Utilizing Subatmospheric Or Superatmospheric Pressure During Synthesis Patents (Class 205/338)
  • Patent number: 10676834
    Abstract: A mining method (10) by which graphitic ore is produced in a form that constitutes an appropriate feedstock for an electrolytic process (20) for the production of graphitic materials through exfoliation. The graphitic ore feedstock may be utilised directly as an electrode in the electrolytic process (20). Also disclosed is a graphitic feedstock for an electrolytic process for the production of graphitic material through exfoliation of that feedstock, wherein the feedstock is less than about 99% graphite (w/w) and of a sufficiently cohesive and conductive nature as to allow electrochemical exfoliation therethroughout without fracturing that might result in collapse of a significant portion of the feedstock or that may result in a loss of conductivity throughout a significant portion of the feedstock.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 23, 2016
    Date of Patent: June 9, 2020
    Assignee: TALGA RESOURCES LTD
    Inventor: Mark James Thompson
  • Patent number: 9938627
    Abstract: A gas permeable or breathable electrode and method of manufacture thereof. In one example there is an electrolytic cell having an electrode comprising a porous material, wherein gas produced at the electrode diffuses out of the cell via the porous material. In operation the gas is produced at the at least one electrode without substantial bubble formation. In another example there is an electrode having a porous conducting material with a hydrophobic layer or coating applied to a side of the porous conducting material. A catalyst may be applied to another side. The gas permeable or breathable electrode can be used in an electrolytic cell, electrochemical cell, battery and/or fuel cell. Gas produced at the electrode diffuses out of a cell via at least part of the electrode, separating the gas from the reaction at the electrode.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 11, 2013
    Date of Patent: April 10, 2018
    Assignee: AQUAHYDREX PTY LTD
    Inventors: Bjorn Winther-Jensen, Douglas MacFarlane, Orawan Winther-Jensen
  • Patent number: 9689077
    Abstract: The present invention relates to a process for production of alkali metal chlorate, and to a method of activating a cathode comprising electrolyzing an electrolyte comprising alkali metal chloride in an electrolytic cell in which at least one anode and at least one cathode are arranged wherein a) said electrolyte comprises chromium in any form in an amount ranging from about 0.01-10?6 to about 500-10?6 mol/dm3 b) said electrolyte comprises molybdenum, tungsten, vanadium, manganese and/or mixtures thereof in any form in a total amount ranging from about 0.1-10?6 mol/dm3 to about 0.5-10?3 mol/dm3.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 23, 2010
    Date of Patent: June 27, 2017
    Assignee: Akzo Nobel Chemicals International B.V.
    Inventors: Magnus Rosvall, Kristoffer Hedenstedt, Annicka Sellin, Johan Gustavsson, Ann Cornell
  • Patent number: 9309599
    Abstract: Methods and systems for heterocycle catalyzed carbonylation and hydroformylation with carbon dioxide are disclosed. A method may include, but is not limited to, steps (A) to (D). Step (A) may introduce water to a first compartment of an electrochemical cell. The first compartment may include an anode. Step (B) may introduce carbon dioxide to a second compartment of the electrochemical cell. The second compartment may include a solution of an electrolyte, a heterocyclic catalyst, and a cathode. Step (C) may introduce a second reactant to the second compartment of the electrochemical cell. Step (D) may apply an electrical potential between the anode and the cathode in the electrochemical cell sufficient to induce liquid phase carbonylation or hydroformylation to form a product mixture.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 19, 2013
    Date of Patent: April 12, 2016
    Assignee: Liquid Light, Inc.
    Inventors: Narayanappa Sivasankar, Emily Barton Cole, Kyle Teamey
  • Patent number: 9297086
    Abstract: A hydrogen-producing cell comprising a cell of a high temperature steam electrolyzer or HTSE comprising a porous cathode (404) and a porous anode (402) on either side of a dense and gases-impervious anion conducting electrolyte (403), wherein said cell of the high temperature steam electrolyzer is directly coupled, in series, with a cell of an electrochemical pump comprising a porous anode (406) and a porous cathode (408) on either side of a dense and gases-impervious proton conducting electrolyte (407), at the cathode (404) of the cell of the high temperature steam electrolyzer and at the anode (406) of the electrochemical pump.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 16, 2011
    Date of Patent: March 29, 2016
    Assignee: COMMISSARIAT A L'ENERGIE ATOMIQUE ET AUX ENERGIES ALTERNATIVES
    Inventors: Thibaud Delahaye, Pierre Baurens
  • Patent number: 9056768
    Abstract: A fuel cartridge and a hydrogen generator are provided for supplying hydrogen gas to a hydrogen gas device. The fuel cartridge includes a fuel composition disposed in a container and a multi-layer package material, such as a laminate, enclosing the fuel composition therein. The laminate includes a polymer layer distal the fuel composition and a conductor layer proximate the fuel composition and including a preformed portion. The hydrogen generator includes a punch thermally coupled to a heater assembly and is configured to move between a retracted state and a puncture state. When the fuel cartridge is disposed in the hydrogen generating apparatus, the punch is configured to puncture the polymer layer and bring the coined portion into contact with the fuel composition. Heat is applied to a hydrogen containing material in the fuel composition through the punch and preformed portion to release hydrogen gas.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 16, 2012
    Date of Patent: June 16, 2015
    Assignee: Intelligent Energy Inc.
    Inventor: Richard A. Langan
  • Publication number: 20150060293
    Abstract: In a control method of a differential pressure water electrolysis system, a reference water level of a gas-liquid separator for normal operations is set to discharge a liquid water stored in the gas-liquid separator to a discharge tube. A depressurization reference water level which is a lower water level than the reference water level is set to discharge the liquid water stored in the gas-liquid separator to the discharge tube upon depressurizing. A depressurization valve is opened to reduce pressure at a cathode side after operation of a differential pressure water electrolysis device has been stopped, in a state with voltage applied. A permissible water level upper limit value at which an open/close valve is opened is switched from the reference water level to the depressurization reference water level when the depressurization valve is opened.
    Type: Application
    Filed: August 27, 2014
    Publication date: March 5, 2015
    Applicant: HONDA MOTOR CO., LTD.
    Inventors: Jun TAKEUCHI, Akihiro NODA, Yuji YAMAKAWA
  • Publication number: 20150060294
    Abstract: The present disclosure is directed to a compressed fuel storage system. The compressed fuel storage system may include an electrochemical compressor and one or more fuel dispensing units. The electrochemical compressor may be configured to compress a fuel source. Additionally, the compressed fuel storage system may include at least one low pressure compressed fuel reservoir fluidly connected to the electrochemical compressor and the fuel dispensing units and at least one high pressure compressed fuel reservoir fluidly connected to the electrochemical compressor and the fuel dispensing units.
    Type: Application
    Filed: August 27, 2014
    Publication date: March 5, 2015
    Applicant: NUVERA FUEL CELLS, INC.
    Inventors: ADAM PRESCOTT, BRYAN GORDON
  • Patent number: 8945356
    Abstract: A high-temperature module for electrolysis of water with improved operational safety, in which steam containing at most 1% hydrogen can be made to flow simultaneously in each cathode and in each anode, as a draining gas, of a stack of cells. The stack of cells is housed in a sealed case and a mechanism for clamping by compression of the stack is included. The risks of leaks likely to cause impairments of efficiency and breakages of all or part of a stack EHT electrolyzer are reduced, while a high level of efficiency is provided due to the fact that satisfactory electrical conduction is maintained by compression of the stack.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 11, 2011
    Date of Patent: February 3, 2015
    Assignee: Commissariat a l'energie atomique et aux energies alternatives
    Inventors: Patrick Le Gallo, Jean-Luc Sarro, Michel Planque, Magali Reytier
  • Publication number: 20140377167
    Abstract: A method is provided for running up/starting up an electrolysis device (10), which device includes a reactor container (3) which is arranged downstream of an electrolyzer (1) and in which oxygen reacts with hydrogen into water, in order to reduce an oxygen share in a hydrogen gas flow coming from the electrolyzer (1). The electrolysis device (10) is operated with a predefined operating pressure. Upon running up/starting up the electrolyzer (1), the hydrogen gas flow coming from the electrolyzer (1) is led past the reactor container (3) via a bypass conduit (11).
    Type: Application
    Filed: December 19, 2012
    Publication date: December 25, 2014
    Applicant: H-TEC SYSTEMS GmbH
    Inventors: Nils Mantai, Claus Würfel, Dennis Wilken, Uwe Küter, Stefan Höller
  • Publication number: 20140356222
    Abstract: High purity manganese having a purity of 3N (99.9%) or more, wherein number of non-metal inclusions with a size of 0.5 ?m or more is 50000 or less per 1 g of the high purity manganese. A method for producing high purity manganese, wherein refining is performed using a raw material (secondary raw material) obtained by acid-washing a manganese raw material (primary raw material) so that the produced high purity manganese has a purity of 3N (99.9%) or more, and number of non-metal inclusions with a size of 0.5 ?m or more is 50000 or less per 1 g of the high purity manganese. The present invention provides a method for producing high purity metal manganese from commercially available manganese, and aims to obtain high purity metal manganese having a low LPC.
    Type: Application
    Filed: July 18, 2012
    Publication date: December 4, 2014
    Applicant: JX NIPPON MINING & METALS CORPORATION
    Inventors: Kazuto Yagi, Yuichiro Shindo, Eiji Hino
  • Patent number: 8882984
    Abstract: A process for preparing diaryl carbonate and utilizing at least part of the process wastewater by increasing the concentration of the wastewater phases containing sodium chloride for the electrolysis by means of osmotic membrane distillation with simultaneous dilution of the sodium hydroxide solution obtained from the electrolysis for the diaryl carbonate production process (diphenyl carbonate process) is described.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 13, 2010
    Date of Patent: November 11, 2014
    Assignee: Bayer MaerialScience AG
    Inventors: Pieter Ooms, Andreas Bulan, Johann Rechner, Rainer Weber, Michael Traving, Marc Buts, Johan Vanden Eynde
  • Publication number: 20140238869
    Abstract: An electrochemical cell for the continuous acidification of alkaline water sources and recovery of carbon dioxide with simultaneous continuous hydrogen gas production having a center compartment, an electrolyte-free anode compartment having a mesh anode in direct contact with an ion permeable membrane, an endblock in direct contact with the anode where the endblock provides a gas escape route behind the anode, an electrolyte-free cathode compartment having a mesh cathode in direct contact with an ion permeable membrane, and an endblock in direct contact with the cathode where the endblock provides a gas escape route behind the cathode. Current applied to the electrochemical cell for generating hydrogen gas also lowers the pH of the alkaline water to produce carbon dioxide with no additional current or power. Also disclosed is the related method for continuously acidifying alkaline water sources and recovering carbon dioxide with continuous hydrogen gas production.
    Type: Application
    Filed: February 28, 2014
    Publication date: August 28, 2014
    Inventors: Felice DiMascio, Heather D. Willauer, Dennis R. Hardy, Frederick Williams, M. Kathleen Lewis
  • Patent number: 8808781
    Abstract: The present invention relates to a method for producing vanillin, which comprises an electrochemical oxidation of an aqueous, lignin-comprising suspension or solution at an anode, wherein the anode used is a silver electrode.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 8, 2012
    Date of Patent: August 19, 2014
    Assignees: BASF SE, Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universitaet Bonn
    Inventors: Florian Stecker, Itamar Michael Malkowsky, Andreas Fischer, Siegfried R. Waldvogel, Carolin Regenbrecht
  • Patent number: 8668814
    Abstract: In one embodiment of the present invention an electrolytic cell is provided comprising a containment vessel; a first electrode; a second electrode; a source of electrical current in electrical communication with the first electrode and the second electrode; an electrolyte in fluid communication with the first electrode and the second electrode; a gas, wherein the gas is formed during electrolysis at or near the first electrode; and a separator; wherein the separator includes an inclined surface to direct flow of the electrolyte and the gas due to a difference between density of the electrolyte and the combined density of the electrolyte and the gas such that the gas substantially flows in a direction distal to the second electrode.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 9, 2011
    Date of Patent: March 11, 2014
    Assignee: McAlister Technologies, LLC
    Inventor: Roy Edward McAlister
  • Publication number: 20140027299
    Abstract: Processes for forming expanded hexagonal layered minerals (HLMs) and derivatives thereof using electrochemical charging are disclosed. The process includes employing HLM rocks (20) as electrodes (100) immersed in an electrolytic slurry (50) that includes an organic solvent, metal ions and expanded HLM (24). The electrolysis introduces organic solvent and ions from the metal salt from the slurry into the interlayer spacings that separate the atomic interlayers of the HLM rock, thereby forming 1st-stage charged HLM that exfoliates from the HLM rock. The process includes expanding the electrochemically 1st-stage charged HLM by applying an expanding force.
    Type: Application
    Filed: November 22, 2012
    Publication date: January 30, 2014
    Inventors: Kian Ping Loh, Junzhong Wang, Gordon Chiu
  • Publication number: 20130206605
    Abstract: Apparatus for seawater acidification including an ion exchange, cathode and anode electrode compartments and cation-permeable membranes that separate the electrode compartments from the ion exchange compartment. Means is provided for feeding seawater through the ion exchange compartment and for feeding a dissociable liquid media through the anode and cathode electrode compartments. A cathode is located in the cathode electrode compartment and an anode is located in the anode electrode compartment and a means for application of current to the cathode and anode is provided. A method for the acidification of seawater by subjecting the seawater to an ion exchange reaction to exchange H+ ions for Na+ ions. Carbon dioxide may be extracted from the acidified seawater. Optionally, the ion exchange reaction can be conducted under conditions which produce hydrogen as well as carbon dioxide. The carbon dioxide and hydrogen may be used to produce hydrocarbons.
    Type: Application
    Filed: March 15, 2013
    Publication date: August 15, 2013
    Applicant: The Government of the United States of America, as represented by the Secretary of the Navy
    Inventors: Felice DiMascio, Dennis R. Hardy, Heather D. Willauer, M. Kathleen Lewis, Frederick Williams
  • Publication number: 20130040031
    Abstract: The present invention relates to a method for producing vanillin, which comprises an electrochemical oxidation of an aqueous, lignin-comprising suspension or solution at an anode, wherein the anode used is a silver electrode.
    Type: Application
    Filed: August 8, 2012
    Publication date: February 14, 2013
    Applicants: Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universitaet Bonn, BASF SE
    Inventors: Florian STECKER, Itamar Michael MALKOWSKY, Andreas FISCHER, Siegfried R. WALDVOGEL, Carolin REGENBRECHT
  • Publication number: 20120125779
    Abstract: The electrolysis occurs as a high-pressure electrolyzer, oxygen being produced on one side and hydrogen on the other side, with corresponding pressure. The gases may optionally be stored without additional compression. The PEM fuel cell process is used in reverse for the process. It is advantageous that excess energy may be used by wind power plants. In the associated device, a high-pressure electrolyzer (1) is present which is operated using environmentally friendly air power. Due to the improved operating point of the high-pressure electrolyzer, improved economy results for the generation process compared to the prior art, in particular for hydrogen as an energy storage.
    Type: Application
    Filed: July 21, 2010
    Publication date: May 24, 2012
    Inventors: Alexander Hahn, Wolfgang Schilling, Werner Straub, Manfred waidhas
  • Publication number: 20120048743
    Abstract: Disclosed is an electrolysis method, whereby sodium chloride concentration of an aqueous caustic soda solution formed through electrolysis in a two-chamber ion-exchange membrane sodium chloride electrolytic cell, which is equipped with a gas diffusion electrode as a cathode and divided into an anode chamber containing an anode and a cathode gas chamber containing the cathode that are partitioned by an ion-exchange membrane, is lowered. In a two-chamber ion-exchange membrane electrolytic cell (1) using a gas diffusion electrode (7), electrolysis is performed while reducing the pressure difference between the liquid pressure in the anode chamber and the gas pressure in the cathode gas chamber, i.e.
    Type: Application
    Filed: April 15, 2010
    Publication date: March 1, 2012
    Applicants: CHLORINE ENGINEERS CORP., LTD, TOAGOSEI CO., LTD, KANEKA CORPORATION
    Inventors: Mikihito Sugiyama, Yukinori Iguchi, Kiyohito Asaumi
  • Publication number: 20120012467
    Abstract: The present invention relates to a process for converting aliphatic hydrocarbons having 1 to 4 carbon atoms to aromatic hydrocarbons in the presence of a catalyst under nonoxidative conditions, wherein at least some of the hydrogen formed in the conversion electrochemically removed is by means of a gas-tight membrane-electrode assembly.
    Type: Application
    Filed: March 30, 2010
    Publication date: January 19, 2012
    Applicant: BASF SE
    Inventors: Joana Coelho Tsou, Alexander Panchenko, Annebart Engbert Wentink, Sebastian Ahrens, Thomas Heidemann
  • Publication number: 20110186462
    Abstract: An anolyte composition having sufficient strength and stability to be packaged and marketed to consumers is produced in an electrolytic cell having an ionomeric semi-permeable membrane.
    Type: Application
    Filed: December 7, 2010
    Publication date: August 4, 2011
    Applicant: ACTIVATED ENVIRONMENTAL SOLUTIONS INC.
    Inventors: William Dale Storey, Norman L. Arrison
  • Publication number: 20110174632
    Abstract: A material surface treatment protocol uses concurrent electrical, vibrational, and photonic stimulation to generate an exothermic reaction and coat the surface of a material, such as palladium. This protocol is performed at or near the boiling point of water within a sealed vessel that prevents the escape of steam and that is lined with silica or a similar glass to increase the silica available to the reaction. The great majority of the applied energy is heat used to elevate the temperature to near the boiling point, while concurrent stimulations provide only about 100 mW of additional energy for the surface treatment.
    Type: Application
    Filed: January 15, 2010
    Publication date: July 21, 2011
    Inventors: Brian P. Roarty, Carol J. Walker
  • Publication number: 20110132770
    Abstract: The present invention relates to a process for electrolysing steam introduced under pressure into an anode in compartment (32) of an electrolyser (30) provided with a proton-conducting membrane (31) made of a material that allows protonated species to be incorporated into this membrane under steam, water injected in steam form being oxidized at the anode (32) so as to generate protonated species in the membrane that migrate within this same membrane and are reduced at the surface of the cathode (33) in the form of reactive hydrogen atoms capable of reducing carbon dioxide and/or carbon monoxide, said process comprising the following steps: injection of CO2 and/or CO under pressure into the cathode compartment (33) of the electrolyser (30); -reduction of the CO2 and/or CO injected into the cathode compartment (33) by said reactive hydrogen atoms generated, in such a way that the CO2 and/or the CO form compounds of the CxHyOz type where x>1, y is between 0 and 2x+2 and z is between 0 and 2x.
    Type: Application
    Filed: May 15, 2009
    Publication date: June 9, 2011
    Inventors: Béatrice Sala, Olivier Lacroix
  • Publication number: 20110108432
    Abstract: The invention relates to a process for the electrochemical direct amination of hydrocarbons by means of a diamond electrode and also a process for preparing aniline.
    Type: Application
    Filed: June 15, 2009
    Publication date: May 12, 2011
    Applicant: BASF SE
    Inventors: Itamar Malkowsky, Alexander Panchenko, Ulrich Griesbach, Andreas Fischer
  • Publication number: 20110079515
    Abstract: An electrochemical system comprising a first cation exchange membrane in contact with a gas diffusion anode and configured to separate the gas diffusion anode from an anode electrolyte; a cathode in contact with a cathode electrolyte; and a second cation ion exchange membrane configured to separate the cathode electrolyte from the anode electrolyte. In the system, an external pressure system is configured to apply a pressure against the first cation exchange membrane through the anode electrolyte, and an alkaline solution is produced in the cathode electrolyte by applying a voltage across the anode and cathode; in some embodiments, carbon dioxide is requested by reaction with the cathode electrolyte.
    Type: Application
    Filed: November 23, 2010
    Publication date: April 7, 2011
    Inventors: Ryan J. Gilliam, Nigel Antony Knott, Bryan Boggs, Alexander Gorer, Valentin Decker
  • Publication number: 20100327236
    Abstract: An aqueous solution containing a polymer dispersant and a metal compound, and an aqueous solution of a reducing agent, are joined together and uniformly mixed while being subjected to reduction reaction to give metal microparticles, in a thin film fluid formed between processing surfaces arranged to be opposite to each other so as to be able to approach to and separate from each other, at least one of which rotates relative to the other, by using a reaction apparatus of uniform stirring and mixing the above aqueous solutions.
    Type: Application
    Filed: July 4, 2008
    Publication date: December 30, 2010
    Inventor: Masakazu Enomura
  • Publication number: 20100230292
    Abstract: One embodiment of the invention includes a photovoltaic system that provides both electricity and low-grade heat, together with many options of utilizing the energy. The electricity may efficiently be used to drive a high-pressure electrolyzer that produces hydrogen. The hydrogen pressure may be boosted to a final compression of at least 700 bar. In one embodiment the pressure may be boosted using a metal-hydride compressor and stored. The stored high pressure hydrogen may be used to fill fuel-cell electric vehicle (FCEV) tanks. The electricity can also be used to efficiently charge the batteries in an extended range electric vehicle (EREV).
    Type: Application
    Filed: February 26, 2010
    Publication date: September 16, 2010
    Applicant: GM GLOBAL TECHNOLOGY OPERATIONS, INC.
    Inventors: Nelson A. Kelly, Thomas L. Gibson, Mei Cai
  • Publication number: 20100206740
    Abstract: A water electrolysis system includes a water electrolysis apparatus for electrolyzing pure water supplied from a pure water supply apparatus to produce high-pressure hydrogen. A pressure releasing device is connected between a pipe of the water electrolysis apparatus and a check valve connected to the inlet port of a gas-liquid separator, for releasing the pressure of the high-pressure hydrogen from the water electrolysis apparatus independently from the gas-liquid separator. The pressure releasing device has a bleeder passage including a pressure reducing valve and a solenoid-operated valve.
    Type: Application
    Filed: February 17, 2010
    Publication date: August 19, 2010
    Applicant: HONDA MOTOR CO., LTD.
    Inventors: Jun TAKEUCHI, Masanori OKABE, Koji NAKAZAWA, Kenji TARUYA
  • Publication number: 20090321271
    Abstract: A system for pumping a gas stream containing a combustible gas comprises a solid oxide ionic conducting membrane (20) and a vacuum pump (36) for drawing the gas stream at a sub-atmospheric pressure to one side of the membrane. The other side of the membrane is exposed to an oxidising gas, and a potential difference is applied across the membrane so that reactive oxidising species permeate across the membrane to react with the combustible gas to produce at least water vapour. The gas stream is subsequently received by the vacuum pump (36). The vacuum pump may have a pumping mechanism that exposes the gas stream to water and wherein the water vapour is condensed from the gas stream. Alternatively, a condenser (14) may be provided between the pump and the membrane for condensing the water vapour from the gas stream.
    Type: Application
    Filed: August 17, 2006
    Publication date: December 31, 2009
    Applicant: EDWARDS LIMITED
    Inventor: Robert Bruce Grant
  • Publication number: 20090101516
    Abstract: The present invention relates to methods and apparatus for activation of a low reactivity, non-polar chemical compound. In one example embodiment, the method comprises introducing the low reactivity chemical compound to a catalyst. At least one of (a) an oxidizing agent or a reducing agent and (b) a polar compound is provided to the catalyst and the chemical compound. An alternating current is applied to the catalyst to produce an activation reaction in the chemical compound. This activation reaction produces a useful product. The present invention also relates to a method for oxidizing aromatic compounds by electrocatalysis to oxidized products.
    Type: Application
    Filed: September 18, 2008
    Publication date: April 23, 2009
    Applicants: The University of Connecticut, Catelectric Corp.
    Inventors: Steven Lawrence Suib, Boxun Hu, Victor Stancovski
  • Publication number: 20080237055
    Abstract: A method for making lithium aluminide compound in atmospheric environment at a working temperature includes accomplishing a diffusive electrolysis in an electrolyte composed of lithium chloride, potassium chloride and calcium chloride, exerting a direct current (voltage) on the electrolyte to reduce the lithium ions into lithium atoms on the surface of an rotative aluminum cathode, and subsequently the lithium atoms diffusing into the aluminum cathode during the electrolysis.
    Type: Application
    Filed: June 27, 2007
    Publication date: October 2, 2008
    Inventors: Te-Chang Tsai, Jun-Yen Uan
  • Patent number: 7291191
    Abstract: Described herein is a portable storage device that stores a hydrogen fuel source. The storage device includes a bladder that contains the hydrogen fuel source and conforms to the volume of the hydrogen fuel source. A housing provides mechanical protection for the bladder. The storage device also includes a connector that interfaces with a mating connector to permit transfer of the fuel source between the bladder and a device that includes the mating connector. The device may be a portable electronics device such as a laptop computer. Refillable hydrogen fuel source storage devices and systems are also described. Hot swappable fuel storage systems described herein allow a portable hydrogen fuel source storage device to be removed from a fuel processor or electronics device it provides the hydrogen fuel source to, without shutting down the receiving device or without compromising hydrogen fuel source provision.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 16, 2005
    Date of Patent: November 6, 2007
    Assignee: UltraCell Corporation
    Inventor: Ian W. Kaye
  • Patent number: 7247230
    Abstract: The present invention deals with the electrochemical synthesis of electrically conductive polymers in supercritical fluids, for example supercritical CO2. The use of the supercritical fluid as a solvent results in the reduction or elimination of hazardous reagents and environmentally hazardous waste, which was generated in the prior chemical synthesis techniques. The electrochemical approach eliminates the need to add a charge transfer agent as the electrode serves this purpose. The resulting polymers are characterized by high conductivities and distinctive surface morphology, which suggests that they may be more appropriate than the previous materials for certain applications (e.g., corrosion inhibition, optical applications, etc.).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 8, 2003
    Date of Patent: July 24, 2007
    Assignee: Northeastern University
    Inventor: Patricia Ann Mabrouk
  • Patent number: 7105033
    Abstract: A system for generating hydrogen gas utilizes a volume exchange housing for the storage of a fuel material that reacts to generate hydrogen gas and a hydrogen separation chamber. The system includes a gas permeable membrane or membranes that allow hydrogen gas to pass through the membrane while preventing aqueous solutions from passing therethrough. The system is orientation independent. A throttle valve is also used to self regulate the reaction generating the hydrogen gas.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 5, 2003
    Date of Patent: September 12, 2006
    Assignee: Millennium Cell, Inc.
    Inventors: Michael Strizki, Richard M. Mohring
  • Patent number: 6846392
    Abstract: A plating tool cell anode for venting unwanted gases from a fluid plating solution. In a first embodiment, the solution is introduced into a chamber, defined by the plating tool cell (10), by fluid inlet (12) and contacts the anode (50). The fluid encounters a hydrophobic membrane (14) and a hydrophilic membrane (15) spaced from the hydrophobic membrane. A driving force, such as a vacuum, is applied to the gap (16) between the membranes to remove unwanted gases therein. In a second embodiment, a single membrane is used that is both hydrophobic and hydrophilic. Preferably, the hydrophobic portion of the membrane is located at or near the perimeter of the chamber and gas to be vented is directed toward the hydrophobic portion(s).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 31, 2000
    Date of Patent: January 25, 2005
    Assignee: Mykrolis Corporation
    Inventor: David W. Stockbower
  • Patent number: 6585881
    Abstract: A process for manufacture of manganese dioxide comprising subjecting an aqueous bath comprising manganese sulfate (MnSO4) and sulfuric acid (H2SO4) to electrolysis in a closed cell wherein the electrolysis bath is maintained at an elevated temperature above 110° C., preferably above 115° C. and at superatmospheric pressure. Desirably the bath can be maintained at an elevated temperature between about 115° C. and 155° C. The electrolysis is carried out preferably at elevated current density of between about 12.5 and 37 Amp/sq. ft (135 and 400 Amp/sq. meter) which allows for smaller or fewer electrolysis units. An MnO2 product having a specific surface area (SSA) within desired range of between 18-45 m2/g can be obtained. A doping agent, preferably a soluble titanium dopant is employed to help obtain the desired specific surface area (SSA) of the MnO2 product. The manganese dioxide product in zinc/MnO2 alkaline cells gives excellent service life, particularly in high power application.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 20, 2001
    Date of Patent: July 1, 2003
    Assignee: The Gillette Company
    Inventors: Stuart M. Davis, Peter R. Moses, Gary Miller
  • Patent number: 6544400
    Abstract: A hydrogen source system delivers a controlled fuel stream to applications, using wicking to control the contact between a mixture of NaBH4, NaOH and H2O and a hydrolyzing catalyst to create a feedback mechanism to automatically maintain a constant pressure production supply of hydrogen. A small compact device packaged for storage, the system operates in any orientation and is mobile. The system is a small portable packaged hydrogen generator for small fuel cells to power applications that are currently powered by batteries. These packaged devices have higher energy per unit mass, higher energy per unit volume, are more convenient for energy users, environmentally less harmful, and less expensive than conventional power sources.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 30, 2001
    Date of Patent: April 8, 2003
    Assignee: Manhattan Scientifics, Inc.
    Inventors: Robert G. Hockaday, Patrick S. Turner, Marc D. DeJohn, Carlos J. Navas, Heathcliff L. Vaz, L. Luke Vazul
  • Patent number: 6409908
    Abstract: In a process for producing an alkali metal from alkali metal amalgam by electrolysis using an alkali metal amalgam as anode, a solid electrolyte which conducts alkali metal ions and a liquid alkali metal as cathode, the alkali metal amalgam as anode is kept in motion.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 13, 1999
    Date of Patent: June 25, 2002
    Assignee: BASF Aktiengesellschaft
    Inventors: Günther Huber, Hermann Pütter, Kerstin Schierle-Arndt, Dieter Schläfer, Josef Guth, Bernd Schube, Diethard Lenz
  • Patent number: 6365032
    Abstract: The present invention relates to a unique electrochemical cell stack which employs an electrically conductive pressure pad. The pressure pad is composed of material compatible with the electrochemical cell environment and is disposed on the high pressure side of the membrane assembly, in intimate contact with the high pressure side screen pack.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 7, 1999
    Date of Patent: April 2, 2002
    Assignee: Proton Energy Systems, Inc.
    Inventors: Jason K. Shiepe, Mark E. Dristy, Trent M. Molter, Lawrence C. Moulthrop, Jr.
  • Publication number: 20010045364
    Abstract: A hydrogen source system delivers a controlled fuel stream to applications, using wicking to control the contact between a mixture of NaBH4, NaOH and H2O and a hydrolyzing catalyst to create a feedback mechanism to automatically maintain a constant pressure production supply of hydrogen. A small compact device packaged for storage, the system operates in any orientation and is mobile. The system is a small portable packaged hydrogen generator for small fuel cells to power applications that are currently powered by batteries. These packaged devices have higher energy per unit mass, higher energy per unit volume, are more convenient for energy users, environmentally less harmful, and less expensive than conventional power sources.
    Type: Application
    Filed: March 30, 2001
    Publication date: November 29, 2001
    Inventors: Robert G. Hockaday, Patrick S. Turner, Marc D. DeJohn, Carlos J. Navas, Heathcliff L. Vaz, L. Luke Vazul
  • Patent number: 6299781
    Abstract: Water containing difficult-to-remove volatile hydrocarbon contaminants which may include MTBE, TBA and/or BTEX is treated under pressure by electrolysis and oxidative reduction in a contact area, then is depressurized and subjected to high shear in a multi-stage turbine column to precipitate and/or outgas nearly all of the contaminants. In the turbine column, redirect diverters are included below each turbine in order to redirect the water/gas stream to center and to further atomize the stream at each stage. Liquid discharge is received in a bottom reservoir of the casing or tank. Vacuum is applied to the casing, at about 30 inches of water, to constantly remove air and gases from the casing, and causing air to be drawn at high flow rate down through the turbine column, helping volatilize the hydrocarbon components. A submersed pump in the liquid reservoir removes the treated water.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 7, 1999
    Date of Patent: October 9, 2001
    Assignee: Advanced Water Systems
    Inventor: Michael Hanrahan
  • Patent number: 6296755
    Abstract: A novel scheme for olefin recovery/separation based on the redox properties of metal dithiolene complexes is described. The complex, [1,2-bis(cyano)ethylene-1,2-dithiolato]nickel, [Ni(S2C2(CN)2)2], when generated electrochemically, binds olefin to form an adduct. The olefin is released when the olefin adduct is reduced electrochemically. The reduced form of the metal dithiolene complex can then be re-oxidized to complete the cycle. For olefins such as 1-hexene, propylene, and ethylene, fast olefin binding and release is observed when modulated electrochemically. Olefin binding/release rates are fast as compared to the electrochemistry experiment (second or sub-second time-scale).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 13, 1999
    Date of Patent: October 2, 2001
    Assignee: Exxon Research and Engineering Co.
    Inventors: Kun Wang, Edward Ira Stiefel
  • Patent number: 6146518
    Abstract: An improved process for providing hydrogen from an electrolytic cell having an anolyte solution having an anolyte liquid level; a catholyte solution having a catholyte liquid level; generating oxygen at an oxygen pressure above the anolyte level; generating hydrogen at a hydrogen pressure above the catholyte level; the improvement comprising detecting at least one of the anolyte and the catholyte liquid levels as anolyte level and catholyte level data; feeding the level data to central processing means; determining the pressure differential between the levels from the level data, and pressure adjustment data by the central processing means; and providing the adjustment data to pressure control means to maintain the pressure differential within a selected range. The process offers a low cost method of controlling the pressure differential to within 2 cm WC of a set point.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 1, 1999
    Date of Patent: November 14, 2000
    Assignee: Stuart Energy Systems Inc.
    Inventors: Matthew J. Fairlie, William J. Stewart, Charlie Dong
  • Patent number: 5906722
    Abstract: Describes a method of electrochemically converting amine hydrohalide, e.g., ethyleneamine hydrochloride, into free amine, e.g., free ethyleneamine. A three compartment electrolytic cell is provided having (1) a catholyte compartment containing a cathode assembly comprising a cathode and an anion exchange membrane, (2) an anode compartment containing an anode assembly comprising either (a) a hydrogen consuming gas diffusion anode and a current collecting electrode or (b) a hydrogen consuming gas diffusion anode which is fixedly held between a hydraulic barrier and a current collecting electrode, and (3) an intermediate compartment separated from the catholyte and anode compartments by the anion exchange membrane and either (i) the hydrogen consuming gas diffusion anode or (ii) the hydraulic barrier respectively.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 18, 1997
    Date of Patent: May 25, 1999
    Assignee: PPG Industries, Inc.
    Inventors: Peter C. Foller, David G. Roberts, Robert H. Tang
  • Patent number: 5904829
    Abstract: Describes a method of electreochemically converting amine hydrohalide, e.g., amine hydrochloride, into free amine, e.g., free ethyleneamine. An electrolytic cell is provided having (1) a catholyte compartment containing a cathode assembly comprising a cathode and a bipolar ion exchange membrane, (2) an anode compartment containing an anode assembly comprising either (a) a hydrogen consuming gas diffusion anode and a current collecting electrode or (b) a hydrogen consuming gas diffusion anode which is fixedly held between a hydraulic barrier and a current collecting electrode, and (3) at least one pair of intermediate compartments separating the catholyte and anode compartments and separated from each other by an anion exchange membrane.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 18, 1997
    Date of Patent: May 18, 1999
    Assignee: PPG Industries, Inc.
    Inventors: Peter C. Foller, David G. Roberts, Robert H. Tang
  • Patent number: 5900133
    Abstract: Describes a method of electrochemically converting amine hydrohalide, e.g., ethyleneamine hydrochloride, into free amine, e.g., free ethyleneamine. A three compartment electrolytic cell is provided having (1) a catholyte compartment containing a cathode assembly comprising a cathode and anion exchange membrane, (2) an anolyte compartment containing an anode assembly comprising an anode and a cation exchange membrane, and (3) an intermediate compartment separated from the catholyte and anolyte compartments by the anion and cation exchange membranes respectively. An aqueous solution of amine hydrohalide is charged to the catholyte compartment, while hydrogen halide solutions are charged to the intermediate and anolyte compartments. Direct current is passed through the electrolytic cell and an aqueous solution comprising free amine is removed from the catholyte compartment.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 18, 1997
    Date of Patent: May 4, 1999
    Assignee: PPG Industries, Inc.
    Inventors: Peter C. Foller, David G. Roberts, Robert H. Tang, James R. Franks