And Surface Treating Material To Reduce Or Prevent Agglomerating Or Foaming Or Swelling During Distillation Patents (Class 201/9)
  • Patent number: 9222026
    Abstract: A process for forming and maintaining a carbonaceous bed with coke replacement units suitable for use in pyrolytic processes includes the steps of: forming a plurality of non-coke units that are either or both irregularly shaped natural wood blocks and bricks including carbon-containing fines and one or more binders; forming an initial carbonaceous bed by a quantity of particles of coke in which at least about 25% of the carbon content of the initial bed is provided by said quantity of non-coke units and up to about 75% of the carbon content of the initial bed is provided by said quantity of particles of coke; and performing a pyrolytic process with the carbonaceous bed including reacting carbon in the bed with other added process material at an elevated temperature in the bed and supplementing carbon material during the pyrolytic process by adding additional carbon material of which at least 25% of the additional carbon material is not coke.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 14, 2013
    Date of Patent: December 29, 2015
    Assignee: Alter NRG Corp.
    Inventors: James Santoianni, Michael Erskine Heier, Aleksandr Gorodetsky, Stephanie Reese, Kent O. Hicks
  • Patent number: 9074138
    Abstract: A process for treating agglomerating coal includes drying coal in a drying step, and treating the dried coal in an oxidizing step to form oxides sufficient to convert the coal into a substantially non-agglomerating coal. The oxidized coal is pyrolyzed in a pyrolysis step to form coal char, and the coal char is cooled. At least one of the drying, oxidizing, and pyrolyzing steps is a dual zone step, with the dual zone step having a first zone and a second zone, with the temperature of the second zone being higher than that of the first zone. The effluent from such a dual zone pyrolyzer are subjected to a condensation process to separate the effluents into liquids and on-gases, and the on-gases are combined with other available gases to achieve a composition of blended on-gases having a specific heat of at least about 0.50 Btu/lb-° F. (2.013 kJ/Kg ° C.) at 1200° F. (649° C.) and recirculated into the pyrolyzer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 13, 2011
    Date of Patent: July 7, 2015
    Assignee: C2O Technologies, LLC
    Inventor: Franklin G. Rinker
  • Patent number: 9045696
    Abstract: Solid carboniferous fuels contain varying quantities of moisture, mercury, chlorine, nitrogen, sulfur, heavy metals and other materials that attain vapor pressure at elevated temperatures. The cost effective removal of these degrading and sometimes hazardous materials is important to the further use of the fuel for combustion via chemical looping to prevent contamination of the oxygen carrier medium. The solid fuel is cut, shredded, ground or sieved to appropriate size, and heated in a chamber that can exclude oxygen and air thus preventing ignition. The unwanted materials are driven in the gaseous state and extracted for recycling or safe disposal. The solid fuel cleaned of pollutants exits the chamber and is cooled below ignition temperature prior to contact with oxygen. The solid fuel thus purified is more appropriate for combustion via chemical looping.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 18, 2012
    Date of Patent: June 2, 2015
    Inventor: Peter Rugg
  • Patent number: 8465627
    Abstract: A method for reducing the mechanical strength of solid biomass material, in particular lignocellulosic biomass, comprises mixing the solid biomass material with an inorganic material and heating the solid biomass material mixture to a toasting temperature in the range of 105° C. to 140° C. during an exposure time of from 1 minute to 12 hours. Before or after the heat treatment, which is referred to as “toasting”, the biomass material mixture is subject to flash heating. The treatment significantly reduces the mechanical energy required for reducing the particle size of the solid biomass material and is suitable as a pretreatment prior to a conversion reaction of the solid biomass material.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 30, 2009
    Date of Patent: June 18, 2013
    Assignee: KiOR, Inc.
    Inventors: Michael Brady, Robert Bartek, Dennis Stamires, Paul O'Connor
  • Publication number: 20130062186
    Abstract: A process for treating agglomerating coal includes drying coal in a drying step, and treating the dried coal in an oxidizing step to form oxides sufficient to convert the coal into a substantially non-agglomerating coal. The oxidized coal is pyrolyzed in a pyrolysis step to form coal char, and the coal char is cooled. At least one of the drying, oxidizing, and pyrolyzing steps is a dual zone step, with the dual zone step having a first zone and a second zone, with the temperature of the second zone being higher than that of the first zone.
    Type: Application
    Filed: September 13, 2011
    Publication date: March 14, 2013
    Inventor: Franklin G. Rinker
  • Patent number: 8366882
    Abstract: A process for treating agglomerating coal includes providing dried, pulverized, agglomerating coal, and treating the coal in a vessel with a gas stream having an oxygen content sufficient to form at least some oxides on surface of coal particles, wherein the oxides are sufficient to convert coal into substantially non-agglomerating coal. The treated coal is transferred into a pyrolyzing chamber and passed into contact with an oxygen deficient sweep gas, the sweep gas being at a higher temperature than the temperature of the coal so that heat is supplied to the coal. The process further includes providing additional heat to coal indirectly by heating the chamber, wherein the heating of coal by the sweep gas and by the indirect heating from the chamber causes condensable volatile components to be released into the sweep gas. The sweep gas is removed from the chamber and treated to remove condensable components of coal.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 10, 2009
    Date of Patent: February 5, 2013
    Assignee: C20 Technologies, LLC
    Inventor: Franklin G. Rinker
  • Patent number: 7785447
    Abstract: Closed apparatus and processes by which carbon feedstock is composed of a mixture of non-coking coal fines and another carbonaceous material, such as waste coke fines, are described. The coal and coke fines are mixed together and may be formed into solid pieces. The mixture alone or as solid pieces is fired through pyrolyzation into solid pieces of coke, with solid and gaseous by-products of pyrolyzation being recycled for use within the coke-producing closed system, thereby reducing or eliminating release of undesirable substances to the environment. A char-forming binder may or may not be added to the carbon mixture prior to pyrolyzation.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 3, 2007
    Date of Patent: August 31, 2010
    Assignee: Combustion Resources, LLC
    Inventors: Craig N. Eatough, Jon S. Heaton, Steven R. Eatough
  • Publication number: 20100200387
    Abstract: A method of recovering hydrocarbons from hydrocarbonaceous materials can include forming a constructed permeability control infrastructure. This constructed infrastructure defines a substantially encapsulated volume. A mined hydrocarbonaceous material can be introduced into the control infrastructure to form a permeable body of hydrocarbonaceous material. The permeable body can be heated sufficient to remove hydrocarbons therefrom. Hydrocarbon products can be collected from intermediate locations within the permeable body. Advantageously, an intermediate fluid collection system can be used to draw a hydrocarbon product from the permeable body at preselected locations. Such intermediate collection can provide hydrocarbon product fractions which can reduce or eliminate the need for full-scale distillation of a hydrocarbon product having a full range of products such as that typically found in crude oil.
    Type: Application
    Filed: February 5, 2010
    Publication date: August 12, 2010
    Inventors: Todd Dana, James W. Patten
  • Publication number: 20090217574
    Abstract: A process, system and apparatus is provided for passivating carbonaceous material against spontaneous combustion. The process involves drying the carbonaceous material in a low oxygen environment and pre-conditioning the carbonaceous material by contacting it with volatile matter contained in a countercurrent gas stream. The volatile matter coats the particles of dried carbonaceous material and plugs the micropores of the dried carbonaceous material, thereby passivating it against adsorption of water and oxygen, and thus spontaneous combustion. The pre-conditioned dried material then undergoes devolatilisation at temperatures at which volatile matter is evolved. The evolved volatile matter mixes with the countercurrent gas stream and is used to pre-condition dried carbonaceous material located upstream.
    Type: Application
    Filed: October 26, 2006
    Publication date: September 3, 2009
    Inventors: James Coleman, David Cork
  • Patent number: 7128812
    Abstract: A foam level in a delayed coking drum is detected by utilizing the varying density of the boiling mass in the coke drum which has larger bubbles and is less dense at the top and smaller bubbles and a higher density at the bottom. A plurality of radiation detectors are disposed on the drum and calibrated such that zero radiation is equivalent to 100 percent level. The percentage reading for each detector is multiplied by the fraction of height each detector is in relation to the total height of all the detectors to give a product and the products summed to give a level.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 15, 2002
    Date of Patent: October 31, 2006
    Inventor: Carl E. Cupit
  • Patent number: 5750052
    Abstract: Methods for controlling foam in hydrocarbon liquids within hydrocracking unit separator systems utilizing alkylphenolformaldehyde resin alkoxylates with a propylene oxide/ethylene oxide block copolymer having a molecular weight of from about 2000 to 6000 and having from about 20% to about 80% ethoxylation or an alkylarylsulfonic acid or alkylarylsulfonic acid amine salt to said hydrocarbon liquid.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 30, 1996
    Date of Patent: May 12, 1998
    Assignee: BetzDearborn Inc.
    Inventors: Paul R. Hart, Michael A. Dion
  • Patent number: 5601692
    Abstract: A continuous process for treating a noncaking coal to form stable char. The process includes the sequential steps of drying the coal to remove moisture therefrom and form a dry coal; pyrolyzing the dry coal by progressively heating substantially all of the coal to a temperature sufficient to vaporize and remove low end volatile materials from the coal to form char and sufficient to mobilize at least a portion of high end volatile materials within the char and at least partially collapse micropores within the char. The char is then cooled to a temperature sufficient to demobilize the volatile materials within the at least partially collapsed micropores of the char to pyrolytically passivate the char. The char is then conveyed to a reaction vessel wherein a process gas having about 3%-21% by volume oxygen flows through the reaction vessel to oxidatively passivate the coal by chemisorption of oxygen.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 1, 1995
    Date of Patent: February 11, 1997
    Assignee: Tek-Kol Partnership
    Inventors: Franklin G. Rinker, Deane A. Horne, Dennis W. Coolidge, Ernest P. Esztergar
  • Patent number: 5472637
    Abstract: A method and composition for foam control in non-aqueous systems utilizing polyisobutylene compounds. The method is especially well adapted for use in oil distillation units and coking of crude oil residues.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 17, 1990
    Date of Patent: December 5, 1995
    Assignee: Betz Laboratories, Inc.
    Inventor: Paul R. Hart
  • Patent number: 5423951
    Abstract: Pieces of coke of high density and strength are made continuously from fine particles of bituminous or subbituminous or lignite coals or of mixtures thereof. The particles are generally oxygenated, mixed with water, compressed to squeeze out some of the water to obtain single bodies which are heat processed lying on a traveling grate on which they undergo drying, pyrolyzing, carbonizing and cooling.Modifications include mixing in with the coal material(s) listed above, coke fines or char or anthracite coal; or limestone; or carbon-reducible oxides such as oxidic ores of Fe, Mn, Cr and quartzite in recited important proportions. Such formed coke bodies are useable in a submerged arc furnace or in a blast furnace or in an open hearth to produce desired intermediate or end metallic products. The pieces of coke with incorporated fine limestone burn without developing SO.sub.2.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 17, 1991
    Date of Patent: June 13, 1995
    Inventor: Fritz O. Wienert
  • Patent number: 5389299
    Abstract: Methods and compositions for controlling foam in high temperature hydrocarbons during processing animal oils, exemplified by mink oil, are added to the hydrocarbon to control foam.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 6, 1992
    Date of Patent: February 14, 1995
    Assignee: Betz Laboratories, Inc.
    Inventor: Paul R. Hart
  • Patent number: 5248413
    Abstract: A process for producing enhanced quality adsorbent carbons and environmentally acceptable materials for energy production from coal includes an initial step of physically cleaning the coal to remove organic sulfur and mineral tailings. Next, a coal slurry of feedstock and water is prepared. Phosphoric acid is then mixed into the water of the coal slurry to provide by volume 15-85% and more preferably 50-85% phosphoric acid. The slurry is then heated and held in a temperature range between 85.degree. and 230.degree. C. for a period of at least five minutes to allow the phosphoric acid to penetrate deeply into the coal. Then the coal slurry is carbonized at a temperature of between 200.degree.-700.degree. C. for at least five to sixty minutes. The processing produces unique products including a low ash content, low sulfur content carbon solid, a tar with a sulfur content of less than 0.05% of the original feedstock and a gas product having a hydrogen to methane ratio of at least 4:1.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 28, 1992
    Date of Patent: September 28, 1993
    Assignee: University of Kentucky Research Foundation
    Inventors: John M. Stencel, Francis J. Derbyshire
  • Patent number: 5169560
    Abstract: A method and composition for foam control in non-aqueous systems utilizing sulfonate or phosphinate compounds. The method is especially well adapted for use in oil distillation units and coking of crude oil residues.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 17, 1990
    Date of Patent: December 8, 1992
    Assignee: Betz Laboratories, Inc.
    Inventor: Paul R. Hart
  • Patent number: 4935036
    Abstract: A process is described for the flash pyrolysis of a high rank caking coal in a pyrolysis chamber in which the coal passes through a tacky state during flash pyrolysis. According to the novel feature, before entering the pyrolysis chamber, the particles of high rank caking coal are blended with a diluent comprising a finely ground non-caking coal, whereby agglomeration and caking of the high rank coal is prevented during flash pyrolysis.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 22, 1988
    Date of Patent: June 19, 1990
    Assignee: Energy, Mines and Resources - Canada
    Inventors: Michio Ikura, Anthony J. Last
  • Patent number: 4886521
    Abstract: A method for producing a fuel from the pyrolysis of coal or oil shale in the presence of iron oxide in an inert gas atmosphere. The method includes the steps of pulverizing feed coal or oil shale, pulverizing iron oxide, mixing the pulverized feed and iron oxide, and heating the mixture in a gas atmosphere which is substantially inert to the mixture so as to form a product fuel, which may be gaseous, liquid and/or solid. The method of the invention reduces the swelling of coals, such as bituminous coal and the like, which are otherwise known to swell during pyrolysis.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 5, 1988
    Date of Patent: December 12, 1989
    Assignee: U.S. Department of Energy
    Inventor: M. Rashid Khan
  • Patent number: 4528069
    Abstract: An improved process for making metallurgical coke is provided which enables the use of coals that ordinarily do not yield coke of expected stability based on the rank of the coal. The comminuted coal is pretreated by contacting and reacting the coal with a halogenated hydrocarbon liquid, particularly perchloroethylene, and the pretreated coal is thereafter subjected to high temperature carbonization.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 11, 1983
    Date of Patent: July 9, 1985
    Assignee: Inland Steel Company
    Inventors: William DuBroff, Dennis D. Kaegi, Jerome J. Knoerzer, Elliott Y. Spearin
  • Patent number: 4469487
    Abstract: Fuels, particularly caking fuels, are supplied in a fluidized bed reactor by conveying a fuel through an injection pipe with an end provided with an injection nozzle in a fluidized bed reactor, conveying a fluid through a jacket pipe surrounding the injection pipe and having an end provided with a jacket nozzle, wherein the jacket pipe is interrupted prior to the jacket nozzle, as considered in the flow direction, and at a predetermined location, and bypassing by a heat exchanger at this location at which the jacket pipe is interrupted.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 20, 1982
    Date of Patent: September 4, 1984
    Assignee: Bergwerksverband GmbH
    Inventors: Werner Peters, Harald Juntgen, Karl H. Van Heek, Reinhold Kirchhoff, Heinrich Wagener
  • Patent number: 4372756
    Abstract: Coal is processed first through a moving bed reactor and then through a fixed bed reactor. Hot carbonized coal char is fed from the first stage reactor to the second stage reactor via a lock hopper and gas is taken off from the reactors either in separate streams or in a common stream.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 30, 1981
    Date of Patent: February 8, 1983
    Assignee: Mansfield Carbon Products, Inc.
    Inventors: Charles M. Whitten, Robert H. Scott, Vaughn Mansfield
  • Patent number: 4352720
    Abstract: The process for the production of molded metallurgical coke from dried coal or fine coal mixtures with a low swelling index particularly highly volatile fine coal comprises mixing normal washed fine coal or fine coal mixtures of a grain size of from 0 to 10 mm and a swelling index of not more than 5 with a binder, pressing the mixture into briquettes, oxidizing the briquettes in a continuous material flow stream, and coking the oxidized briquettes continuously in an oven chamber by supplying indirectly and exhausting the coke oven gases with a temperature of 300.degree. to 1200.degree. C.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 27, 1980
    Date of Patent: October 5, 1982
    Assignee: Firma Carl Still GmbH & Co., KG
    Inventors: Heinrich Weber, Kurt Lorenz, Horst Dungs, Klaus Urbye
  • Patent number: 4329528
    Abstract: A method of defoaming crude hydrocarbon stocks comprising adding to the hydrocarbon stock at least 1 part per million of a fluorosilicone copolymer having from 20 to 70 mole percent of fluorosilicone siloxy units.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 1, 1980
    Date of Patent: May 11, 1982
    Assignee: General Electric Company
    Inventor: Edwin R. Evans
  • Patent number: 4308668
    Abstract: In a process for heat treatment, highly hygroscopic coal, with a low carbon content and large equilibrium moisture, is rapidly heated with hot gas at a rate of temperature rise of at least 100.degree. C./min up to a final heating temperature in the range of 300.degree.-500.degree. C., and is then rapidly cooled at a rate of temperature drop of at least 50.degree. C./min to 250.degree. C. or below. As the hot gas, an inert gas whose oxygen concentration is not higher than 4% by volume is employed. The hot gas is either caused to contain not less than 20% by volume of steam or composed solely of the steam.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 30, 1980
    Date of Patent: January 5, 1982
    Assignee: Mitsubishi Jukogyo Kabushiki Kaisha
    Inventors: Yoshifumi Ito, Yoshihiko Nishimoto, Kiyomichi Taoda, Fumiaki Sato, Takashi Ueda, Seibi Uehara
  • Patent number: 4305788
    Abstract: The process for the production of molded metallurgical coke from dried coal or fine coal mixtures with a low swelling index particularly highly volatile fine coal comprises mixing normal washed fine coal or fine coal mixtures of a grain size of from 0 to 10 mm and a swelling index of not more than 5 with a binder, pressing the mixture into briquettes, oxidizing the briquettes in a continuous material flow stream, and coking the oxidized briquettes continuously in an oven chamber by supplying indirectly and exhausting the coke oven gases with a temperature of 300.degree. to 1200.degree. C.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 28, 1980
    Date of Patent: December 15, 1981
    Assignee: Firma Carl Still GmbH & Co KG
    Inventors: Heinrich Weber, Kurt Lorenz, Horst Dungs, Klaus Urbye
  • Patent number: 4303415
    Abstract: Coal is gasified, to yield a fuel gas having a medium-B.T.U. heating value, in the presence of air and steam in a plurality of reaction stages having different reaction temperatures. Reaction heat is principally supplied directly by recycle of char particles from a separate combustion zone to higher-temperature reaction zones and indirectly by combustion flue gas to lower-temperature reaction zones. Hydrogen sulfide, from product fuel gas, and flue gas are directly contacted to provide elemental sulfur. The only other product is a substantially non-combustible ash.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 29, 1980
    Date of Patent: December 1, 1981
    Assignee: Lubille Energy Development Co., Ltd.
    Inventor: William A. Summers
  • Patent number: 4300914
    Abstract: An integral gasifier including a pretreater section and a gasifier section separated by a distribution grid is defined by a single vessel. The pretreater section pretreats coal or other carbon-containing material to be gasified to prevent caking and agglomeration of the coal in the gasifier. The level of the coal bed of the pretreater section and thus the holding or residence time in said bed is selectively regulated by the amount of pretreated coal which is lifted up a lift pipe into the gasifier section. Thus, the holding time in the pretreater section can be varied according to the amount of pretreat necessary for the particular coal to be gasified.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 20, 1980
    Date of Patent: November 17, 1981
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the United States Department of Energy
    Inventor: Louis F. Rice
  • Patent number: 4280876
    Abstract: Method and apparatus for pyrolyzing agglomerative coals which comprises introducing a fluidized bed of hot char particles into a pyrolysis chamber or reactor, and injecting upwardly into the chamber a high velocity jet of agglomerative coal particles in a carrier gas, the fluidized hot char particles surrounding the high velocity coal jet and heating the coal particles to yield gaseous products and char. The hot char particles in the fluidized state and disposed around the coal jet are entrained in the upwardly expanding coal jet and mixed with the coal particles, so that by the time the coal particles contact the pyrolysis chamber wall, such coal particles being heated by the char have passed through the tacky state and are no longer tacky and do not adhere to the chamber wall. The gaseous product and char formed during pyrolysis are rapidly removed from the pyrolysis chamber, and such char can be separated, e.g.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 14, 1979
    Date of Patent: July 28, 1981
    Assignee: Occidental Research Corporation
    Inventor: Norman W. Green
  • Patent number: 4280893
    Abstract: An integrated process for the conversion of coal to liquid and gaseous fuels is disclosed. Coal and oil are hydrocracked in the presence of a particulate maxture of sand or clay and an iron and chromium alloy to form carbon-coated sand and an overhead product comprising cracked oil vapors and fuel gases. The carbon is removed from the sand to form carbon monoxide with the concomitant generation of heat. The carbon monoxide is used to reduce oxidized iron and chromium alloy located in a hydrogen generating bed. Steam is passed into the bed of reduced metallic alloy to form hydrogen for use in the coal reactor and the regenerated particulate mixture of sand and iron and chromium alloy is returned to the coal reactor, to continue the sequence of carbon removal and to provide heat for the hydrocracking reaction.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 26, 1978
    Date of Patent: July 28, 1981
    Inventor: Arnold M. Leas
  • Patent number: 4274836
    Abstract: There is disclosed a method of reducing the swelling characteristics and bed characteristics of a pelletized fuel during a sintering operation. The method comprises the steps of pulverizing the coal to form a powdery mass, forming the mass into discrete pellets, providing a coating on the pellets with soluble salts, burnt lime, or hydrated lime, and heating the pellets to a temperature exceeding 800.degree. F.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 20, 1979
    Date of Patent: June 23, 1981
    Assignee: Dravo Corporation
    Inventors: Thomas E. Ban, William H. Marlowe
  • Patent number: 4268358
    Abstract: A method of reducing the sulfur content of coal, reduced to dust, by means of its own or external thermal energy and by means of rapid coking and/or rapid partial destructive distillation of the coal. The coal dust, which has been ground to less than 0.1 mm and, if necessary, preoxidized in 1 to 4 seconds at 350.degree. to 450.degree. C., is brought to a reaction temperature of 700.degree. to 1100.degree. C. This reaction temperature may be reached directly, either by means of carrier or heating gas heated to over 1000.degree. C., or by means of the partial combustion of the coal with air or oxygen, at heating rates greater than 20,000.degree. C./min. This reaction temperature may also be reached indirectly, at heating rates of less than 20,000.degree. C./min, by means of gaseous, liquid, or turbulent heating carriers. The coal dust is allowed to stand for 1 to 6 seconds at a pressure of 1 to 15 bar until the coke dust and gas which are produced separate from one another.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 26, 1979
    Date of Patent: May 19, 1981
    Assignee: L. & C. Steinmuller GmbH
    Inventor: Ernst Schuster
  • Patent number: 4256539
    Abstract: A method of generating gas and coke dust by means of rapid degasification and rapid vaporization, with simultaneous extensive desulfurization, of coal ground into dust. In a first step, one portion of coal is subjected to complete or partial vaporization. In a second step, which immediately follows the first step, another portion of coal is subjected to degasification in the same or in associated reaction chambers. In the degasification, the solid and gaseous products obtained during the vaporization which are at a higher temperature level than that of the degasification step, transfer heat directly to the coal introduced into the degasification step, thus for covering the heat required for the degasification.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 10, 1978
    Date of Patent: March 17, 1981
    Assignee: L. & C. Steinmuller GmbH
    Inventor: Ernst Schuster
  • Patent number: 4253937
    Abstract: Particulate coal is contacted with a hydrogen donor solvent, preferably a vapor phase hydrogen donor solvent, to swell the coal particles and, thereafter, the swollen coal particles are subjected to coal liquefaction conditions in the absence of liquid phase solvent.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 21, 1978
    Date of Patent: March 3, 1981
    Assignee: Exxon Research & Engineering Co.
    Inventor: Robert B. Long
  • Patent number: 4252633
    Abstract: An integrated coal pretreatment, liquefaction and gasification process is provided in which particulate coal is contacted with a vapor phase hydrogen donor solvent to swell the coal particles. The swollen coal particles are subjected to coal liquefaction conditions at relatively low temperatures. The solid residue of the coal liquefaction stage is subjected to pyrolysis conditions at relatively high temperatures to produce an additional amount of hydrocarbonaceous oil. The solid residue of the pyrolysis stage is gasified by treatment with steam and a molecular oxygen-containing gas to produce a hydrogen-containing gas.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 21, 1978
    Date of Patent: February 24, 1981
    Assignee: Exxon Research & Engineering Co.
    Inventors: Robert B. Long, Martin L. Gorbaty, Richard H. Schlosberg
  • Patent number: 4250014
    Abstract: Particulate coal is contacted with a vapor phase hydrogen donor solvent to swell the coal particles and, thereafter, the swollen coal particles are subjected to coal liquefaction conditions in the presence of a liquid phase solvent.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 21, 1978
    Date of Patent: February 10, 1981
    Assignee: Exxon Research & Engineering Co.
    Inventors: Robert B. Long, Martin L. Gorbaty, Lonnie W. Vernon
  • Patent number: 4233036
    Abstract: Disclosed is a method of preventing adhesion or caking of raw materials such as oil or coal as it is subjected to hydrogenation gasification while being heated to above 700.degree. K. as it passes downwardly through a reaction vessel. The particles of raw materials as they pass through the vessel in a temperature zone of about 600 to 700.degree. K. directly contact a medium intermittently at a temperature above 1000.degree. K. to rapidly heat the surfaces of the particles to above 700.degree. K. by direct contact with the hot medium alone, in the absence of combustion reaction, to cause the particles to become non-caking in its further downward passage through the reaction vessel.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 7, 1979
    Date of Patent: November 11, 1980
    Assignee: Kraftwerk Union Aktiengesellschaft
    Inventors: Christian Koch, Alfred E. Behrmann
  • Patent number: 4225391
    Abstract: A method of preparing coals for coking in a conventional coke oven includes agglomerating the loose coal, in combination with a binder, into flakes, mixing the flakes with non-agglomerated coal, and charging the mixture into the coke oven in the conventional manner. The method provides for the utilization in a conventional coke oven, of coals that are marginal in coking quality, greater bulk densities of the coal as charged into a conventional coke oven, acceptable shatter resistance and physical stability of the coke produced, and acceptable carbonization pressure on the coke oven walls.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 31, 1978
    Date of Patent: September 30, 1980
    Assignee: Koppers Company, Inc.
    Inventors: Michael Perch, Alex Peterson, Jr.
  • Patent number: 4218287
    Abstract: A fluidized stream of coal particles is introduced into the bottom of a vertical reaction zone in a fluidized bed process at a velocity of greater than about 200 ft/sec in a vertically upwards direction, wherein agglomeration of the fluidized bed is prevented. A separate liquid hydrocarbon stream is simultaneously introduced as a separate injection stream in a vertically upwards direction, said coal particles and said liquid hydrocarbons being rapidly and uniformly dispersed within the fluidized bed and reacted therein with a suitable reagent.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 9, 1976
    Date of Patent: August 19, 1980
    Assignee: Union Carbide Corporation
    Inventors: Charles W. Albright, H. G. Davis
  • Patent number: 4200494
    Abstract: Fresh carbonaceous particles are introduced into a fluid-bed reaction zone containing a bed of non-agglomerating particles at an injection velocity in excess of about 200 ft/sec with the fresh particles having been preheated to a temperature within the plastic transformation range of the particles and introduced rapidly and directly into said bed of non-agglomerating particles. The reaction zone may be a hydrocarbonization zone, a carbonization zone, a gasification zone or any other fluid-bed reaction zone in which defluidization may be caused by undue agglomeration of the feed particles. A fluidized stream of the preheated carbonaceous particles may be introduced at said high injection velocity in a vertically upwards direction or otherwise, as from one or more injection points positioned vertically along the side of the reaction zone.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 18, 1978
    Date of Patent: April 29, 1980
    Assignee: Union Carbide Corporation
    Inventors: Charles R. Welter, Barry Liss, Hubert G. Davis, Charles W. Albright
  • Patent number: 4200495
    Abstract: In the introduction of fresh carbonaceous particles into a fluid-bed reaction zone at injection velocities in excess of 20 ft/sec, a shroud gas is passed through a shroud passage on the injection nozzle at a velocity in excess of about 750 ft/sec, preferably at from about 1,000 to about 5,000 ft/sec, in sufficient quantities to supply a substantial portion of the overall energy input into the reaction zone for dispersion of the fresh particles and for breaking up of any agglomerates formed upon injection of the fresh particles into the reaction zone. By accommodating the agglomerating tendencies of the fresh feed material, the high energy shroud gas effectively contributes to the prevention of defluidization of the bed. The shroud gas may be inert or may comprise a gaseous reagent that reacts with the fresh carbonaceous particles in the reaction zone. The energy supplied by the shroud gas desirably is at least about 80% of said energy input to the reaction zone.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 18, 1978
    Date of Patent: April 29, 1980
    Inventors: Barry Liss, Charles R. Welter
  • Patent number: 4099933
    Abstract: The gasification of coal to produce a methane-rich product gas is accomplished through the controlled slow heating of particulate coal in a gasifier comprising two or more zones, whereby any significant decrease in the density of the coal particles is minimized and particle swelling and friability are significantly reduced, while the carryover of fines and deposition of tars in the product gas conduit are thereby minimized. The particulate coal heating rate in the gasifier zones is usually between about 10.degree. and 200.degree. F per minute. When the particulate coal is to be fed to the gasifier at elevated temperature, further improvements are achieved with swelling type caking coals through their pretreatment by preheating the coal at a slow rate between 10.degree. and 100.degree. F per minute up to about 800.degree. F in multiple fluidized beds.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 10, 1975
    Date of Patent: July 11, 1978
    Assignee: Hydrocarbon Research, Inc.
    Inventors: Clarence A. Johnson, John Shen
  • Patent number: 4057402
    Abstract: A process for converting a finely divided carbonaceous material, particularly coal, to a fuel gas. A finely divided or pulverized carbonaceous feed material, such as coal, is pretreated at a temperature of about 700.degree. - 800.degree. F in order to destroy the caking properties of a caking coal feed in a fluidized pretreatment zone, or, alternatively to dry a non-caking coal feed. The pretreated coal is passed from a pretreatment zone to a gasification zone wherein the carbonaceous feed material or coal is maintained as a fluid bed at selected conditions for converting the pretreated material to ash and a gaseous mixture. During the pretreatment of the feed material, hot off gases are formed and the hot off gases, which generally comprise steam, tars, oils, and carbonaceous fines, are passed from the pretreatment zone to the underside of the fluid bed in the gasification zone.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 28, 1976
    Date of Patent: November 8, 1977
    Assignee: Institute of Gas Technology
    Inventors: Jitendra G. Patel, Frank C. Schora, John W. Loeding
  • Patent number: 4018654
    Abstract: Many available coals are "caking coals" which possess the undesirable characteristic of fusing into a solid mass when heated through their plastic temperature range (about 400.degree. C.) which temperature range is involved in many common treatment processes such as gasification, hydrogenation, carbonization and the like. Unless the caking properties are first destroyed, the coal cannot be satisfactorily used in such processes. A process is disclosed herein for decaking finely divided coal during its transport to the treating zone by propelling the coal entrained in an oyxgen-containing gas through a heated transport pipe whereby the separate transport and decaking steps of the prior art are combined into a single step.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 5, 1974
    Date of Patent: April 19, 1977
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the United States Energy Research and Development Administration
    Inventors: Glenn E. Johnson, Harry B. Neilson, Albert J. Forney, William P. Haynes
  • Patent number: 4002533
    Abstract: An improved two-step fluid bed process for conditioning sized, agglomerative, high volatile bituminous coal is disclosed. The agglomerative bituminous coal is first crushed and sized for fluidization. A first treatment is conducted under oxidizing conditions at below the fusion temperature of the coal, preferably at about 600.degree. F., followed immediately by a second treatment under a non-oxidizing or inert atmosphere at preferably 800.degree. F. .+-.50.degree. F. The resulting oxidized and heat treated coal particles have a volatile content of at least 15% and are thereby rendered non-agglomerative when thereafter subjected to even higher temperatures, e.g., when making activated carbon and/or synthesis gas.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 9, 1974
    Date of Patent: January 11, 1977
    Assignee: Westvaco Corporation
    Inventors: Albert J. Repik, Charles E. Miller, Homer R. Johnson
  • Patent number: 4002535
    Abstract: A method of preconditioning agglomerating coal particles to substantially prevent agglomeration of a fluid-bed reaction zone in a reactor comprising preheating thd coal particles in dense phase flow, rapidly oxidizing the particles in a vertical standpipe having a regulated thermal environment, pressurizing the particles to a pressure above reactor pressure and introducing the preconditioned coal particles into the fluid-bed reactor zone at substantially reaction pressure for reaction at an elevated temperature and at reaction pressure in the presence of a reagent.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 27, 1974
    Date of Patent: January 11, 1977
    Assignee: Union Carbide Corporation
    Inventors: Charles William Albright, Hubert Greenidge Davis
  • Patent number: 3992266
    Abstract: Coal particles are heated and further particulized at a preheat stage employing a preheat gas. Some of the finer coal particles are puffed up by the preheating step. Most of the preheated coal particles are separated from the preheat gas, but some of the finer coal particles remain with the preheat gas. The coal particles separated from the preheat gas are oiled and eventually transported by a carrier gas through a pipeline into a coke oven. The preheat gas and the finer coal particles remaining therewith are separated from each other utilizing a wet scrubber at which the finer coal particles undergo flocculation. Oil vapor vented from the coal particles headed for the coke oven is directed to the wet scrubber to aid in the flocculating step. The flocculated coal particles are separated from the scrubber liquid in a flotation cell. The overflow from the flotation cell is filtered, and the filter cake comprising coal particles is employed as a fuel.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 24, 1975
    Date of Patent: November 16, 1976
    Assignee: Inland Steel Company
    Inventors: Ali I. Aktay, Michael O. Holowaty
  • Patent number: 3957460
    Abstract: An aqueous coal slurry is preheated, subjected to partial oxidation and vaporization by injection of high pressure oxygen and is introduced into a top section of a hydrogasifier in direct contact with hot methane-containing effluent gases where vaporization of the slurry is completed. The resulting solids are reacted in the hydrogasifier and the combined gases and vapors are withdrawn and subjected to purification and methanation to provide pipeline gas. The amount of oxygen injected into the slurry is controlled to provide the proper thermal balance whereby all of the water in the slurry can be evaporated in contact with the hot effluent gases from the hydrogasifier.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 9, 1975
    Date of Patent: May 18, 1976
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the United States Energy Research and Development Administration
    Inventor: Bernard S. Lee
  • Patent number: 3951856
    Abstract: Fluidized bed technique for oxidizing normally agglomerative bituminous coal is disclosed. One high rank bituminous coal is prepared for activation by grinding, briquetting and crushing to the 3/4 inch to 4 mesh size. Thereafter, the coal particles are fluidized in an oxygen containing atmosphere at from about 400.degree.F. to 700.degree.F. Water is preferably added during oxidation, controlling the oxidation temperature. In this manner, coal particles are rendered non-agglomerative which, when thereafter subjected to carbonization and activation, yields superior activated carbon.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 4, 1974
    Date of Patent: April 20, 1976
    Assignee: Westvaco Corporation
    Inventors: Albert J. Repik, Charles E. Miller, Homer R. Johnson