Rotary And/or Tilting Patents (Class 202/218)
  • Patent number: 10836969
    Abstract: A method of recovering a hydrogen-enriched gas at least 70 percent by volume hydrogen includes introducing into the feed device to a rotary furnace defining a tubular interior space, starting materials containing carbon or hydrocarbons. A mass of water being added to the starting material is regulated according to the content of hydrogen in the gas mixture leaving the rotary furnace. The tubular interior space of the rotary furnace is expanded axially to accommodate thermally expanding the starting material and water in the interior space of the rotary furnace.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 13, 2018
    Date of Patent: November 17, 2020
    Inventor: Peter Jeney
  • Patent number: 9068122
    Abstract: A multi-pipe external-heating coal decomposition equipment, comprising a airtight kiln body; a channel for impelling and decomposing coal is formed in the kiln body, which has a coal inlet, a coal outlet and a collecting pipe for coal decomposition gas; a heat transfer chamber is formed between the channel and inner wall of the kiln body, which is connected with a high temperature gas heating facility and comprises a heated gas outlet. Because the channel for impelling and decomposing coal is set in a kiln body with high temperature, so a vast of heat gas in high temperature kiln body surrounds the channel and its heat conducts and radiates to the pulverized coal in the channel. Thus, the pulverized coal can fully absorb the heat to be heated for decomposing to the gas, coal tar and coal with high heat-value in the channel.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 23, 2010
    Date of Patent: June 30, 2015
    Inventor: Shucheng Zhu
  • Patent number: 8980064
    Abstract: A pyrolytic conversion assembly for processing biomass including: a rotary kiln including a tube for heating the biomass at pressure having a sealable inlet at a first, higher end for ingress of the biomass, and a sealable outlet at a lower end for egress of charcoal formed from the biomass; and heating elements disposed around the kiln to provide a localized source of heating at a predetermined distance from the sealable inlet for reflux condensation of gas from the biomass.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 12, 2010
    Date of Patent: March 17, 2015
    Inventors: Laurence Rex Manderson, Daniel Charles Manderson
  • Patent number: 8784616
    Abstract: A process for the controlled gasification of a carbonaceous feedstock includes pyrolizing the feedstock by conveying the feedstock through a retort surrounded by a plurality of successive heating chambers each comprising an axially adjustable chamber separation wall and each operated at a predetermined temperature, wherein a predetermined dwell time of the feedstock in each of the plurality of successive heating chambers is controlled by a conveyance rate of the feedstock through the retort and a position of each of the axially adjustable chamber separation walls to produce a gas product and a solid product. The gas product includes methane and noxious chemicals and the solid product includes carbon, and the pyrolizing step is controlled using feedback related to constituents of the gas product.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 8, 2010
    Date of Patent: July 22, 2014
    Assignee: Tucker Engineering Associates, Inc.
    Inventor: Richard D. Tucker
  • Patent number: 8764945
    Abstract: This invention is regarding an industrial continuous cracking device of rubber. The technical program of this invention is as following: including the outer cylinder and the internal cylinder, and the internal cylinder has promoting mechanism; the heating mechanism is provided in one of the outer cylinder and the internal cylinder, wherein the internal cylinder wall is fixed with heat plates. These heat plates adopt different forms, such as separated plate, intermittent or continuous helical ribbon, and so on. According to the instance of other structures of the equipment, they not only are adapted to be fixed in the internal cylinder, but also adapted to be fixed in the wall of the internal cylinder. The simple structure used in this invention has realized the effect of improving the heat efficiency, reducing the energy consumption and decreasing the running cost.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 29, 2007
    Date of Patent: July 1, 2014
    Inventor: Bin Niu
  • Patent number: 8350105
    Abstract: A system and method of converting tires or other solid carbon based material is disclosed, wherein the system and method includes providing a chamber, feeding tires or other solid carbon based material or both into the chamber, rotating the chamber and heating and reducing the material in the chamber, collecting solid residue from the chamber, collecting vapor from the chamber, and converting vapor collected from the chamber to a liquid. The chamber has an interior surface and can include one or more ribs on the interior surface for rotating and tumbling the material in the chamber while heating the material.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 8, 2011
    Date of Patent: January 8, 2013
    Inventor: Fredrick Taylor
  • Patent number: 8340825
    Abstract: A method and a device for controlling a process for burning lime containing mixture (CaCO3) and converting it to calcinated lime (CaO) in a rotary kiln, the rotary kiln having an elongated cavity surrounded by a wall and a burner arranged to heat the cavity. The method includes collecting measurement data of the temperature in the wall at a plurality of measuring points along the longitudinal axis of the cavity, predicting the actual temperature gradient along the longitudinal axis of the cavity based at least on the measurement data of the temperature in the wall, and by means of a thermal model describing the temperature along the cavity of the kiln, determining a desired temperature gradient along the cavity based on the predicted temperature gradient along the cavity and a predetermined control strategy controlling the temperature in the kiln.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 3, 2012
    Date of Patent: December 25, 2012
    Assignee: ABB AB
    Inventors: Lars Ledung, Erik Dahlqvist
  • Patent number: 8323369
    Abstract: Apparatus for treating materials, the apparatus including a main body which includes an elongated retort section having a primary treatment chamber therein, a feed inlet at an upstream end of the retort section and a discharge outlet at a downstream end of the retort section. The main body further includes a filtering section with a filtering chamber therein which is in communication with the primary treatment chamber, the filtering chamber being disposed laterally with respect to a longitudinal axis of the retort section which extends between the ends of the retort section and is spaced from the upstream end.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 29, 2006
    Date of Patent: December 4, 2012
    Inventor: Struan Glen Robertson
  • Publication number: 20120125758
    Abstract: A process for the pyrolysis of at least one material includes: introducing the material into a pressurized rotary retort system, heating the material in the pressurized rotary retort system within a desired temperature range and within a desired pressure range for a desired period of time; and, advancing the heated and pressurized material from a first end to a second end of the pressurized rotary retort by rotating the pressurized retort about its longitudinal axis; where at least a quantity of the material is converted into one or more end products. Also the system generally includes: a pressurized rotary retort system configured for producing at least one gaseous product from pyrolysis of material, and having a pressurized furnace vessel and a retort positioned within the pressurized furnace vessel; and; a solids reactor system operatively connected to the rotary retort for receiving material from the pressurized rotary retort system.
    Type: Application
    Filed: June 17, 2010
    Publication date: May 24, 2012
    Inventors: Max Hoetzl, Douglas S. Struble, Noureen Faizee
  • Patent number: 8168044
    Abstract: A thermochemical reactor includes a contact surface and a pressing device for pressing raw material to be pyrolyzed against the rotationally symmetrical contact surface which is rotatable relative to the raw material. A generating line of the contact surface is oriented at an angle to a radius that is perpendicular to the axis of the relative rotation.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 10, 2009
    Date of Patent: May 1, 2012
    Assignee: CLAAS Selbstfahrende Erntemaschinen GmbH
    Inventor: Horst Weigelt
  • Patent number: 7935227
    Abstract: A method for collecting biomass, such as straw, and for producing a pyrolysis liquid, such as oil or tar, from the biomass, includes the step of collecting the biomass from a growth site, e.g. a field, by means of a mobile unit. The biomass is continuously fed into a pyrolysis apparatus accommodated by the mobile unit, as the mobile unit is moved across the growth site. While the biomass is processed in the pyrolysis apparatus, further biomass is simultaneously being collected. The pyrolysis apparatus may be a flash pyrolysis or fast pyrolysis apparatus relying on centrifugal forces for forcing biomass towards a reactive surface in a pyrolysis reactor. The mobile unit may be self-propelled.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 3, 2006
    Date of Patent: May 3, 2011
    Assignee: Danmarks Tekniske Universitet
    Inventors: Kim Dam-Johansen, Niels Bech
  • Patent number: 7931783
    Abstract: A fast pyrolysis apparatus (200) for producing pyrolysis liquid, such as oil or tar, char and pyrolysis gas from biomass, such as straw, comprises a centrifuge chamber (204) and a rotor (210) arranged to impart rotation on the biomass in the centrifuge chamber to force the biomass outwardly under the action of centrifugal forces. A furnace (206) arranged coaxially around the centrifuge chamber (204) maintains the temperature at an outer reactive wall of the centrifuge chamber at an elevated temperature to effect the pyrolysis process at or near the reactive wall. The apparatus comprises a condenser (218) arranged coaxially with and surrounded by the centrifuge chamber (204). The apparatus may be accommodated by a mobile unit for simultaneously collecting biomass from a field and processing the biomass in the apparatus.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 3, 2006
    Date of Patent: April 26, 2011
    Assignee: Danmarks Tekniske Universitet
    Inventors: Kim Dam-Johansen, Niels Bech, Peter A. Jensen
  • Patent number: 7594978
    Abstract: A system for refining hydrocarbon containing materials in a continuous coking mode may provide a pyrolyzer (1) which may be inclined to effect a liquid seal between a liquid conduction environment (6) and a gaseous conduction environment (7). A heat source (9) may heat the material past the coking point and the system may include a screw or auger (10) which can continuously remove the coke while simultaneously outputting refined products.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 1, 2005
    Date of Patent: September 29, 2009
    Assignee: The University of Wyoming Research Corporation
    Inventors: Lee E. Brecher, Lyle A. Johnson, Jr., Vijay K. Sethi
  • Publication number: 20080210538
    Abstract: A system (10) for pyrolysing material comprises a stationary inlet stage (20), a rotary kiln (60) and a stationary outlet stage (70), with a rotary joint mechanism (30, 80) provided between the inlet stage (20) and the rotary kiln and/or between the rotary kiln and the outlet stage (70). The rotary joint mechanism (30, 80) comprises a face seal between a rotating surface (66) of a first seal member (65, 85) fixed to the kiln (60) and a stationary surface (26) of a second seal member (25, 82) fixed to the respective stage (20, 70).
    Type: Application
    Filed: July 10, 2006
    Publication date: September 4, 2008
    Inventor: Allan Clark
  • Patent number: 6972085
    Abstract: A system for refining hydrocarbon containing materials in a continuous coking mode may provide a pyrolyzer (1) which may be inclined to effect a liquid seal between a liquid conduction environment (6) and a gaseous conduction environment (7). A heat source (9) may heat the material past the coking point and the system may include a screw or auger (10) which can continuously remove the coke while simultaneously outputting refined products.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 21, 2000
    Date of Patent: December 6, 2005
    Assignee: The University of Wyoming Research Corporation
    Inventors: Lee E. Brecher, Lyle A. Johnson, Jr., Vijay K. Sethi
  • Patent number: 6869502
    Abstract: A liquid having certain undesired elements therein is distilled in a distillation column to form a vapor stream. This vapor stream is fed by means of an inert gas drive to a first container having an array of semi-permeable screens which are rotated at a speed of 3,000-10,000 rpm to generate vertical spiral vortexes which act on the vapor to separate out heavier impurities. An inert gas is employed to drive the vapor stream from the first container to the bottom of a second container having a narrower diameter array of semi-permeable screens, these screens being driven at a velocity of 6000-100,000 rpm. In the second container, the molecular species is separated from the main vapor stream by virtue of the exposure of the vapor to large centrifugal gravity forces generated by the horizontal velocity vectors of the rotating screens.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 1, 2001
    Date of Patent: March 22, 2005
    Assignee: General Grinding Corporation
    Inventor: Ernest Csendes
  • Patent number: 6849160
    Abstract: An apparatus and method are for the pyrolysis of waste. The aparatus has a rotating cell formed of a cylinder in combination with a truncated cone rotating on the same axis. The apparatus also has a hopper for charging the waste at one end of the cylinder, an ash box at the other end of the cylinder, a gas recuperator, and a retaining threshold between the cylinder and the truncated cone. A region of intimate contact of the waste with itself is created, whereby the waste is converted into coke which is used as fuel in the pyrolysis of the waste.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 15, 1997
    Date of Patent: February 1, 2005
    Assignee: Sanifa
    Inventor: Louis Rousseau
  • Publication number: 20030138365
    Abstract: A pyrolysis system includes a generally cylindrical reactor chamber having two opposite ends and a longitudinal axis. The chamber has an inlet for receiving biomass, the inlet being adapted to prevent air from entering the chamber and being located at a first opposite end; a gas outlet for recuperating biogas produced in the reactor chamber, the gas outlet being adapted to prevent air from entering the chamber and being located at a second opposite end; and a solid outlet for recuperating charcoal produced in the reactor chamber, the solid outlet being adapted to prevent air from entering the chamber and being located at the second opposite end. The biomass is then subjected to indirect heating supplied by a heated rotor that decomposes the biomass in the absence of air or oxygen into a biogas and charcoal. A controller for controlling a rate of feed of biomass, extracted carbon residue and a temperature inside the reactor chamber is also provided.
    Type: Application
    Filed: December 19, 2002
    Publication date: July 24, 2003
    Applicant: Strudes Inc.
    Inventors: Louis Obidniak, Jacques Tetrault, John Walker
  • Publication number: 20020117390
    Abstract: An apparatus and method are for the pyrolysis of waste. The aparatus has a rotating cell formed of a cylinder in combination with a truncated cone rotating on the same axis. The apparatus also has a hopper for charging the waste at one end of the cylinder, an ash box at the other end of the cylinder, a gas recuperator, and a retaining threshold between the cylinder and the truncated cone. A region of intimate contact of the waste with itself is created, whereby the waste is converted into coke which is used as fuel in the pyrolysis of the waste.
    Type: Application
    Filed: July 16, 1999
    Publication date: August 29, 2002
    Inventor: LOUIS ROUSSEAU
  • Patent number: 6346221
    Abstract: A waste tire processing apparatus (10) reacts waste tires (26) with a molten reactant metal (19) to recover primarily carbon and stainless steel. The apparatus (10) includes a tire positioning arrangement (20) for positioning the waste tires (26) in the molten reactant metal (19) for a reaction period. After the reaction period, the tire positioning arrangement (20) removes from the molten metal non-reacted solids remaining after the reaction. The non-reacted solids comprise primarily stainless-steel included in the waste tires. As the waste tires (26) are reacted in the molten reactant metal (19), a gas recovery arrangement (14) collects process gases released from the molten metal. The gas recovery arrangement (14) recovers primarily carbon, metal salts, hydrogen, and nitrogen.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 17, 1998
    Date of Patent: February 12, 2002
    Assignee: Clean Technologies International Corporation
    Inventor: Anthony S. Wagner
  • Patent number: 5851361
    Abstract: An apparatus and method for the separation and chemical and physical alteration of organic solid material in which the materials are placed in a sealed rotating drum and exposed to hot products of combustion produced by a flame in the drum. The temperature, oxygen content, material flow rate and dwell time within the drum are controlled so that a substantial portion of the organic molecules is cracked and reformed. Many of these cracked molecules revert to a gas or liquid, and the gas, liquid, and remaining solids from the initial material are separately collected and processed further. The inside of the drum is kept clean by recirculating carriers. The drum wall is cooled by exposure to the ambient temperature and selectively insulating the inside of the drum. The flame is produced with a stoichiometric mixture of oxygen and fuel to produce a temperature to avoid combustion of the solid material.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 25, 1996
    Date of Patent: December 22, 1998
    Inventor: Jim S. Hogan
  • Patent number: 5707592
    Abstract: A method and apparatus for the treatment of waste materials including nuclear contaminated materials is disclosed. The method of the invention includes the steps of: grinding the base material until the maximum grain size is 50 millimeters; drying the ground material to a relative humidity content below 30%; distilling the material at a core temperature of C. on a negative pressure from 200 N/m.sup.2 to an over pressure of 300 kN/m.sup.2 in an oxygen free, reducing, indirect heated environment; burning or cooling the vapors arising; treating the remaining solid materials by combustion, mineralization, vitrification, or solidification; and pelletizing or granulating the remaining ash. The apparatus of the invention includes a dry distillation reactor that has a rotary, closed, horizontally arranged cylinder with hollow axes on the ends. The axes are separated from input and output houses by seals. The input house is provided with a loading opening and a gas exit branch.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 29, 1995
    Date of Patent: January 13, 1998
    Inventor: Edward Someus
  • Patent number: 5227026
    Abstract: A heat exchanger including one or more rotating drums with a freely rotating helix inside the drum to move material to be heated or cooled longitudinally through the drum, as well as to help clean the surface of the drum, together with carriers to assist in heat transfer and cleaning of the drum surface, and scoops to recycle the carriers through an inner coaxial drum. The drum has a sealed inlet and outlet disposed so that the seals are not exposed to excessive temperatures. Cooling chambers are coaxially mounted on each end of the rotating drums for cooling and condensing vapors and cooling solid particles treated in the drum. An inner drum conveys the carriers back to the starting point by means of a freely rotating helix.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 12, 1991
    Date of Patent: July 13, 1993
    Inventor: Jim S. Hogan
  • Patent number: 5082534
    Abstract: A rotary, continuous pyrolytic conversion system converts solid hydrocarbon containing feedstocks into gases, liquid hydrocarbons and char. A converter drum is contained within an outer drum which is in substantially air-tight relationship with an injector for introducing the feedstock in the form of bales and with a discharge chute for the solid products of pyrolysis. A casing around the outer stationary drum defines an oven chamber which is heated by combustion products. A rod extends into the injection end of the converter drum for supporting scrapers against the inner periphery of the converter drum. A crusher bar is carried in the drum at the discharge end thereof and crushes the solid products. A second pyrolysis reactor may receive the solid pyrolysis products and be operative at higher temperature than the first converter to destroy chlorinated hydrocarbons.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 14, 1990
    Date of Patent: January 21, 1992
    Assignee: Wayne Technology, Inc.
    Inventor: Fred A. Breu
  • Patent number: 4881947
    Abstract: A high efficiency gasifier employs a rotary kiln having an indirect fired gasifier and a recycle system. The rotary kiln provides an essentially oxygen-free gasifying chamber into which raw feed material is introduced. Radiant tubes within the chamber transfer heat to the incoming raw feed material to pyrolyze it and convert it to char and product gas as the material advances toward the outlet end. The recycle system within the chamber returns both product gas and hot char to a receiving end of the kiln to aid in heat transfer to the raw feed material. The feed is thus heated more rapidly, and less heat input is required. Efficiency is further aided by providing additional residence time and gasification of the char.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 28, 1988
    Date of Patent: November 21, 1989
    Inventors: Thomas H. Parker, Virgil J. Flanigan
  • Patent number: 4808286
    Abstract: An apparatus for inducing and accelerating hydrogen dissociation in a cloud generated from feedstock fed into a chamber defined by the apparatus is provided. The apparatus includes a device for thermally stimulating the feedstock to generate the cloud, a device for localizing the cloud within the chamber, a device for electrically stimulating the localized cloud, and a device for photonically stimulating the localized cloud. A method is also provided.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 23, 1987
    Date of Patent: February 28, 1989
    Inventor: J. F. Angelo, II
  • Patent number: 4790910
    Abstract: An apparatus and method for extracting hydrocarbons from tar sands. Stationary heater plates have a central opening therethrough through which a horizontal axle extends. Rotors having a central hub and a number of arms are splined on the axle, one closely sandwiched between every two heater plates. A ring is provided between the heater plates closely outward of the rotor arms. Sand retaining pockets are defined between adjacent arms of each rotor, the rotor hub, the ring and adjacent heater plates. Sand is retained in the sand retaining pockets for about one revolution about the axis between feed and removal positions. While retained in the pockets, the sand is heated and hydrocarbons driven off are collected.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 9, 1987
    Date of Patent: December 13, 1988
    Inventor: Jaroslav J. Havlik
  • Patent number: 4690732
    Abstract: A shale oil retorting system and novel continuous feed means for retorting oil shale within a retort housing employs a tilted circular conveyor within the housing which allows for continuous feeding of crushed oil shale within the conveyor for subsequent immersion in a hot process oil bath and unloading from the housing. The retort housing is constructed of side body members arranged to provide primary refluxing action of flammable process oil vapors evolved during retorting to prevent explosion. Safety is further augmented by providing an overhead vapor outlet and a sufficient level of process oil in the bath to produce a slight overpressure in the free board region conducive to quickly exhausting shale oil vapor from the housing into an overhead condensing unit. The spent shale particles discharged from the housing are immediately quenched to recover process oil coating the particles and minimize generation of flammable vapors from the hot particles.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 20, 1986
    Date of Patent: September 1, 1987
    Assignee: Combs Enterprises, Inc.
    Inventors: Wayne H. Everman, Joseph H. Gilbert
  • Patent number: 4563246
    Abstract: A method and apparatus is disclosed for retorting particulate solid materials, particularly hydrocarbon-containing materials such as oil shale, oil sands, tar sands, coal shale, coal tailings, and the like, for the recovery of a volatile constituent such as oil or gas. A rotary retorting apparatus is employed which consists of a cylindrical drum, or other similar regularly shaped chamber, with a substantially horizontal axis of rotation and having multiple compartments for retorting and combustion and, optionally, spent solids cooling. The apparatus further includes solids transport chutes for forward and backward circulation of solids, arranged for the intercompartmental transfer of solids with the capability of additions at one or more points in each compartment. Employing the method and apparatus, particulate solids feedstock is heated by recycled spent solids material to remove the volatile constituent of the feedstock in the retort section.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 9, 1984
    Date of Patent: January 7, 1986
    Assignee: PEDCo, Inc.
    Inventors: Leland M. Reed, William A. Reed, Walter C. Saeman
  • Patent number: 4495032
    Abstract: A shale oil retort apparatus is provided for retorting oil shale under airtight conditions. The retort apparatus employs a split hub wheel device which allows for the axial feeding of crushed oil shale and the axial dispensing of spent oil shale. The retort apparatus utilizes a rotatable shaft on a stationary axle, said shaft containing three spokes that are set approximately equidistant apart. The spokes serve to feed raw oil shale, dip it into a hot oil bath and dispense spent oil shale out of the apparatus.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 17, 1983
    Date of Patent: January 22, 1985
    Inventor: Carl G. Everman
  • Patent number: 4439209
    Abstract: An apparatus is disclosed for the continuous non-oxidative thermal decomposition of heat-dissociable organic matter to a solid carbon residue, particularly activated carbon, and a mixture of gaseous products, without substantial coking or tar formation. The apparatus involve a cylindrical rotating drum in a substantially horizontal position, into which feed material is introduced at one end and products recovered at the other end. An axial temperature gradient, increasing in the direction of flow, is maintained within the drum, enabling the exercise of a high degree of control over the reaction to fully convert the feed into the desired products.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 25, 1982
    Date of Patent: March 27, 1984
    Inventors: Carl M. Wilwerding, Robert S. Williams
  • Patent number: 4374704
    Abstract: A process and apparatus for the pyrolysis of coal or other hydrocarbon bearing materials in which the material is fed into the upper end of a rotating cylinder and is heated in a plurality of stages, the heated material passing from the cylinder into a char pit, and treating the resulting materials to separate them into fuels having different characteristics.One feature of the invention is the addition of CaO or NaHCO.sub.3 to the charged materials and addition of H.sub.2 O in the char pit to facilitate removal of sulfur.Another feature is the scraping and brushing of the inside surfaces of the rotary cylinder to clean the interior of the cylinder during the conduct of the process.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 4, 1980
    Date of Patent: February 22, 1983
    Inventor: William P. Young
  • Patent number: 4363638
    Abstract: The present disclosure is directed to a biomass gas producer having a tiltable gassifier in which the gassifier for performing endothermic chemical reactions of solid material having combustible gas forming and liquifiable constituants has a top charging end and an ash discharge end. A platform support means is provided for the gassifier. An adjustable support means is carried by the platform for supporting the gassifier for tilting from a substantially vertical endothermic reaction or firing mode to a low height inclined charging mode for introducing the material to be fired. A tilt means is connected to the adjustable support means to incrementally tilt the major axis of the gassifier between a firing mode position and a loading and waste discharge mode position. The gassifier also has means for directing the burnable gas produced therein to operate a prime mover for example a boiler, internal combustion equipment or turbine to drive power take off shafts to perform useful mechanical tasks.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 22, 1981
    Date of Patent: December 14, 1982
    Inventor: Eliseo O. Mariani
  • Patent number: 4344821
    Abstract: A process for carbonizing and then activating carbonaceous materials in a continuous process as performed by an apparatus consisting of an elongated, slightly inclined rotary retort into the higher end of which the material is deposited and from the lower end of which the product is removed, the material moving therethrough in the form of a tumbling bed, a system for introducing air in independently regulatable amounts into each of a series of longitudinally spaced zones of the retort, except a final zone closest to its lower end, in such a manner that contact of the air with the material bed is delayed for a substantial time after the air enters the retort, and a system for introducing superheated steam into the final retort zone as an oxidizing agent in such a manner as to immediately engage and thoroughly intermix with the material bed. Provision is also made for introducing air, rather than steam, into the final retort zone, in the event carbonization, but not activation, may be desired.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 5, 1980
    Date of Patent: August 17, 1982
    Inventor: James F. Angelo, II
  • Patent number: 4285773
    Abstract: In the apparatus, concentric, radially spaced tubes are secured to each other and rotated about a common horizontal long axis. Selectively placed and configured lift elements repeatedly lift and drop feed material in the two tubes. Advance elements cause the feed material introduced into the feed end of the structure to advance through the inner tube where it is progressively heated, dehydrated and its hydrocarbon content is largely vaporized. The hydrocarbon vapors are removed from the opposite product end of the structure. The remaining solid material falls from the end of the inner tube into a combustion zone in the outer tube. Oxygen supplying means are provided for causing the carbon coatings on the particles in the combustion zone to burn to produce heat employed in the processing of the feed material. The solid particles in the outer tube are moved back toward the feed end by advancing elements.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 25, 1979
    Date of Patent: August 25, 1981
    Assignee: Alberta Oil Sands Technology and Research Authority
    Inventor: William Taciuk
  • Patent number: 4142867
    Abstract: An apparatus for the production of combustible gas from waste materials and other combustible materials, in which the charge is dried, its combustible parts are subjected to low-temperature carbonization and the low-temperature carbonization gases are converted to combustible gas in a hot reaction bed. The charge is subjected to low-temperature carbonization at a temperature of from to C. with the exclusion of air, the resulting solid low-temperature carbonization residues are separated and the low-temperature carbonization gases are continuously drawn through a reaction bed at a temperature of from to C. formed from a solid carbon vehicle and a preheated fresh-air supply, and are converted to high-energy combustible gas in said reaction bed.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 27, 1976
    Date of Patent: March 6, 1979
    Inventor: Karl Kiener
  • Patent number: 4087334
    Abstract: A first cylindrical drum member having an inlet portion for receiving materials to be treated, such as preheated coal and char includes a longitudinal axis and an outlet portion through which the treated materials are discharged into the inlet end portion of a second cylindrical drum member. The second drum member is independently supported for rotation relative to the first drum member and has a longitudinal axis coplanarly aligned with the longitudinal axis of the first drum member such that the drum members are concentrically positioned in tandem relative. A sealing assembly is connected to the first and second drum members for longitudinal movement with the drum members during expansion and contraction of the drum members as they are subjected to different temperatures.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 4, 1976
    Date of Patent: May 2, 1978
    Assignee: Dravo Corporation
    Inventors: Richard Francis Harig, Arthur Jacob Pietrusza, Albert Harry Riebel, Jr., Harry James Kent
  • Patent number: 4083752
    Abstract: The ends of refractory-lined rotary kilns are often subjected to such intense heat flux that the steel shell of the kiln at either or both ends is subjected to substantial thermal expansion in both the longitudinal and circumferential directions, resulting in premature cracking and failure of the refractory. The present apparatus is a rotary kiln wherein either or both ends of the steel shell thereof are provided with a plurality of substantially longitudinal slots which accommodate circumferential expansion and the refractory is affixed to the steel shell at such end(s) with sliding anchors to accommodate longitudinal expansion.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 10, 1976
    Date of Patent: April 11, 1978
    Assignee: Monsanto Company
    Inventors: Edward T. Bielski, Timothy J. Fowler
  • Patent number: 4062304
    Abstract: Apparatus for the pyrolysis of waste products such as polymeric and/or inorganic waste products comprising a reactor vessel and in which fluid or paste-like waste materials may be pyrolised by tilting the reactor vessel upwardly from its entrance end to its delivery end. Paddle blades are provided for driving the waste products therethrough which are mounted so that their angle of attack is variable.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 21, 1976
    Date of Patent: December 13, 1977
    Assignee: Helma Lampl
    Inventors: Oskar Herbold, Dieter Dittloff
  • Patent number: 4058205
    Abstract: A process and apparatus for decomposing kerogen and recovering oil, high BTU gas and energy for the process wherein a crushed oil shale is fed to a rotary preheater ( to F.) hence into a rotary retort ( F.) where the kerogen is decomposed and the oil evaporated, removed and condensed. From the retort the crushed shale goes to a hopper where any residual oil is stripped out by super heated steam leaving a char on the crushed shale. The stripped shale is fed into a furnace wherein the char is burned to provide heat for the process. To supplement the char and provide enough BTU's for the process, it is necessary to add a small amount of coal to the feed to the process. The hot gases from the furnace first pass into contact with the rotary retort and hence indirectly heat the oil shale in the retort. The hot furnace gases (or a portion thereof) then pass into direct contact with the crushd oil shale feed in the preheater.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 17, 1975
    Date of Patent: November 15, 1977
    Inventor: Thomas G. Reed, Jr.
  • Patent number: 4050897
    Abstract: An apparatus that comprises (a) a fluid-tightly closeable materials-treating or reaction chamber with at least its body portion substantially completely enclosed by a temperature-control fluid chamber provided by its being surrounded by a temperature-control fluid jacket, (b) means to rotate the jacketed chamber end over end about an axis substantially normally transverse to its central axis, (c) divider-baffling means dividing its temperature-control fluid chamber into a plurality of, such as four, substantially similar and independent control-fluid compartments or quadrants, (d) temperature-control fluid ingress means which enable feeding temperature-control fluid into such quadrant while the reactor is rotating, (e) means in each compartment or quadrant to affect the flow of fluids through it to provide substantially uniform overall heat transfer from each of them; and (f) fluid egress means to enable discharging heat-control fluid from these compartments during the rotation.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 27, 1976
    Date of Patent: September 27, 1977
    Assignee: Normac, Inc.
    Inventor: Max Klein
  • Patent number: 4038153
    Abstract: Pulverulent coke and granular reactive coke are produced, respectively, from fines and grains of coal of grades which are not normally usable for coking, containing more than 15% of volatile matter and having a swelling index between 1 and 8, by carbonization between C and C, wherein combustion air in excess of that which would be necessary to bring the coke to the desired coking temperature is introduced into a slightly inclined rotary tubular oven through which the coal passes during its conversion into coke, the air introduction being effected between the coke outlet and the zone in which the product reaches its maximum temperature and being controlled so that the temperature of the gases issuing from the oven is kept above C. At least 60% of the air is preferably introduced at the downstream end of the oven, and further air may be introduced at intermediate points along the oven length.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 18, 1975
    Date of Patent: July 26, 1977
    Assignee: Houilleres du Bassin de Lorraine
    Inventors: Jean Deruelle, Olivier Penet