to the initial material which is being thermally decomposed.
    Type: Application
    Filed: April 30, 2008
    Publication date: June 17, 2010
    Applicant: Gebr. Lodige Maschinenbau Gmbh
    Inventors: Alfons Schmidt, Hans-Jürgen Sickelmann, Armin Grob
  • Publication number: 20090294270
    Abstract: Apparatus for the pyrolysis of solid waste material includes a thermal reactor including an elongate hollow housing with a reaction chamber disposed within the housing. The thermal reactor is vertically oriented in order to cause solid waste material fed thereinto to pass through said reaction chamber by the force of gravity and a plurality of vanes are disposed for both conducting heat into said reactor chamber and for tumbling said solid waste material as said solid waste material passes through said reaction chamber. Inlets and outlets are provided for passing oxygen transversely through the reaction chamber.
    Type: Application
    Filed: September 12, 2008
    Publication date: December 3, 2009
    Inventors: BRUCE SHUMAN, JERRY MOFFATT, BRUCE ATWELL, ROBERT J. ROMACLY, GLENN A. ROMACLY
  • Publication number: 20090020405
    Abstract: A method of and a plant for combusting carbonaceous fuel, the method including the steps of introducing particulate oxygen selective sorbent, such as a perovskite type material, into an adsorption reactor of the combustion plant to form a first particle bed in the adsorption reactor, fluidizing the first particle bed by an oxygen-containing first fluidizing gas to adsorb oxygen from the fluidizing gas to the sorbent, conveying oxygen-rich sorbent from the adsorption reactor to a combustion reactor of the combustion plant to form a second particle bed in the combustion reactor, fluidizing the second particle bed by an oxygen-deficient second fluidizing gas to desorb oxygen from the sorbent, so as to produce free oxygen gas, and introducing carbonaceous fuel into the combustion reactor to oxidize the fuel with the free oxygen gas.
    Type: Application
    Filed: July 20, 2007
    Publication date: January 22, 2009
    Applicant: Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation
    Inventors: Zhen FAN, Horst Hack, Andrew SELTZER, Archibald Robertson
  • Patent number: 7034198
    Abstract: A conventional method of pyrolytically decomposing plastic to make low-molecular compounds is poor in efficiency of use of energy due to high heating temperatures (at least 600° C. and 800° C. at maximum). The invention provides that a functional powder is heated to a predetermined temperature and pieces of plastic to be disposed are caused to be contacted with the heated powder, the functional powder including a powder which does in an aqueous solution state show alkalinity, and a photo-catalyst effect powder.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 27, 2002
    Date of Patent: April 25, 2006
    Assignee: Osada Giken Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Hideharu Osada, Tatsutoshi Shimabara
  • Patent number: 5961786
    Abstract: This invention generally relates to a new method and apparatus for the fast pyrolysis of carbonaceous materials involving rapid mixing, high heat transfer rates, precisely controlled short uniform residence times and rapid primary product quench in an upflow, entrained-bed, transport reactor with heat carrier solids recirculation. A carbonaceous feedstock, a non-oxidative transport gas and inorganic particulate heat supplying material are rapidly mixed in a reactor base section, then transported upward through an entrained-bed tubular reactor. A cyclonic hot solids recirculation system separates the solids from the non-condensible gases and primary product vapors and returns them to the mixer. Product vapors are rapidly quenched to provide maximum yields of liquids, petrochemicals, high value gases and selected valuable chemicals.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 15, 1998
    Date of Patent: October 5, 1999
    Assignee: Ensyn Technologies Inc.
    Inventors: Barry A. Freel, Robert G. Graham
  • Patent number: 5851361
    Abstract: An apparatus and method for the separation and chemical and physical alteration of organic solid material in which the materials are placed in a sealed rotating drum and exposed to hot products of combustion produced by a flame in the drum. The temperature, oxygen content, material flow rate and dwell time within the drum are controlled so that a substantial portion of the organic molecules is cracked and reformed. Many of these cracked molecules revert to a gas or liquid, and the gas, liquid, and remaining solids from the initial material are separately collected and processed further. The inside of the drum is kept clean by recirculating carriers. The drum wall is cooled by exposure to the ambient temperature and selectively insulating the inside of the drum. The flame is produced with a stoichiometric mixture of oxygen and fuel to produce a temperature to avoid combustion of the solid material.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 25, 1996
    Date of Patent: December 22, 1998
    Inventor: Jim S. Hogan
  • Patent number: 5792340
    Abstract: This invention generally relates to a new method and apparatus for the fast pyrolysis of carbonaceous materials involving rapid mixing, high heat transfer rates, precisely controlled short uniform residence times and rapid primary product quench in an upflow, entrained-bed, transport reactor with heat carrier solids recirculation. A carbonaceous feedstock, a non-oxidative transport gas and inorganic particulate heat supplying material are rapidly mixed in a reactor base section, then transported upward through an entrained-bed tubular reactor. A cyclonic hot solids recirculation system separates the solids from the non-condensible gases and primary product vapors and returns them to the mixer. Product vapors are rapidly quenched to provide maximum yields of liquids, petrochemicals, high value gases and selected valuable chemicals.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 7, 1995
    Date of Patent: August 11, 1998
    Assignee: Ensyn Technologies, Inc.
    Inventors: Barry A. Freel, Robert G. Graham
  • Patent number: 5496465
    Abstract: A vibrating bed pyrolysis system has a vibrating bed which is supplied with hot solid particles. Dry coal particles are rapidly heated by the hot solid particles to drive off hydrocarbon vapors. The vapors are condensed in a jet condenser, and products are flowed to a header tank. A portion of the liquid product is stored at room temperature for later use. A small portion of the liquid product is pumped from the header tank and cooled to ambient temperature and is sprayed in the jet condenser, which is positioned above the vibrating pyrolysis bed. A dryer bed vibrated by the same vibrating machine which vibrates the pyrolysis bed is supplied with hot solid particles and the crushed coal. Moisture in the coal particles is evaporated, and water vapors entrain coal fines before the coal particles are passed to the pyrolysis bed. The hot solid particles are taken from a fluidized bed combustor and are returned to the combustor with the coal char particles by entrainment into the gas lift system.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 22, 1993
    Date of Patent: March 5, 1996
    Inventor: Arthur P. Fraas
  • Patent number: 5078836
    Abstract: An apparatus and a method are disclosed for the thermal treatment of feed material containing solids and liquids such as solid waste or the like. The apparatus includes one or more coaxial rotatable drums and one or more free rotating spirals advancing the material in the drums. The material flowing through the drums is heated to form solids and vapors. In one or more embodiments of the apparatus, the hot solids and vapors exchange heat with the cold feed material. An extruder for preparing the solids being produced from the apparatus for disposal and a means for rotating the drums are also disclosed.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 21, 1989
    Date of Patent: January 7, 1992
    Inventor: Jim S. Hogan
  • Patent number: 4946658
    Abstract: A pelletized mixture of gypsum, carbonaceous material and pyrite is charged to a travelling grate where the charge is heated under suitable conditions to produce a solid sintered material which has a broad spectrum of applications due to its chemical and physical properties and a gaseous effluent containing sulfur dioxide, sulfur or mixtures thereof.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 11, 1989
    Date of Patent: August 7, 1990
    Assignee: Florida Institute of Phosphate Research
    Inventors: Jerome H. Marten, George M. Lloyd, Jr.
  • Patent number: 4859284
    Abstract: The present invention relates to a combined process for separating and converting asphaltenes of high molecular weight and high softening point from heavy hydrocarbon material containing asphaltenes by a process that combines a deasphalting method to produce solid asphaltenes and a continuous coking procedure for the solid asphaltenes. The combined process converts the material into more valuable liquid hydrocarbon products of lower molecular weight and coke.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 15, 1986
    Date of Patent: August 22, 1989
    Assignee: Intevep, S.A.
    Inventors: Roland Rammler, Hans-Jurgen Weiss, Hans-Adolf Herbertz, Rodolfo B. Solari, Rafael Hidalgo
  • Patent number: 4744969
    Abstract: The present invention relates to the coproduction of a combustible feed gas stream useable as an energy source and a sulfur-containing second gas stream useable as a feedstock for the production of sulfuric acid. The process includes heating coal in the presence of an oxygen-lean atmosphere under partial coal gasifying conditions to produce a solid carbonaceous char and a crude coal-gas stream. Sulfur-containing compounds are removed from the coal gas stream and converted to solid sulfur-containing materials. The solid sulfur-containing materials are combined with the solid carbonaceous char and gypsum to form a feed mixture. The non-gypsum portion of the feed mixture contains sufficient reducing potential to release substantially all of the sulfur in the gypsum as gaseous compounds of sulfur in a +4 or lower oxidation state. The feed mixture is heated under reducing conditions to produce a sulfur-containing second gas stream and a solid sintered product.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 10, 1986
    Date of Patent: May 17, 1988
    Assignee: Florida Institute of Phosphate Research
    Inventors: Jerome H. Marten, Timothy J. Kendron