Moisture Absorbing Electrolyte Patents (Class 204/430)
  • Patent number: 9975646
    Abstract: A transparency, e.g. an aircraft laminated windshield, includes one or more moisture sensors to monitor moisture penetration to monitor performance of the moisture barrier. At least one of the moisture sensors includes an electrolyte between and in ionic contact with two electrically conductive electrodes. Measuring the potential between the first and second electrode and/or the current through the electrodes to determine the amount of moisture within the laminated windshield in the area of the moisture sensor. With the information provided by the moisture sensors performance of the windshield is available to schedule timely repair or replacement of the windshield that is performing outside of acceptable limits.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 30, 2016
    Date of Patent: May 22, 2018
    Assignee: PPG Industries Ohio, Inc.
    Inventors: Yu Jiao, Jeremy D. Acord, Nicolas B. Duarte
  • Patent number: 9910003
    Abstract: A system for detecting the presence of a liquid. The system includes a sensor, a cap, and a reader. The sensor includes at least three conductors, a substrate, and a cover. The conductors are positioned between the substrate and the cover. The cover includes a first portion at a first position and a second portion at a second position. The first portion and the second portion are adapted for separation from proximate portions of the cover and from the substrate to expose the conductors. The cap and the reader are adapted for positioning against the substrate at the first position and the second position respectively after separation of the first portion or the second portion. Positioning the cap against the against the substrate electrically couples two of the at least three conductors to each other. Positioning the reader against the substrate electrically couples the reader to the conductors to detect the presence of the liquid.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 16, 2015
    Date of Patent: March 6, 2018
    Assignee: Helvetia Wireless, LLC
    Inventors: Roc Lastinger, Brian C. Woodbury
  • Patent number: 9768888
    Abstract: A passive and wireless sensor is provided for sensing at least one of magnetic field, temperature or humidity. The sensor can provide only one of the sensing functions, individually or any combination of them simultaneously. It can be used for various applications where magnetic field changes, temperature and/or humidity need to be measured. In one or more embodiments, a surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensor is provided that can measure one or more of a magnetic field (or current that generates the magnetic field), temperature and humidity. In one or more embodiments, a magnetoimpedence (MI) sensor (for example a thin film giant magnetoimpedance (GMI) sensor), a thermally sensitive (for example a Lithium Niobite (LiNbO3)) substrate, and a humidity sensitive film (for example a hydrogel film) can be used as sensing elements.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 30, 2014
    Date of Patent: September 19, 2017
    Assignee: KING ABDULLAH UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
    Inventors: Bodong Li, Jürgen Kosel
  • Patent number: 8888987
    Abstract: Techniques are generally described for a gas sensor testing device. In some examples, the gas sensor testing device comprises a chamber including a wall having an inside surface and an outside surface, the inside surface defining a gas channel, the wall including at least one water molecule. In some examples, the gas sensor testing device includes a first electrode wire coupled to the outside surface of the wall. In some examples, the gas sensor testing device includes a second electrode wire coupled to the inside surface of the wall. In some examples, the wires are operable to generate a current through the wall when a voltage is applied across the wires. In some examples, the current is effective to electrolyze the at least one water molecule to generate a gas.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 9, 2010
    Date of Patent: November 18, 2014
    Assignee: Empire Technology Development LLC
    Inventor: Nathan C Schattke
  • Patent number: 8771489
    Abstract: A gas sensor in one form comprises a housing including a base and a top defining an interior space. The housing includes a gas entry hole and first and second electrical terminals. First and second electrodes in the housing interior space each comprise a membrane having a layer of platinum black catalyst on one side. The second electrode includes a lower amount of platinum black catalyst than the first electrode. A separator is placed between the first and second electrodes. Current collectors electrically connect the first and second electrodes to the respective first and second electrical terminals whereby sensor current represents concentration of gas while minimizing cross sensitivity.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 3, 2012
    Date of Patent: July 8, 2014
    Assignee: Honeywell International Inc.
    Inventors: Lei Xiao, Terence Nicholas Moran
  • Patent number: 8741120
    Abstract: Devices and methods are disclosed that can adjust a hydration level in an electrochemical sensor or an instrument which includes such a sensor. The device can include a chamber which can, at least in part, surround an inflow port of the sensor. An adjacent reservoir of water can provide a source of water vapor which can be infused into the sensor.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 15, 2007
    Date of Patent: June 3, 2014
    Assignee: Life Safety Distribution AG
    Inventors: John Chapples, Martin Willett
  • Patent number: 8545685
    Abstract: Provided is a cleaning process of producing lactic acid. Firstly saccharification liquid is prepared through saccharated materials, then fermented with nutritive materials and lactic acid bacteria, and liquid alkali is used to adjust the pH. The fermentation broth is filtrated with porous membrane, and the lactic acid bacteria in the interception liquid are then reintroduced into the porous membrane for recycling. The permeate from porous membrane is subjected to nanofiltration to be decolored and purified. The concentrated solution from nanofiltration and the cleaning liquid from fermentation tank and its affiliated equipment are filtrated and sterilized by using ceramic membrane, and then are reintroduced into the fermentation unit for recycling. The permeate from nanofiltration is then subjected to bipolar electrodialysis system to prepare lactic acid, and the liquid alkali produced at the same time is reintroduced into the fermentation tank for recycling.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 20, 2009
    Date of Patent: October 1, 2013
    Assignee: Nanjing University of Technology
    Inventors: Nanping Xu, Weixing Li, Weihong Xing, Yiqun Fan
  • Patent number: 8512536
    Abstract: A NOx sensor includes a sensor element equipped with first and second pumping cells to define first and second measurement chambers. The first pumping cell exerts an oxygen pumping action against the first measurement chamber to adjust the oxygen concentration in the gas under measurement within the first measurement chamber to a given level. The second pumping cell exerts an oxygen pumping action against the second measurement chamber to produce a pumping cell current according to the NOx concentration in the gas under measurement. When the moisture content of the gas under measurement changes from 2 vol % to 8 vol %, the NOx sensor allows a variation of NOx concentration detection value based on the pumping cell current in such a manner that the NOx concentration detection value reaches a transient peak value of 20 ppm or smaller and converges to ±5 ppm of a reference value within 5 seconds.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 23, 2009
    Date of Patent: August 20, 2013
    Assignee: NGK Spark Plug Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Kenji Kato, Hisashi Sasaki, Koji Shiotani
  • Publication number: 20120218673
    Abstract: Provided is a moisture detection device including: a moisture detection label that has at least a pair of detection terminals and a pattern, the detection terminals being provided on abase material with an insulated front surface, the pattern being provided on the surface of the base material and formed between the detection terminals with water-dispersible and conductive paint; and detection circuit which detects an electrical connection state between the detection terminals.
    Type: Application
    Filed: April 10, 2012
    Publication date: August 30, 2012
    Applicant: NEC CORPORATION
    Inventor: Shinji OGURI
  • Patent number: 8236164
    Abstract: A moisture sensor, for measuring moisture in a building without leaving visible scars to the building surface, is provided. The moisture sensor includes a flexible carrier carrying an antenna for receiving EM-radiation between 9 kHz and 11 MHz and a resonant circuit including a moisture reactive element. The moisture reactive element includes a hygroscopic electrolyte arranged between a first and a second electrode, wherein the electrolyte in the presence of moisture forms mobile ions and provides a complex impedance at least in response to the alternating voltage, which complex impedance varies with the moisture content of the electrolyte.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 8, 2010
    Date of Patent: August 7, 2012
    Assignee: Acreo AB
    Inventors: Göran Gustafsson, Xavier Crispin, Magnus Berggren, Oscar Larsson, Xiaodong Wang
  • Patent number: 8168053
    Abstract: A gas sensing member has a unit structure and a porous protective layer disposed on the unit structure. The unit structure has a solid electrolyte body, a gas measurement electrode disposed on a surface of the body and exposed to a measured gas entering at a gas inlet, a reference gas electrode disposed on another surface of the body and exposed to a reference gas, and a heater disposed close to the body. The heater has a heater substrate and heating elements disposed in the heater substrate. The heating elements heat the body. The heater substrate has side corner areas placed on side corners of the unit structure and being adjacent to the heating elements. The protective layer is disposed on the gas inlet such that the side corner areas are not covered with the protective layer and are directly exposed to the measured gas.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 12, 2007
    Date of Patent: May 1, 2012
    Assignee: Denso Corporation
    Inventors: Kiyomi Kobayashi, Makoto Nakae, Toshikazu Hirose
  • Publication number: 20120018303
    Abstract: An electrochemical sensor having at least two electrodes, and a reservoir chamber containing electrolyte. The reservoir chamber is internally coated with a wicking material to spread the electrolyte evenly over the walls of the reservoir.
    Type: Application
    Filed: July 26, 2010
    Publication date: January 26, 2012
    Applicant: INDUSTRIAL SCIENTIFIC CORPORATION
    Inventors: Mark William BORDO, Wenfeng PENG
  • Patent number: 7967965
    Abstract: The present invention provides a unique solution to the problems of both steady-state and transient signals produced by a variety of interfering stimuli, including humidity, which relies upon the inclusion in a gas sensing electrode in an electrochemical gas sensor of a catalyst material in addition to a first catalyst material reactive to the target gas, the additional, or second, catalyst material producing a response to an interfering stimulus which is of the opposite polarity to that generated by the first catalyst material.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 11, 2007
    Date of Patent: June 28, 2011
    Assignee: Honeywell International Inc.
    Inventor: Martin Jones
  • Patent number: 7704374
    Abstract: An electrochemical gas sensor is provided with a carbon-based measuring electrode (3) that it can be used for a large number of electrochemical detection reactions and can be manufactured at a low cost. The measuring electrode (3) contains carbon nanotubes.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 19, 2006
    Date of Patent: April 27, 2010
    Assignee: Drägerwerk Aktiengesellschaft
    Inventors: Sabrina Sommer, Herbert Kiesele, Frank Mett
  • Patent number: 7569128
    Abstract: A sensor for detecting water vapor in a gaseous sample. The sensor comprises (a) an anode, (b) a cathode, (c) an electrolyte intermediate the anode and cathode, and (d) an inlet orifice through a central area of the anode or cathode through which the gaseous sample may be placed into contact with the electrolyte. The electrolyte can be retained on a porous electrical-insulating separator located between the interior-facing major surfaces of the anode and the cathode.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 14, 2004
    Date of Patent: August 4, 2009
    Assignee: Mocon, Inc.
    Inventors: Daniel W. Mayer, Stephen D. Tuomela
  • Patent number: 7534333
    Abstract: An electrochemical gas sensor which comprises an electrode assembly, including a catalytic sensing electrode and a counter electrode, mounted inside a housing provided with at least one gas entrance, a reservoir for containing electrolyte in use, a compressible wick for supplying the electrode assembly with electrolyte and a wick compression component. A first end of the wick extends into the reservoir and a second end of the wick contacts the electrode assembly. The wick compression component compresses the wick in a direction substantially radial to an axis joining its first and second ends.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 26, 2005
    Date of Patent: May 19, 2009
    Assignee: City Technology Limited
    Inventors: Peyman Khalafpour, Stuart Christopher Cutler
  • Patent number: 7413687
    Abstract: A device for conducting protons at a temperature below 550° C. includes a LAMOX ceramic body characterized by an alpha crystalline structure.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 24, 2005
    Date of Patent: August 19, 2008
    Assignee: UT - Battelle, LLC
    Inventors: Timothy R. Armstrong, Edward A. Payzant, Scott A. Speakman, Martha Greenblatt
  • Patent number: 7381314
    Abstract: An aqueous solution of a Na salt of a phenol sulfonic acid polymer as a liquid electrolyte is held in a separator of a liquid electrochemical gas sensor. A sensing electrode and a counter electrode are connected to the separator to detect CO at a range from about ?40° C. to about 70° C.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 30, 2005
    Date of Patent: June 3, 2008
    Assignee: Figaro Engineering Inc.
    Inventors: Tomohiro Inoue, Yuki Fujimori
  • Patent number: 7378008
    Abstract: Water is stored in a metal can, and water vapor is supplied to a separator through an opening in a washer. The separator is an alkali metal salt in a sulfonated synthetic resin membrane, and KOH aqueous solution is used as the electrolyte, and the sensing electrode and the counter electrode are Pt—C, and solid proton conductive membranes are placed between the electrodes and the separator.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 3, 2005
    Date of Patent: May 27, 2008
    Assignee: Figaro Engineering Inc.
    Inventors: Tomohiro Inoue, Yuki Fujimori
  • Patent number: 7159447
    Abstract: A gas sensor equipped with a protective gas cover which defines therein a gas chamber to which a sensor element is exposed. The protective gas cover has gas inlet holes through which gas to be measured is admitted. The protective cover also has dimples formed adjacent the gas inlet holes, respectively, which are designed to avoid a direct hit of a flow of the gas on the sensor element and minimize the concentration of thermal stress around the gas inlet holes. In an alternative form, the gas inlet holes are formed in the dimples, respectively.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 11, 2005
    Date of Patent: January 9, 2007
    Assignee: Denso Corporation
    Inventor: Kazuya Nakagawa
  • Patent number: 7060652
    Abstract: A liquid electrode mixture for use in a gas sensor having from about 60 to about 240 milligrams of platinum black catalyst; from about 900 to about 1100 milligrams of water; from about 300 to about 400 microliters of 1-propanol; and from about 100 microliters to about 150 microliters of a polymer mixture comprising from about 40% to about 80% PTFE by weight and water.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 15, 2005
    Date of Patent: June 13, 2006
    Assignees: OmegaPoint Systems, LLC, Transducer Technology, Inc.
    Inventors: Edward L. Gollar, III, Joseph R. Stetter, Nathan Schattke
  • Patent number: 6953620
    Abstract: A coating system and a method for its manufacture are provided. An electrically conductive base coat and a porous overcoat lying over the base coat are arranged on a ceramic substrate. At least one additional deposited layer is arranged on the base coat in such a way that the additional layer is formed in the pores of the porous overcoat adjacent to the base coat. The additional layer is deposited either by currentless or electrolytic deposition. For electrolytic deposition of the additional layer, the ceramic substrate sintered with the base coat and the overcoat is submerged in an electrolytic bath and the base coat is connected as a cathode. The currentless deposition takes place from a solution of the metal to be deposited with the addition of a reducing agent.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 18, 2001
    Date of Patent: October 11, 2005
    Assignee: Robert Bosch GmbH
    Inventors: Jens Stefan Schneider, Frank Stanglmeier, Bernd Schumann
  • Patent number: 6592744
    Abstract: The invention relates to an amperometric electrochemical cell having a first insulating substrate carrying a first electrode, a second insulting substrate carrying a second electrode, said electrodes being disposed to face each other and spaced apart by less than 500 &mgr;m, and defining a sample reservoir therebetween, and wherein at least one, and preferably both, insulating substrates and the electrode carried thereon include an electromagnetic radiation transmissive portion in registration with said reservoir. The walls of the electrochemical cell may be formed from a thin metallic portion on a transparent substrate. Such cells are useful in providing visual confirmation of the validity of the electrochemical measurement.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 10, 2000
    Date of Patent: July 15, 2003
    Assignee: LifeScan, Inc.
    Inventors: Alastair M Hodges, Thomas W. Beck, Ian A. Maxwell
  • Patent number: 6218687
    Abstract: A microsensor for identifying a change in a characteristic of an environment having temperatures of up to approximately five hundred degrees Centigrade includes a substantially flat insulator layer made of silicon oxide. A base layer made of silicon is integrally attached to one side of the insulator layer and a support layer is integrally attached to the other side of the insulator layer. Together the base layer and the support layer stabilize the support layer which is only about one thousand angstroms thick. A sensor element is mounted on the exposed surface of the support layer, and opposite the insulator layer, to generate a signal in response to the change in the environmental characteristic. Additionally, there is an electronic element which is processed into the support layer. This electronic element is electrically connected directly with the sensor element to process the signal and indicate an appropriate response.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 21, 1998
    Date of Patent: April 17, 2001
    Assignee: General Atomics
    Inventor: John Paul Ziegler
  • Patent number: 5871633
    Abstract: A humidity sensing device comprising a solid electrolyte evidencing proton conductivity includes HZr.sub.2 P.sub.3 O.sub.12 or a composite comprising HZr.sub.2 P.sub.3 O.sub.12 /ZrP.sub.2 O.sub.7. The humidity sensing device is operative over a temperature range from 25.degree. C.-600.degree. C. The humidity sensor is operated by an impedance-type cell.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 30, 1997
    Date of Patent: February 16, 1999
    Assignee: Rutgers, The State University
    Inventors: Martha Greenblatt, Shouhua Feng, Kandalam Ramanujachary, Pavel Shuk
  • Patent number: 5672258
    Abstract: A humidity sensing device comprising a solid electrolyte evidencing proton conductivity includes HZr.sub.2 P.sub.3 O.sub.12 or a composite comprising HZr.sub.2 P.sub.3 O.sub.12 /ZrP.sub.2 O.sub.7. The humidity sensing device is operative over a temperature range from 350.degree.-600.degree. C. The humidity sensor is operated by an impedance-type cell.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 27, 1995
    Date of Patent: September 30, 1997
    Assignee: Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey
    Inventors: Martha Greenblatt, Shouhaa Feng, Kandalam Ramanujachary, Pavel Shuk
  • Patent number: 5632874
    Abstract: Ion selective ceramic membrane with high proton conductivity, which membrane is formed of lanthanide phosphate being doped with one or more metals Me from Group IIA of the Periodic Table and having a composition:Ln.sub.1-x Me.sub.x PO.sub.4whereinLn is lanthanum, cerium, praseodymium, neodymium, samarium, europium and/or gadolinium; and0<x.ltoreq.0.5.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 9, 1995
    Date of Patent: May 27, 1997
    Assignee: Haldor Topsoe A/S
    Inventor: Niels Christiansen
  • Patent number: 5589085
    Abstract: A new design for and an improved process of manufacturing a detecting unit for a type I electrolytic cell with thin film electrodes. In the first step of the process, a long, narrow, transparent, hollow glass tube is provided having an inside surface, an outside surface, and an end with a rim. A thin, noble metal film is deposited on the inside surface of the hollow glass tube. Then, a beam from a light source is directed through the hollow glass tube to remove a first portion of the noble metal film from the inside surface of the hollow glass tube and create a first spacer area. The beam also removes a second portion of the noble metal film from the inside surface of the hollow glass tube and creates a second spacer area. Consequently, two, separate electrode wires are created. Finally, an hygroscopic film is deposited on the entire inside surface of the hollow glass tube, covering completely the first and second electrode wires and the spacer areas.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 4, 1995
    Date of Patent: December 31, 1996
    Assignee: Meeco, Incorporated
    Inventor: Jacob Mettes
  • Patent number: 5538620
    Abstract: The invention concerns a novel electrochemical sensor with which to measure gas concentrations and comprising a measuring electrode and an associated electrode containing a carbonaceous material with a specific surface of at least 40 m.sup.2 /g and with electrochemically active surface compounds which can be reversibly oxidized/reduced.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 12, 1994
    Date of Patent: July 23, 1996
    Assignee: MST Micro-Sensor Technologie, GmbH
    Inventor: Elena Nikolskaja
  • Patent number: 5522978
    Abstract: This invention relates to sodium-selective agents which are monensin amide derivatives and sodium-selective electrodes having sodium-selective membranes containing such monensin amide derivatives. This invention further relates to multisensor flow assemblies incorporating such a monensin amide derivative in a sodium-selective electrode.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 6, 1994
    Date of Patent: June 4, 1996
    Assignee: E. I. Du Pont de Nemours and Company
    Inventors: Salvatore J. Pace, Chengrong Wang
  • Patent number: 5522980
    Abstract: A gas sensor comprises a substrate on which are mounted three cells. Each cell includes an interdigitated capacitor defined by a pair of comb structure, electrically conductive tracks with the fingers of the combs interleaved. The tracks of each capacitor are covered by an insulating and chemically inert protective coating of an electrolyte. A monitor monitors one of a resistive component and a capacitive component of the relative dielectric constant of the electrolyte independently of the other component.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 10, 1995
    Date of Patent: June 4, 1996
    Assignee: Pima Sensors, Inc.
    Inventors: Bryan S. Hobbs, John R. Finbow, Leonard S. Raymond, David A. Rohrbacker
  • Patent number: 5466575
    Abstract: An efficient method for the microfabrication of electronic devices which have been adapted for the analyses of biologically significant analyte species is described. The techniques of the present invention allow for close control over the dimensional features of the various components and layers established on a suitable substrate. Such control extends to those parts of the devices which incorporate the biological components which enable these devices to function as biological sensors. The materials and methods disclosed herein thus provide an effective means for the mass production of uniform wholly microfabricated biosensors. Various embodiments of the devices themselves are described herein which are especially suited for real time analyses of biological samples in a clinical setting. In particular, the present invention describes assays which can be performed using certain ligand/ligand receptor-based biosensor embodiments.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 10, 1992
    Date of Patent: November 14, 1995
    Assignee: i-Stat Corporation
    Inventors: Stephen N. Cozzette, Graham Davis, Imants R. Lauks, Randall M. Mier, Sylvia Piznik, Nicolaas Smit, Paul Van Der Werf, Henry J. Wieck
  • Patent number: 5393404
    Abstract: A humidity sensing device comprising a solid electrolyte evidencing proton conductivity includes a composite comprising HZr.sub.2 P.sub.3 O.sub.12 /ZrP.sub.2 O.sub.7. The humidity sensing device is operative over a temperature range from 350.degree.-600.degree. C.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 17, 1993
    Date of Patent: February 28, 1995
    Assignee: Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey
    Inventors: Martha Greenblatt, Shouhua Feng
  • Patent number: 5382908
    Abstract: Cell (19) for measuring moisture content of a material, comprising a sock (13) which is comprised of a plurality of braided threads, each thread consisting of a plurality of fibers comprised of an electrically non-conductive material. The sock is perfused with a moisture absorbing fluid. The sock comprises at least two electrodes (15, 17) in the form of wires comprised of a conducting material. These electrodes are braided as longitudinal threads in the sock (13). The electrodes are spaced from each other and extend essentially parallel to each other, the sock (13) being braided around a cylindrical core (11) comprised of an electrically non-conducting material. The axis of the core is essentially parallel to the electrodes (15, 17) and the threads in the sock (13) are permanently under tension to achieve contact between the threads and the electrodes (15, 17).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 11, 1991
    Date of Patent: January 17, 1995
    Assignee: Bo Gosta Forsstrom
    Inventors: Bo G. Forsstrom, Per E. Wikefeldt, Leif A. Unruh
  • Patent number: 5343735
    Abstract: An apparatus for accurately measuring the water content of a moist gas containing less than 50 parts per million (ppm) of water comprises an isothermal heat-sink (14), a radiator (20), a Peltier heater-cooler (24) thermally arranged between the isothermal heat-sink (14) and the radiator (20). The heater-cooler (24) is transferring heat from the isothermal heat-sink (14) to the radiator (20) and vice versa. A phosphoric acid moisture cell (32) is in thermal contact with the isothermal heat-sink (14). Upon passing the moist gas through the cell (32) the amount of moisture in the moist gas is measured as variation of electrical current throughout the cell.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 27, 1992
    Date of Patent: September 6, 1994
    Assignee: SAES Getter S.p.A.
    Inventors: Marco Succi, Carolina Solcia, Fabrizio Doni, Antonio Coppola
  • Patent number: 5342500
    Abstract: An interfacial component detection apparatus has a plurality of electrodes spaced from one another on a first solid portion and a solid electrolytic layer on the first solid portion adjacent to an interfacial layer and covering the plurality of electrodes. An I/O device applies an electrical signal between the two electrodes and detects electrical signals from the electrodes. Components of the interfacial layer can be accurately and reliably detected by electrolysis and impedance measurements.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 12, 1993
    Date of Patent: August 30, 1994
    Assignee: Mitsubishi Denki Kabushiki Kaisha
    Inventors: Kazuhiko Inanaga, Hitoshi Ota, Shiro Yamauchi, Takashi Kawabata
  • Patent number: 5304295
    Abstract: A high molecular humidity sensor in which polypyrrole being of conductive high molecule is electrochemically polymerized and then reduced whereby ionic conductive property is given go that humidity sensibility becomes excellent. The sensor is a structure in which polypyrrole doped with dodecylsulfate anion DS.sup.- is stuck in film form on the surface of a fine electrode, and cations Na.sup.+, K.sup.+ are permeated to said polypyrrole whereby salt is formed and humidity sensibility is exhibited in the region of 10.sup.4 -10.sup.6 .OMEGA., and humidity sensing speed becomes within several tens of seconds to several minutes.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 31, 1991
    Date of Patent: April 19, 1994
    Assignee: Goldstar Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Chung Y. Kim, Hee-Woo Rhee, Inseok Hwang, Jai K. Kim
  • Patent number: 5225065
    Abstract: Low-level water concentrations are measured in gases by an electrolytic cell in which contaminating epoxy components present in conventional electrolytic cells have been eliminated. A metal-glass connection seal mechanically fixes the glass detection unit within the metal housing of the cell and provides a leak-proof barrier between the entrance and exit of the cell. Electrical insulator assemblies serve as insulators for the cell electrodes and also provide a leak-proof barrier where the electrical connections penetrate the metal housing of the cell.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 3, 1990
    Date of Patent: July 6, 1993
    Assignee: Meeco, Inc.
    Inventor: Jacob Mettes
  • Patent number: 5198094
    Abstract: A counterflow device adapted for an analyzer engaging a gas stream and having a sensor for measuring a component of that stream. Because at least one element disposed between the gas inlet and gas outlet of the sensor typically emits unwanted impurities, the device diverts a portion of the gas stream as a counterflow directed toward the impurity-emitting element or elements. The counterflow enters the outlet without contacting the sensor of the analyzer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 18, 1990
    Date of Patent: March 30, 1993
    Assignee: Meeco, Incorporated
    Inventor: Jacob Mettes
  • Patent number: 5131990
    Abstract: A humidity sensor composed of interdigitated electrodes and a material therebetween which is composed of Nafion wherein H+ cites have undergone ion exchange with at least one of NH4+ and Li+, Na+, Ag+ and Mg+.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 12, 1991
    Date of Patent: July 21, 1992
    Assignee: Texas Instruments Incorporated
    Inventors: Bernard M. Kulwicki, Robert T. McGovern, Thomas C. Conlan
  • Patent number: 5122237
    Abstract: A high molecular humidity sensor and manufacturing method thereof in which polypyrrole being of conductive high molecule is electrochemically polymerized and then reduced whereby ionic conductive property is given go that humidity sensibility becomes excellent.The high molecular humidity sensor of the invention is characterized in that it is a structure in which polypyrrole doped with dodecylsulfate anion DS.sup.- is stuck in film form on the surface of fine electrode, and cations Na.sup.+, K.sup.+ are permeated to said polypyrrole whereby salt is formed, and humidity sensibility is exhibited in region of 10.sup.4 -10.sup.6 .OMEGA., and humidity sensing speed becomes within several tens seconds to several minutes.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 22, 1991
    Date of Patent: June 16, 1992
    Assignee: Korea Institute of Science and Technology
    Inventors: Chung Y. Kim, Hee-Woo Rhee, Inseok Hwang, Jai K. Kim
  • Patent number: 5118261
    Abstract: An air conditioning method and apparatus for electrochemically regulating a humidity and an oxygen-concentration within a case by the use of an ion exchanger polymer electrolyte. Where the humidity and the oxygen-concentration within the case are reduced, a cell comprising an anode, a cathode and an anion exchanger polymer electrolyte sandwiched between both the electrodes is arranged so that a surface of the anode is in contact with an atmospheric air outside the case and a surface of the cathode is in contact with an ambient atmosphere inside the case and DC voltage is applied between both the electrodes. On the other hand, where the humidity and the oxygen-concentration within the case are increased, the cell having the similar construction is arranged so that the surface of the anode is in contact with the ambient atmosphere inside the case and the surface of the cathode is in contact with the atmospheric air outside the case and DC voltage is applied between both the electrodes.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 16, 1990
    Date of Patent: June 2, 1992
    Assignee: Mitsubishi Denki Kabushiki Kaisha
    Inventors: Shiro Yamauchi, Takeaki Hanada
  • Patent number: 5059291
    Abstract: A humidity controller has a humidity controlling element disposed in the opening of a chamber and comprising a hydrogen ion conductor membrane, porous electrodes disposed on two surfaces of the hydrogen ion conductor membrane and collecting electrodes disposed on opposite surfaces of the porous electrodes. Each of the collecting electrodes is disposed over an area than the whole area of each surface of the hydrogen ion conductor membrane such that the current density at a portion of the hydrogen ion conductor membrane where no collecting electrode is located is reduced by at most 1/2, thereby reducing the stress due to the difference between the thermal expansion coefficients of the porous electrodes and the collecting electrodes and limiting disconnection between these two groups of electrodes. The difference between the humidity control performance of this humidity controller and that of an arrangement in which collecting electrodes are disposed over the whole surfaces of the porous electrodes is small.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 14, 1989
    Date of Patent: October 22, 1991
    Assignee: Mitsubishi Denki Kabushiki Kaisha
    Inventors: Shiro Yamauchi, Naotake Rito
  • Patent number: 5045828
    Abstract: A humidity sensor composed of interdigitated electrodes and a material therebetween which is composed of perfluorosulfonic acid substituted poly (tetrafluoroethylene) copolymer wherein H+ sites have undergone ion exchange with at least one of NH4+ and Li+, Na+, Ag+ and Mg+.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 27, 1989
    Date of Patent: September 3, 1991
    Assignee: Texas Instruments Incorporated
    Inventors: Bernard M. Kulwicki, Robert T. McGovern, Thomas C. Conlan
  • Patent number: 4990236
    Abstract: A solid state, thin film moisture sensing element is disclosed. The sensing element is fabricated by thin film deposition of at least a pair of two layer electrodes on an insulating surface. The active surface of the element is then coated with a layer of hygroscopic material and placed in a diffusion limiting housing to complete the sensing element assembly.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 21, 1990
    Date of Patent: February 5, 1991
    Assignee: Rosemount Inc.
    Inventors: Fred C. Sittler, Radhakrishna M. Neti, Adrian C. Toy
  • Patent number: 4954238
    Abstract: A moisture-sensing hygrometric element is provided comprising an electrolytic moisture-sensing mechanism integrally formed on the surface of a porous substrate, the porous substrate being resistant to oxidation and reduction and resistant to acids, wherein the moisture-sensing mechanism comprises a pair of platinum group metal electrodes constituting an anode and a cathode and having a fluororesin-type cation exchange resin membrane layer thereover. The porous substrate may be porous ceramic or a porous fluororesin such as expanded polytetrafluoroethylene. The hygrometric element may have an additional covering layer thereover of porous, expanded polytetrafluoroethylene. Also provided is a method for manufacturing the moisture-sensing hygrometric element.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 23, 1989
    Date of Patent: September 4, 1990
    Inventors: Hiroshi Kato, Eiichi Torikai
  • Patent number: 4915816
    Abstract: The polymer hygrometer with lithium doped Nafion was developed to meet the need for a reliable sensor for determining the relative humidity in harsh environments of pulp and paper mills. The sensor can operate in atmospheres that have organic vapors and dust, is unaffected by sulphur dioxide, acidic vapors and strong oxidizing agents. Exceptional stability is shown by the sensor which has withstood twelve months of continuous operation in a paper mill drier duct at temperatures near 65.degree. C. and air flow velocity of 10 m/s with no degradation or calibration change. Materials used in construction of the sensor such as glass, silver filled epoxy, Teflon, platinum wire, and Nafion contribute to ruggedness and immunity to harsh environments.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 6, 1988
    Date of Patent: April 10, 1990
    Inventors: Parthasarathy Shakkottai, Daniel D. Lawson, Shakkottai P. Venkateshan
  • Patent number: 4906537
    Abstract: The invention provides a new secondary cell with a solid electrolyte layer wherein the solid electrolyte layer comprises a plasma-polymerized layer of an organic compound containing an alkali metal ion and an element with high electronegativity.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 20, 1988
    Date of Patent: March 6, 1990
    Assignee: Minolta Camera Kabushiki Kaisha
    Inventors: Hideo Hotomi, Yumiko Takedomi
  • Patent number: 4861496
    Abstract: An apparatus and method of electro-dewatering sewage sludge and other high water sludges. The sludge is passed through a conveyor means that is electrically charged. The anode has metal bristles or wires that protrude into the sludge mass. Water that migrates to the cathode is removed by conventional means. The dried sludge, which is attached to the bristles, is removed by vacuum means. About 30 percent of the sludge mass can be dewatered per pass.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 13, 1988
    Date of Patent: August 29, 1989
    Assignee: Recycled Energy, Inc.
    Inventor: Manuel Diaz
  • Patent number: 4862066
    Abstract: An oil leakage sensor element is provided wherein a plurality of electrical conductors are contained within and separated from each other by a continuously porous polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) material containing from 15 to 40 weight percent carbon particles, the carbon particles having irregular shapes and average diameter between 10 and 30 millimicrons, at least a portion of the exterior surfaces of the carbon particles being exposed at the pore walls of the PTFE and extending into the pores. The porous PTFE material is preferably obtained by stretching an extruded, unsintered PTFE film containing the carbon particles, after removal of lubricant, to a draw ratio of 1.5 times or less. The sensor element, in use, is connected between electrodes which, in turn, are connected to an alarm device. Preferably, the sensor is connected to elongate conductors (wires) such that the direction of stretch of the material is aligned with the lengthwise direction of the conductors.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 24, 1988
    Date of Patent: August 29, 1989
    Assignee: Junkosha Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Yoshiaki Sato, Tazuru Ishikawa