Directly Heated Chamber Patents (Class 202/215)
  • Patent number: 8980063
    Abstract: A device for proportioning of secondary combustion air into the secondary air soles of coke oven chamber ovens is shown. The device is formed by a slide gate or a parallelepiped device or by plates moved by means of a thrust bar, the thrust bar being moved longitudinally in parallel to the coke oven chamber wall so that the plates move away from the secondary air apertures and open or close these. The thrust bar is moved by means of a positioning motor, with the power transmission being effected hydraulically or pneumatically. Via suitable measuring parameters, it is thus possible to optimize secondary heating so that heating is provided evenly from all sides, thus achieving an improvement in coke quality.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 25, 2009
    Date of Patent: March 17, 2015
    Assignee: Uhde GmbH
    Inventors: Ronald Kim, Alfred Mertens
  • Patent number: 8961743
    Abstract: An improved rapid thermal conversion process for efficiently converting wood, other biomass materials, and other carbonaceous feedstock (including hydrocarbons) into high yields of valuable liquid product, e.g., bio-oil, on a large scale production, is disclosed. In the process, biomass material, e.g., wood, is fed to a conversion system where the biomass material is mixed with an upward stream of hot heat carriers, e.g., sand, that thermally convert the biomass into a hot vapor stream. The hot vapor stream is rapidly quenched with quench media in one or more condensing chambers located downstream of the conversion system. The rapid quenching condenses the vapor stream into liquid product, which is collected from the condensing chambers as a valuable liquid product.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 4, 2011
    Date of Patent: February 24, 2015
    Assignee: Ensyn Renewables, Inc.
    Inventor: Barry Freel
  • Patent number: 8888962
    Abstract: A method and an apparatus for pyrolysing a solid organic feed material are disclosed. Solid organic material is moved through a reaction chamber and exposed to a temperature profile within the chamber that dries and pyrolyses the organic material and releases water vapour and a volatile products gas phase. The water vapour phase and the volatile products gas phase are moved counter-current to the solid organic material so that the water vapour phase and condensable components of the volatile products gas phase condense in cooler upstream sections of the chamber and form a liquid water product and a separate liquid oil product. The liquid water product is discharged via an outlet along the length of the chamber and a dried and pyrolysed solid product is discharged from a downstream outlet in the chamber. The chamber includes a plurality of heat transfer members extending within the chamber and a supply of oxygen-containing gas for establishing and maintaining the temperature profile within the chamber.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 14, 2009
    Date of Patent: November 18, 2014
    Assignee: The Crucible Group Pty Ltd
    Inventors: Lazar Strezov, Steven Robert Osborn, Joseph George Herbertson, Gary Kenneth Ellem
  • Patent number: 8668811
    Abstract: Disclosed herein is an apparatus and a method for producing a pyrolysis liquid, wherein the pyrolysis liquid is formed by means of pyrolysis from a raw material by forming, and a pyrolysis reactor, a gaseous pyrolysis product by pyrolysis and condensing it in a condenser into a pyrolysis liquid, and feeding circulation gas into the pyrolysis reactor. The circulation gas is conducted by a liquid ring compressor into the pyrolysis reactor and purified before being conducted into the pyrolysis reactor, and the pyrolysis liquid is used as the liquid layer in the liquid ring compressor.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 22, 2013
    Date of Patent: March 11, 2014
    Assignee: Metso Power Oy
    Inventors: Sampo Ratinen, Jani Lehto, Mikko Anttila, Tuomo Hilli, Kristin Onarheim, Ismo Hirvonen, Yrjo Solantausta, Markku Raiko
  • Publication number: 20120048713
    Abstract: A process and apparatus for upgrading heavy hydrocarbons such as asphaltenes to lighter oil and gas components is disclosed. The process provides a reaction environment that promotes fast and selective cracking of heavy hydrocarbons, while minimizing coke formation and fouling and enhancing product yields.
    Type: Application
    Filed: September 28, 2011
    Publication date: March 1, 2012
    Applicant: VALUE CREATION INC.
    Inventor: Columba Yeung
  • Patent number: 8119076
    Abstract: In one aspect, the inventive process comprises a process for pyrolyzing a hydrocarbon feedstock containing nonvolatiles in a regenerative pyrolysis reactor system. The inventive process comprises: (a) heating the nonvolatile-containing hydrocarbon feedstock upstream of a regenerative pyrolysis reactor system to a temperature sufficient to form a vapor phase that is essentially free of nonvolatiles and a liquid phase containing the nonvolatiles; (b) separating said vapor phase from said liquid phase; (c) feeding the separated vapor phase to the pyrolysis reactor system; and (d) converting the separated vapor phase in said pyrolysis reactor system to form a pyrolysis product.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 3, 2011
    Date of Patent: February 21, 2012
    Assignee: ExxonMobil Chemical Patents Inc.
    Inventors: Paul F. Keusenkothen, James N. McCoy, Judith Hey, legal representative, Frank Hershkowitz
  • Publication number: 20110315539
    Abstract: A solar-powered device for converting sludge into one or more products is disclosed. The device includes a pyrolysis reactor selectively operable by solar energy, for carrying our thermal decomposition, into one or more products, of sludge introduced into the reactor via a dedicated sludge inlet. The reactor includes at least one outlet for discharging from the reactor one or more products obtained from the sludge decomposition. The device also includes a sensor for sensing sunlight radiation and providing an output data indicative of the amount of solar energy corresponding to the sensed sunlight, and a control unit for receiving the output data and operating or shutting down the pyrolysis reactor based on the amount of solar energy generated from the sunlight.
    Type: Application
    Filed: March 10, 2010
    Publication date: December 29, 2011
    Inventors: Boaz Zadik, Faig Israel
  • Publication number: 20100314235
    Abstract: Heat from a concentrated solar power source is applied to the conversion of carbonaceous materials such as heavy petroleum crude oils, coals and biomass to liquid hydrocarbons. The solar heat is applied to provide at least a portion of the process heat used in the high temperature, short contact time hydropyrolysis of the carbonaceous material which is supplied with hydrogen generated by a high temperature process such as high temperature steam electrolysis, the sulfur-iodine cycle, the hybrid sulfur cycle, the zinc-zinc oxide cycle or by methane steam cracking. The heat from the solar source may be used to generate electricity to operate high temperature steam electrolysis used in generation of the hydrogen. By the use of solar thermal energy sources, hydrocarbon resource utilization for process heat is eliminated along with carbon dioxide evolution associated with burning of the hydrocarbon resource to generate process heat.
    Type: Application
    Filed: May 4, 2010
    Publication date: December 16, 2010
    Inventors: Ramesh VARADARAJ, Michael SISKIN, Walter WEISSMAN, Mark A. GREANEY
  • Patent number: 7264694
    Abstract: A retort heating apparatus for processing a feed material includes a heating chamber bounded at least in part by a side wall. A plurality of baffles are at least partially disposed within the heating chamber. Each baffle includes an elongated body having a top surface, at least a portion of the top surface being arched. The plurality of baffles are vertically and horizontally spaced apart so that substantially all of the feed material that vertically passes through the heating chamber is horizontally displaced as the feed material passes by the baffles. Systems are also provided for heating the feed material within the heating chamber.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 29, 2004
    Date of Patent: September 4, 2007
    Assignee: Oil-Tech, Inc.
    Inventors: Byron G. Merrell, Michael R. Keller, Roger K. Noble
  • Patent number: 5296102
    Abstract: A method of and apparatus for recovering oil from solid hydrocarbonaceous terial, such as oil shale, in particulate form using a combustion chamber and a reaction chamber arranged side-by-side and connected by a first passageway extending between the upper regions of the chambers and a return passageway. The particulate material is fluidized in the chambers and induced to circulate therebetween by the configuration of the chambers and passageways and/or the nature of the fluidization. Residual carbon on the spent hydrocarbonaceous material introduced into the combustion chamber through the return passageway is burnt, heating the material which then circulates through the first passageway to mix with and heat fresh feed material introduced into the reaction chamber giving off effluent vapours which are collected and processed.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 25, 1991
    Date of Patent: March 22, 1994
    Assignee: Southern Pacific Petroleum NL and Central Pacific Minerals NL
    Inventor: Donald J. Nicklin
  • Patent number: 5104490
    Abstract: Apparatus for thermally decomposing municipal waste to produce condensable gases, char, and non-condensable gases has a vertically extending reaction chamber receiving the waste particles at the upper end, discharging char at the lower end, and receiving a hot gas at the lower end for upward flow through descending waste particles in the chamber. A dual function cone suspended at the upper end of the chamber receives the waste particles therearound, receives the gases therein and funnels the gases to a combined inlet-outlet having an inlet portion receiving a propelling air stream, an intermediate section communicating with the top of the cone and an outlet portion discharging the air and gases from the cone.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 25, 1988
    Date of Patent: April 14, 1992
    Assignee: W.E.R.E. International Inc. of Iowa
    Inventors: Glen Brinkman, Harold Massner, Richard J. Taeger
  • Patent number: 5098481
    Abstract: Process and apparatus for near-zero discharge soil remediation, preferably in conjunction with an asphalt plant, comprising heating soil contaminated with up to about 30,000 ppm light hydrocarbons in an inclined, axially-fired rotating separator, and sampling the output soil to determine the remaining contaminants. If below 100 ppm (preferably 10 ppm) it may be reemplaced as clean fill. If it does meet D.O.T./CALTRANS standards and is below about 100 ppm it may be used as roadbed fill. If between about 1000 and 100 ppm and meets standards it may be used as aggregate, being mixed with hot oil to form asphalt. The separator offgases are condensed, the reclaimed liquid hydrocarbons separated and combined with the hot oil. The hot condenser offgases are supplied as secondary air to a main dryer, improving efficiency of operation. A dust/mud blow down system clears the heat exchange plenums with compressed air.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 6, 1991
    Date of Patent: March 24, 1992
    Assignee: Reed & Graham, Inc.
    Inventor: Kenneth J. Monlux
  • Patent number: 5068010
    Abstract: An apparatus for removing oil, gas and by-products from pyrobituminous shale impregnated with hydrocarbons utilizes a vertically disposed reactor having a top portion, a middle portion and a bottom portion. As shale is introduced into the top portion of the reactor through a rotary seal mechanism, hot gasses are introduced into the middle portion of the reactor through hollow, parallel tubes having a hexagonal configuration with gas introducing holes disposed in the side walls which are protected by overhanging portions of the top walls. Relatively cool gasses are introduced into the bottom portion of the reactor through horizontally disposed circumferentially spaced pipes having downwardly and outwardly chamfered inner ends to prevent clogging of the pipes. The hot effluent gasses from the top portion of the reactor are passed through the cyclone, a heat regenerator for reducing the temperature of the gaseous stream and an electrostatic precipitator prior to being compressed.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 9, 1990
    Date of Patent: November 26, 1991
    Assignee: Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. - Petrobras
    Inventors: Rene Mundstock, Kuniyuki Terabe, Antonio R. Lamprecht, Joao C. Teixeira, Altair R. D. Batista, Edson d. Dias, Luiz D. Santos, Osvaldo Amorim, Joel Rezende, Jorge H. Filho, Joao C. Gobbo, Romeu Machado
  • Patent number: 5034021
    Abstract: Apparatus is described for the pyrolysis of coal comprising a pyrolysis tower through which crushed coal and hot gas are counter-currently passed. The tower enables a controlled temperature profile to be maintained in the tower, and contains inner appurtenances which define cascading passageways to promote heat exchange and mixing of the coal with the hot gas. The coal volatiles are carried out of the top of the tower by the gas. The pyrolysis tower may be conjoined with a gasifier so as to most directly utilize the char residuals remaining after pyrolysis of the coal while they are still hot to more efficiently produce a hot synthesis gas, to be used to perform thermal pyrolysis in the tower.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 12, 1989
    Date of Patent: July 23, 1991
    Inventor: Reginald D. Richardson
  • Patent number: 4948468
    Abstract: A retorting apparatus including a vertical kiln and a plurality of tubes for delivering rock to the top of the kiln and removal of processed rock from the bottom of the kiln so that the rock descends through the kiln as a moving bed. Distributors are provided for delivering gas to the kiln to effect heating of the rock and to disturb the rock particles during their descent. The distributors are constructed and disposed to deliver gas uniformly to the kiln and to withstand and overcome adverse conditions resulting from heat and from the descending rock. The rock delivery tubes are geometrically sized, spaced and positioned so as to deliver the shale uniformly into the kiln and form symmetrically disposed generally vertical paths, or "rock chimneys", through the descending shale which offer least resistance to upward flow of gas. When retorting oil shale, a delineated collection chamber near the top of the kiln collects gas and entrained oil mist rising through the kiln.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 22, 1989
    Date of Patent: August 14, 1990
    Assignee: The New Paraho Corporation
    Inventors: Adam A. Reeves, Earl L. Mast, Melvin J. Greaves
  • Patent number: 4867848
    Abstract: An apparatus and process for producing coke in a vertical furnace having an upper part for preheating and devolitalizing raw ovoids of coal, an electrically heated median part for carbonizing and coking the ovoids and a lower part for partially cooling the coked ovoids by counter current flow of recycled product gases recovered from the upper part of the furnace. A cooling chamber is connected to the lower part of the furnace for further cooling the coked ovoids by countercurrent flow of a portion of the recycled product gases which are withdrawn after flowing through the partially cooled coked ovoids and introduced into the upper part of the furnace to prevent condensation of condensibles contained in the product gases. The median part of the furnace may be electrically heated by electrodes, induction coils or a combination of electrodes and induction coils.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 15, 1987
    Date of Patent: September 19, 1989
    Assignee: Usinor Aciers
    Inventors: Jean A. G. Cordier, Bernard E. A. Dussart, Pierre H. Rollot
  • Patent number: 4727657
    Abstract: An apparatus for contacting solids with gases, preferably a needle coke preheater, which includes an elongated housing having an entrance and an exit and means for introducing solids into the entrance of the housing. A bed support divides the housing into an upper chamber and a lower chamber and is declined from the horizontal at an angle such that the solids introduced into the entrance of the housing slide down the bed support toward the exit of the housing. The bed support contains a plurality of openings distributed between two solid rectangular borders which serve as the two long parallel sides of the bed support. The openings are sufficiently large so that gases can flow from the lower chamber in contact with the solids and then into the upper chamber. The solid rectangular borders prevent preferential flow of the gases up the walls of the housing by forcing the gases to flow toward the center of the bed support.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 29, 1986
    Date of Patent: March 1, 1988
    Assignee: Union Oil Company of California
    Inventor: Robert E. Miller
  • Patent number: 4718984
    Abstract: An internally-fired vertical shaft kiln for calcining coke wherein a downwardly moving coke bed has a co-current preheat gas stream in the upper portion of the kiln and a counter-current combustion gas stream in the lower portion of the kiln. Both gases are removed at the midportion of the kiln. Combustion air is introduced to the kiln through an inclined grate at the bottom of the kiln which retains a layer of coke thereon for internal combustion. The calcined coke moves over the combusting coke layer on the grate and then through a passage to a cooling chamber where a gas stream is passed through the calcined coke for cooling. The gas stream heated in the cooling chamber can be used as the co-current gas preheat stream in the upper section of the kiln.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 18, 1986
    Date of Patent: January 12, 1988
    Assignee: Conoco Inc.
    Inventors: James R. McConaghy, Jr., Charles J. Swartz
  • Patent number: 4661123
    Abstract: A kiln having pyrolysis, gasification and cooling horizontal zones, divided over its height into vertical chambers by vertical dividing walls, and having flues with vents housed in the dividing walls and the walls of the outer enclosure for injecting reaction fluids and fumes and for drawing off gases and vapors.In the gasification zone, the dividing walls have diffusion panels adjacent diffusion chambers. The panels are connected to the reaction fluid supply and are of a height which corresponds substantially to the height of the panel.The vertical chambers form modular cells through which the granulated mineral flows continuously without encountering obstructions in the form of irregularities.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 16, 1984
    Date of Patent: April 28, 1987
    Inventor: Paul R. Duchene
  • Patent number: 4606138
    Abstract: An apparatus for gas treating a particle bed wherein a uniform temperature gradient is achieved. A support member, such as a grate, serves to support a bed of particles on a surface thereof. The support member is moved in a predetermined direction. Gas is released from a plurality of positions at different depths in the bed.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 18, 1985
    Date of Patent: August 19, 1986
    Assignee: Phillips Petroleum Company
    Inventor: Cecil C. Gentry
  • Patent number: 4466863
    Abstract: Devolatilizable fine-grained material which contains hydrocarbons is devolatilized by means of fine-grained solids which have been heated to temperatures of about to C. The devolatilizable fine-grained material is mixed with the heated solids and is thus heated to temperatures of about to C. The mixture is passed through a dwell zone, and gaseous and vaporous devolatilization products are withdrawn and cooled. The heated solids are fed to the dwell zone as a loosened stream in a trickling and/or agitated state of motion, and the devolatilizable fine-grained material is introduced into said stream in order to be admixed thereto. The heated solids and the devolatilizable fine-grained material can be mixed in a weight ratio of 3:1 to 12:1. The stream of trickling heated soids can be deflected at least in part.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 13, 1983
    Date of Patent: August 21, 1984
    Assignee: Metallgesellschaft Aktiengesellschaft
    Inventors: Roland Rammler, Alfons Bussmann
  • Patent number: 4465556
    Abstract: A process and system for continuously pyrolyzing organic feedstock produces a solid carbonaceous residue of controlled volatility, in a manner that is highly energy efficient. The value of the gaseous product and of the pyrolytic oil produced are also optimized.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 28, 1982
    Date of Patent: August 14, 1984
    Assignee: American Carbons, Inc.
    Inventors: Mack D. Bowen, Kenneth R. Purdy
  • Patent number: 4447297
    Abstract: The present invention is directed to a combined fluidized bed retorting and combustion system particularly useful for extracting energy values from oil shale. The oil-shale retort and combustor are disposed side-by-side and in registry with one another through passageways in a partition therebetween. The passageways in the partition are submerged below the top of the respective fluid beds to preclude admixing or the product gases from the two chambers. The solid oil shale or bed material is transported through the chambers by inclining or slanting the fluidizing medium distributor so that the solid bed material, when fluidized, moves in the direction of the downward slope of the distributor.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 14, 1982
    Date of Patent: May 8, 1984
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the United States Department of Energy
    Inventors: Jer-Yu Shang, John E. Notestein, Joseph S. Mei, Li-Wen Zeng
  • Patent number: 4431483
    Abstract: An apparatus for distilling shale oil from oil shale, which comprises: a vertical type distilling furnace which is divided by two vertical partitions each provided with a plurality of vent apertures into an oil shale treating chamber and two gas chambers, said oil shale treating chamber being located between said two gas chambers in said vertical type distilling furnace, said vertical type distilling furnace being further divided by at least one horizontal partition into an oil shale distilling chamber in the lower part thereof and at least one oil shale preheating chamber in the upper part thereof, said oil shale distilling chamber and said oil shale preheating chamber communicating with each other through a gap provided at an end of said horizontal partition, an oil shale supplied continuously from an oil shale supply port provided in said oil shale treating chamber at the top thereof into said oil shale treating chamber continuously moving from the oil shale preheating chamber to the oil shale distilling c
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 24, 1982
    Date of Patent: February 14, 1984
    Assignee: Nippon Kokan Kabushiki Kaisha
    Inventors: Takeyoshi Shishido, Yoshio Sato
  • Patent number: 4409068
    Abstract: Combustion gas such as air, oxygen-enriched air or oxygen is introduced at an intermediate level in a vertical shaft kiln for the calcining of petroleum coke using a plurality of radially disposed combustion gas injectors. The injectors include means for circulating coolant around the periphery of the injector so that common metals may be used in the high temperature (above F.) environment of the shaft kiln.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 14, 1982
    Date of Patent: October 11, 1983
    Assignee: Conoco Inc.
    Inventors: Richard L. Davis, Harlan G. Graf, Don L. Edwards
  • Patent number: 4407700
    Abstract: Combustion gas such as air, oxygen-enriched air or oxygen is introduced to a calcining zone at an intermediate level in a vertical shaft kiln for the calcining of petroleum coke utilizing a plurality of radially disposed combustion gas injectors and at least one vertically disposed injector located within the shaft kiln and extending into the calcining zone. The injector includes means for circulating coolant around the periphery of the injector so that common metals may be used in the high temperature (above F.) environment of the shaft kiln. The vertical combustion gas injector may extend from the top of the calcining chamber to the calcining zone or from the bottom of the calcining chamber to the calcining zone. When the vertical combustion gas injector extends vertically upwardly from the bottom of the calcining chamber, means for introducing recycle gas to the calcining chamber may be incorporated into the vertical combustion gas injector.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 14, 1982
    Date of Patent: October 4, 1983
    Assignee: Conoco Inc.
    Inventors: Richard L. Davis, Harlan G. Graf, Don L. Edwards, William B. Macbeth, Jr.
  • Patent number: 4407701
    Abstract: Apparatus for treating gases produced from the conversion of coal, e.g., from carbonization of coal, to remove the undesirable constituents thereof is disclosed. The method involves passing the hot raw gases from the coal conversation process over a coke bed at a temperature of more than K. The coke bed is located in the coal gasification reactor and is provided with an ordinary air supply. The subject method achieves a significant reduction in undesirable constituents in the gas and eliminates the need for auxiliary gas treatment systems, oxygen production systems and the like.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 2, 1982
    Date of Patent: October 4, 1983
    Assignee: Didier Engineering GmbH
    Inventors: Dietrich Wagener, Horst Fach, Peter Sauder, Otto Abel
  • Patent number: 4373994
    Abstract: This invention discloses a process and apparatus for pyrolyzing particulate coal by heating with a particulate solid heating media in a transport reactor. The invention tends to dampen fluctuations in the flow of heating media upstream of the pyrolysis zone, and by so doing forms a substantially continuous and substantially uniform annular column of heating media flowing downwardly along the inside diameter of the reactor. The invention is particularly useful for bituminous or agglomerative type coals.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 28, 1981
    Date of Patent: February 15, 1983
    Assignee: Occidental Research Corporation
    Inventor: Chang-Kuei Lee
  • Patent number: 4373995
    Abstract: A pyrolysis process and system produces a solid residue and a clean, enriched fuel gas. In the process, the pyrolytic oil and filter cake are recycled in such a manner as to produce products of optimal value, and to minimize the need for servicing and downtime of the system. Recycling of water recovered in the process may also be employed to achieve enrichment of the gaseous product. The process may be carried ou in such a manner as to produce a non-polluting wastewater stream that can be discharged directly from the system.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 5, 1981
    Date of Patent: February 15, 1983
    Inventors: Mack D. Bowen, Kenneth R. Purdy
  • Patent number: 4359363
    Abstract: This invention discloses a process and apparatus for pyrolyzing particulate coal by heating with a particulate solid heating media in a transport reactor. The invention tends to dampen fluctuations in the flow of heating media upstream of the pyrolysis zone, and by so doing forms a substantially continuous and substantially uniform annular column of heating media flowing downwardly along the inside diameter of the reactor. The invention is particularly useful for bituminous or agglomerative type coals.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 2, 1981
    Date of Patent: November 16, 1982
    Assignee: Occidental Research Corporation
    Inventor: Kandaswamy Durai-Swamy
  • Patent number: 4357210
    Abstract: The invention relates to an electric furnace for heating by passing a current through the charge, and more particularly, a continuous furnace in which the charge is a carbonaceous material.The furnace according to the invention is provided with a device for allowing non-reactive gas to be circulated in the opposite direction to the charge.The furnace according to the invention is used, in particular, for calcining anthracite.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 8, 1981
    Date of Patent: November 2, 1982
    Assignee: Societe des Electrodes et Refractaires Savoie/SERS
    Inventors: Michel Aubry, Jean-Claude Bernard, Paul Philipon
  • Patent number: 4340444
    Abstract: A plant for continuously retorting oil products contained in shales and sands comprising a substantially horizontal retort furnace into which said shales and sands are introduced by means of hoppers and metering devices and placed on metal conveyors moving in counter-current to gases, means being provided for placing said shales and sands onto said conveyors with a suitable thickness and for stirring the shales and sands. One or more combustion chambers are arranged outside said retort furnace for producing hot gases, and one or more input zones are located along the retort furnace for admitting hot gases into the retort furnace, causing the hot gases to mix with circulating gases which have been preheated by removing sensible heat from the exhausted shale and sand material. A direct contact condenser at the furnace head utilizes cold fluid to condense distilled oil products, and a decantation tank is arranged beneath said condenser for freeing the process gases from the dust.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 3, 1981
    Date of Patent: July 20, 1982
    Assignee: SQUARE S.A.
    Inventor: Carlo Roma
  • Patent number: 4324620
    Abstract: A pyrolyzing apparatus having a pyrolysis fluidized bed chamber and an incineration fluidized bed chamber or chambers each directly adjacent and communicated with the pyrolysis fluidized bed chamber through an opening or openings in a partition wall above a common perforated bottom plate, the respective levels of the fluidized beds being controlled by regulating the pressure(s) in free board(s) of the fluidized bed chambers.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 5, 1979
    Date of Patent: April 13, 1982
    Assignee: Ebara Corporation
    Inventors: Kanichi Ito, Yoshio Hirayama, Yoshiaki Ishii, Naoyoshi Ando
  • Patent number: 4314887
    Abstract: Adjacent alternating rows of relatively coarse and fine coal are deposited onto a horizontal moving grate running through a coking furnace.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 14, 1979
    Date of Patent: February 9, 1982
    Assignee: Peabody Coal Company, Inc.
    Inventors: Jack R. Haley, Jimmy B. Smith, Vaughn Mansfield
  • Patent number: 4165216
    Abstract: This invention comprises an apparatus and process for drying and/or heating materials. This invention was designed for use in the production of charcoal from wood feed material; however, it can be used to heat and/or dry many types of materials. Feed material is disposed in a reactor, wherein there is provided a first array of input channels extending through said feed material, through which hot gases are introduced into said feed material, and a second array of output channels extending through said feed material to collect and exit those hot gases and any gases or vapors derived from the heating and/or drying of the feed material.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 23, 1977
    Date of Patent: August 21, 1979
    Assignee: Enerco, Inc.
    Inventors: Eugene W. White, Francis M. Gross, Fred E. Knoffsinger
  • Patent number: 4082615
    Abstract: A thermal decomposition process and apparatus of the fluidized bed type for organic solid materials, particularly organic solid waste material contained in urban rubbish comprising a fluidized bed thermal decomposition furnace, the interior of which is divided by a partition plate into two zones, namely a first zone for thermally decomposing the organic solid waste material in the absence of oxygen and a second zone mainly for burning the carbonized material produced as a result of thermal decomposition of the organic solid waste material. Non-condensable components of the gas resulting from the thermal decomposition of the organic solid waste material are recirculated as fluidizing gas into the first zone, while air is used as the fluidizing gas for the second zone. Heat for the thermal decomposition in the first zone is obtained from the combustion in the second zone and transferred by the intertransfer of fluidized solids between zones beneath the partition plate.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 12, 1976
    Date of Patent: April 4, 1978
    Assignee: The Agency of Industrial Science & Technology
    Inventors: Takeo Komuro, Yukio Saito, Mizuno Hirato