Mirror Or Prism In Optical Path Patents (Class 209/585)
  • Patent number: 9823062
    Abstract: The present invention relates to an inspection device and particularly to a device using an array of light sources and photo-detection devices to evaluate threaded workpieces for conformance to spatial form criteria. The invention provides for improved identification of flaws in threaded components to identify the conformance of parts.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 30, 2013
    Date of Patent: November 21, 2017
    Inventors: Ian Kent Penhorwood, Mark Lee Hanna
  • Patent number: 9368246
    Abstract: The invention relates to a control device (10) comprising a radiation source (17) which is embodied, in particular, as an X-ray source for irradiating a pharmaceutical product (1) embodied, in particular as a capsule, a detector (18) for detecting radiation after irradiating the pharmaceutical product (1), a tube or shaft-shaped supply device (15) which is preferably arranged vertically at least in the region of the beam path (16) of the radiation source (17) for feeding the pharmaceutical product (1) into the beam path (16) of the radiation source (17), and means (25) for positioning and releasing the pharmaceutical product (1) in the region of the radiation beam (16) of the radiation source (17).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 1, 2012
    Date of Patent: June 14, 2016
    Assignee: Robert Bosch GmbH
    Inventors: Werner Runft, Iulian Maga, Jens Schlipf, Martin Vogt
  • Patent number: 8058606
    Abstract: An inspection device includes a movable portion, and a substantially fixed portion. The movable portion includes a plurality of bins as well as beam directors positioned between the bins. The fixed portion includes light detectors and light emitters. The light detectors are arranged to allow multiplexing of the light detectors.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 22, 2008
    Date of Patent: November 15, 2011
    Assignee: Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P.
    Inventors: Paul D. Young, Michael Wong
  • Publication number: 20100193412
    Abstract: A device for splitting light between the visible light spectrum and the near infrared light spectrum, particularly for separating reflected light between the visible light spectrum and the near infrared light spectrum, in determining multiple characteristics of product in a product scanning system. The invention also pertains to sorting machines that optically sort or separate nonstandard fungible objects from standard objects as they pass a viewing station by viewing such objects in at least two different wavelength spectrums and particularly to such sorting machines utilizing detector elements comprised of two or more different photo-sensitive devices and to the optical detection system used therein. The device includes a hermetically-sealed device with two transparent prisms between which is sandwiched indium tin oxide (ITO) selected to exhibit dielectric behavior in the VIS/NIR and metallic behavior in the NIR band.
    Type: Application
    Filed: February 2, 2009
    Publication date: August 5, 2010
    Applicants: Satake USA, Inc., Princeton Lightwave, Inc.
    Inventors: Larry H. Mack, JR., Gary Ernest Carver
  • Patent number: 7732758
    Abstract: An on-chip micro-fluidic device (10) fabricated using a semiconductor material. The device has a micro-fluidic channel or chamber (14) defined within the material and one or more monolithically integrated semiconductor lasers (12) operate to form an optical trap in the channel or chamber (14).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 10, 2005
    Date of Patent: June 8, 2010
    Assignee: The University Court of the University of St. Andrews
    Inventors: Kishan Dholakia, Thomas F. Krauss, Simon John Cran-McGreehin
  • Patent number: 6509537
    Abstract: The invention concerns a method and a device for detection of and differentiation between base materials, colors and contamination in granulate-like or tablet-shaped substances, characterized in that the substances are illuminated in a linear manner with a laser beam, the optical radiation re-emitted by the substances is spectroscopically analyzed, and the substances are classified and sorted into different groups.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 11, 2001
    Date of Patent: January 21, 2003
    Inventors: Gunther Krieg, Dirk Fey, J├╝rgen Bohleber, Manfred Dausch
  • Patent number: 5917926
    Abstract: Apparatus and method for optical inspection of fruit without rotating or otherwise repositioning the article during inspection. Plural mirrors are positioned to view different surface portions of each article moving along a path, and those mirrors consolidated the partial images to form a composite image viewable at a common objective such as a video camera. The images from individual mirrors are directed toward a pyramid having reflective surfaces, aiming those partial images toward the common objective aligned with the vertex of the pyramid. A holder supports each article above a conveyor with minimal surface contact, thereby minimizing portions of the article not visible for optical inspection.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 28, 1997
    Date of Patent: June 29, 1999
    Assignee: Durand-Wayland, Inc.
    Inventor: William H. Leverett
  • Patent number: 5862919
    Abstract: The sorting system provides a high degree of sorting accuracy even in high throughput sorting applications such as high speed wood chip sorting. In one embodiment, a sorting apparatus (10) includes a shaker (12) for distributing stock material, a spectrographic analyzer (14) for identifying unacceptable material in a product stream, an ejector (16) for diverting unacceptable material from the product stream, a three-zone sorting receptacle (18) and a recirculating system (20) for returning a selected portion of the sorter output for an additional pass by the analyzer (14) and ejector (16). The three-zone sorting receptacle (18) divides the product stream into an accept portion, a rejection portion, and an ambiguous portion including both acceptable product and unacceptable material. The ambiguous portion is re-sorted for improved accuracy at high throughput levels.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 10, 1996
    Date of Patent: January 26, 1999
    Assignee: SRC Vision, Inc.
    Inventor: Neal P. Eason
  • Patent number: 5794788
    Abstract: To sort materials, in particular plastic parts, the items are carried at known conveying speed past a material recognition system which uses non-contact scanning, for example NIR spectroscopy, of each item to determine its material type and delivers a signal that identifies the type of material, which signal is used in sorting the items according to material type. To ensure that the determination of material type is done at a spot on the item that is not disturbed by a label, metal stamp or the like, the items are also conveyed past an imaging system which takes pictures of the items from which, using electronic image-processing techniques, features of colour and/or shape of the items are determined, from which in turn position data are derived about spots on the item at which an undisturbed determination of material type is possible. With the aid of these position data the determination of material type is then confined to such undisturbed spots.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 30, 1995
    Date of Patent: August 18, 1998
    Inventor: Robert Massen
  • Patent number: 5683000
    Abstract: A sorting apparatus for sorting material into desired and undesired pieces or portions includes a moving reflective surface such as a rotating cylindrical drum which is interposed between an illuminated background and a viewing system so that the background is indirectly viewed via the reflective surface. Any liquid or other debris from the product spills onto the reflective surface, rather than the background and is then moved away to be cleaned off. Thus, the viewed optical characteristics of the background remain constant and periodic cleaning of the background is not required.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 9, 1995
    Date of Patent: November 4, 1997
    Assignee: Sortex Limited
    Inventor: John Menzies Low
  • Patent number: 5616915
    Abstract: A bill validator comprising a removable magazine having reflective surfaces, such as a prism, which reflects light from a light source, such as a light emitting diode, to a photodetector, such as a phototransistor, is disclosed. The prism can include a recess and the magazine can further comprise a blocker with an arm that can be moved into and out of the recess based on movement of a pressure plate within the magazine, to block light from passing across the recess. This arrangement can be used to determine whether the bill validator can go back into service, whether the magazine has been removed from and reattached to the validator, whether bills have been removed from the magazine, whether the magazine is full and whether a bill is in position for stacking, for example.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 23, 1995
    Date of Patent: April 1, 1997
    Assignee: Mars Incorporated
    Inventors: Joseph A. Simpkins, Scott Hudis
  • Patent number: 5563700
    Abstract: An apparatus and method for detecting the presence material irregularities and holes in thin walled opaque objects such as can ends having a generally centrally disposed integral rivet formed therein. A radiation source is focused so that a substantial portion of emitted radiation is concentrated on the portion of a can end in which the rivet is formed.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 5, 1995
    Date of Patent: October 8, 1996
    Assignee: Aluminum Company of America
    Inventors: Steven W. Holt, Jack Fletcher, Shu An
  • Patent number: 5379329
    Abstract: In a method for inspecting a dished end face of a nuclear fuel pellet, a focused beam of light is emitted to a dish of the end face of the nuclear fuel pellet while a parallel beam of light is being emitted to the end face thereof. An image of the end face of the nuclear fuel pellet is picked up and the quality of the pellet is judged based on the picked-up image. An apparatus for inspecting a dished end face of a nuclear fuel pellet is also disclosed. The inspection apparatus includes a handling unit for holding the pellet during inspection, a lighting unit for lighting the end face of the pellet, an image pick-up unit disposed adjacent to the handling unit for picking up image data as to the end face of the pellet, and a judging unit operably connected to the image pick-up unit for analyzing the image data outputted from the image pick-up unit to judge quality of the nuclear fuel pellet.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 25, 1994
    Date of Patent: January 3, 1995
    Assignees: Mitsubishi Nuclear Fuel Co., Mitsubishi Materials Corporation
    Inventors: Yoshitaka Yaginuma, Yoshihiro Inoue
  • Patent number: 5184733
    Abstract: An apparatus and method for determining the volume, form and weight of fish or other objects is presented. A linescan camera records a top view of an object and at the same time records a profile view of the object reflected by a mirror located adjacent to the object. The mirror is positioned to reflect a view of the object which is perpendicular to the direct view of the camera and to the direction of motion of a conveyor belt along which the object moves. As the object moves along a conveyor belt through the field of view of the camera, a number of cross-sectional images are recorded and transmitted to a microprocessor. The microprocessor determines the maximum width of each cross-section from the direct image and the maximum thickness from each cross-section reflected image.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 19, 1992
    Date of Patent: February 9, 1993
    Assignee: Marel H.F.
    Inventors: Hordur Arnarson, Louis F. Pau
  • Patent number: 5185822
    Abstract: In an automatic sorting system for sorting objects conveyed on a conveyor, a camera is used for pattern recognition of the object being sorted. Due to the difference in sizes of the objects being sorted, the camera must be focused depending on the size of the object under consideration. Instead of moving the camera section itself, an optical path bending section can be included between the camera and the objects to be examined. The optical path bending section includes at least one pair of reflector mirrors disposed so that the reflecting surfaces thereof face each other at an angle of 90 degrees. In order to enable focusing for different sized objects, the optical path bending section can be moved in a direction parallel to the optical paths entering and exiting the optical path bending section.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 23, 1991
    Date of Patent: February 9, 1993
    Assignee: Asahi Kogaku Kogyo K.K.
    Inventor: Masaaki Miura
  • Patent number: 5158181
    Abstract: A sorter is described that optically differentiates acceptable objects from unacceptable objects. The sorter illuminates the objects as they move in a stream through a viewing zone with both visible and infrared light. The detecting system and circuit provides electric signals proportional to the light transmitted or reflected by the objects to a microcomputer system which in turn activates a rejection mechanism if unacceptable objects are viewed. The microcomputer system determines what objects are unacceptable by comparing signals for objects being viewed with stored signals for acceptable objects.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 5, 1989
    Date of Patent: October 27, 1992
    Inventor: Roger F. Bailey
  • Patent number: 5135114
    Abstract: An apparatus for evaluating the grade of rice grains includes a grain supply unit, vibrating troughs on which the rice grains run in their longitudinal posture, flow-down troughs having slits each opening to each of the flow-down troughs, a reflected light measuring unit having its light sources and its detecting element for detecting the amount of the light reflected from the rice grains, a transmitted light measuring unit having its light sources and its detecting element for detecting the amount of the light transmitted through the rice grains at the positions of the slits, and a calculation control unit for digitally calculating the values measured at the reflected light measuring unit and the transmitted light measuring unit for evaluating the rice grains into a plurality of grades. The light sources for reflection may be of visible light and the light source for transmission may be of infrared light.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 10, 1989
    Date of Patent: August 4, 1992
    Assignee: Satake Engineering Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Toshihiko Satake, Satoru Satake, Yasuharu Mitoma
  • Patent number: 5104523
    Abstract: A glass-plate sorting system for sorting glass plates being cut into products having a plurality of quality grades to simultaneously obtain products of desired quality grades. A discriminating-type flaw detector (101) detects the sizes and locations of flaws existing in a glass strip travelling on a line conveyor and transmits flaw data to a control unit (102). The control unit discriminates quality grades of the cut glass plates based on the flaw data. Sorters (110) having lifters (112) and suction conveyors (111) sort products of desired quality grades based on the control by the control unit (102).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 6, 1989
    Date of Patent: April 14, 1992
    Assignee: Nippon Sheet Glass Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Okafuji Masaharu, Kurashina Isao, Kawamura Hidetoshi
  • Patent number: 4940850
    Abstract: A color sorting apparatus for granular objects comprises a plurality of sorting units arranged in parallel relation to each other. Detecting positions of the respective sorting units are spaced from each other in a horizontal plane. Each sorting unit includes a substantially vertically extending, elongated tubular guide member for guiding the granular objects so as to be moved along a predetermined path passing through the detecting position, three detectors disposed at the detecting position at angular intervals of substantially 120 degrees around the predetermined path, and a deflector operative in response to a signal from at least one of the detectors representative of undesirable granular objects for deflecting the same out of the predetermined path.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 7, 1987
    Date of Patent: July 10, 1990
    Assignee: Satake Engineering Co., Ltd.
    Inventor: Toshihiko Satake
  • Patent number: 4923066
    Abstract: An automatic visual inspection system for small arms ammunition which sorts visual surface flaws at high speed according to established standards which can be tailored to fit specific needs. The system employs advanced techniques for performing inspection independently of human inspectors and allows for quick changeovers in the type of ammunition to which it is applied.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 8, 1987
    Date of Patent: May 8, 1990
    Assignee: Elor Optronics Ltd.
    Inventors: Zohar Ophir, Michael Golstein, Miriam Nagler
  • Patent number: 4911307
    Abstract: A machine for measuring the size of objects that are in motion in single file includes in one embodiment a collimated light beam that as a narrow horizontal width and a long vertical width. The light beam is pulsed ON and OFF at a 10 kilohertz rate but with the light being turned on only 30 percent of the time. The maximum shadow is cast by the maximum height of the object, and causes a minimum oputput voltage amplitude from a photodetector. This minimum output voltage is compared with a reference voltage to determine the object size. A direct digital readout may be obtained. Also, the size information may be passed to a microprocessor or similar device for use in sorting operations. In another embodiment a pair of collimated light beams are positioned about an aperture such that the beams are othogonal. An object passing through the aperture causes a loss of light to each photodetector. The voltage output of each photodetector is combined and averaged.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 23, 1988
    Date of Patent: March 27, 1990
    Assignee: Accupack Systems
    Inventor: Frederick R. Jennings
  • Patent number: 4863041
    Abstract: Optical sorting apparatus for sorting individual objects such as beans, nuts, seeds, or other agricultural products is disclosed. The sorting apparatus according to the present invention detects light reflected from objects and compares the detected light to light reflected from a dynamically variable background. The background is located behind the stream of objects flowing past the light detecting portion of the sorting apparatus. The apparatus is further characterized in that the background is dynamically variable to provide an adjustable reference for the light detecting apparatus. A method for sorting objects by the unique optical apparatus according to the present invention is also disclosed.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 28, 1986
    Date of Patent: September 5, 1989
    Inventor: Roger F. Bailey
  • Patent number: 4850491
    Abstract: Optical fibers control the height and curvture on the perpendicular level of a number of articles on a conveyor while the articles traverse a box in which the optical fibers are placed so that the light ray is disturbed in response to the height and curvature of the articles. Outside the box the articles are scanned by a camera. Both from the box and from the camera (11) measuring data are transferred to a computer (13) which evaluates the measured data and decides whether or not the article is to be discarded when it reaches the grading device. In this way a reliable, three-dimensional control of the articles is achieved.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 16, 1988
    Date of Patent: July 25, 1989
    Assignee: Stormax International A/S
    Inventor: Gert Schultz
  • Patent number: 4723659
    Abstract: An apparatus including a source for producing a concentrated light beam, such as a laser, a background element spaced from the source against which the light beam is directed, and a transport arrangement for moving translucent bodies, such as French cut potatoes, through the light beam. When light from the source impinges upon a pure translucent body, the light is scattered or diffused within the body around the point of impingement so as to illuminate a surface area of the body larger than the cross-sectional area of the light beam, but light from the source impinging upon an impurity in the translucent body is scattered or diffused to a lesser extent. The background element is formed of a material which causes light from the source which impinges on it to be diffused within the material in a manner similar to the diffusion of the light in the translucent bodies.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 12, 1986
    Date of Patent: February 9, 1988
    Assignee: Supernova Systems, Inc.
    Inventor: Leo Billion
  • Patent number: 4666045
    Abstract: A pit detection apparatus (10) and method for detecting the presence of pits or pit fragments (12) in fruit (14) as the fruit (14) passes through a zone of inspection (16) includes a scanning beam generator (17) for sweeping a transmission scanning beam (28) across the inspection zone (16). The inspection zone (16) is located intermediate the beam generator (17) and an array (38) of transmission sensors (40). The sensors (40) generate transmission sensor signals indicative of received light intensity from the beam (28). A second sizing beam generator (50) and associated array (60) of sensors (62) generate sizing signals representative of te optical path length through which the transmission scanning beam (28) travels within the fruit (14). The transmission sensor and sizing signals are applied to an analysis circuit (44) wherein the signals are analyzed to determine the presence or absence of pits or pit fragments (12).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 6, 1984
    Date of Patent: May 19, 1987
    Assignee: Dunkley International Inc.
    Inventors: Robert M. Gillespie, John R. Ricks
  • Patent number: 4634881
    Abstract: An apparatus including a source for producing a concentrated light beam, such as a laser, a background spaced from the source against which the light beam is directed, and a transport arrangement for moving translucent bodies, such as French cut potatoes, through the light beam. Another light source illuminates the background independently of the concentrated light beam. A receiver receives light reflected from the background and from translucent bodies moving through the light beam, as well as from the independent light source illuminating the background. The receiver produces an output signal which changes when an impurity enters the concentrated light beam, and this changed signal is used to operate a device which removes the impurity from the remainder of the translucent bodies. The light beam may be scanned across a plurality of rows of moving bodies by directing the beam at a rapidly rotating multifaceted mirror.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 28, 1985
    Date of Patent: January 6, 1987
    Assignee: Supernova Systems, Inc.
    Inventor: Leo Billion
  • Patent number: 4630736
    Abstract: A sorting machine comprising a chute for moving a plurality of objects sequentially past a plurality of viewing zones which are spaced apart in the direction of movement of the objects so that the moving objects pass to an object separation zone in which relative separation is effected between desired and undesired objects. Light sources are on opposite sides of the moving object for directing beams of light to the viewing zones. Viewing devices view the objects passing through the viewing zones from opposite sides, respectively, of the moving objects. A discriminator, controlled by the output from the viewing devices, determines whether objects which have been so viewed are desired or undesired. An object separator controlled by the discriminator effects relative separation at the object separation zone between the desired and undesired objects.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 15, 1984
    Date of Patent: December 23, 1986
    Assignee: Sortex Limited
    Inventors: William S. Maughan, Herbert Fraenkel
  • Patent number: 4600105
    Abstract: A method of ore sorting includes distinguishing ore objects or ore containing objects by the light reflected from a laser beam arranged to scan across each of the objects to be sorted. Where the surface of the object is transmitting to the light a halo is produced by certain objects caused by internal scattered reflections of the light. By monitoring the occurrence or degree of occurrences of halos clean distinction of respective objects can be made. In a particular application, the identification of the presence of quartz pebbles in rock specimens can be used for detecting and sorting gold containing objects.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 23, 1984
    Date of Patent: July 15, 1986
    Assignee: Sphere Investments Limited
    Inventors: Ian D. Van Zyl, Peter Wolf
  • Patent number: 4534470
    Abstract: Apparatus for processing fruit and the like, particularly for sorting as a function of variables, including color, blemish, size and shape. The apparatus provides an illuminator for substantially uniformly illuminating a portion of the item being examined, and for generating a plurality of signals corresponding to respective different portions of the item being examined. A circuit is provided for obtaining difference signals corresponding to the difference of data signals corresponding to adjacent portions of the surface of the fruit. The fruit is sorted as a function of those difference signals.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 30, 1982
    Date of Patent: August 13, 1985
    Inventor: George A. Mills
  • Patent number: 4454029
    Abstract: A bichromatic sorter for agricultural products such as coffee beans, peanuts, beans and other types of agricultural products is provided to sort and reject undesired product based on color characteristics of the product in at least two component colors. Problems of synchronization between component color signals are overcome by the optical scanning portion of the sorter. The complexity of the electronics portion of the sorter is materially reduced by multiplexing or time sharing certain functions the electronics must perform.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 27, 1981
    Date of Patent: June 12, 1984
    Assignee: Delta Technology Corporation
    Inventor: Elias H. Codding
  • Patent number: 4351437
    Abstract: Potatoes carried on a roller table conveyor are presented in transverse rows at an inspection area illuminated by a lamp from a first direction and observed by a line imaging camera along a second direction arranged by a mirror to be approximately at right angles to the first direction. The camera scans repeatedly across each row and provides an output detection signal representing the reflected radiation. The camera observes a sharply illuminated boundary of the potatoes against a dark background a micro-computer processes the detection signal to provide an information signal representative of the length of a potato along the direction of its row. Size grading, for example, may be effected by directing potatoes along different routes by deflecting fingers controlled in dependence upon the information signal. An operator may observe potatoes in the inspection area by means of a television camera and monitor, and may indicate by a lightpen a potato to be rejected by the subsequent deflecting fingers.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 21, 1980
    Date of Patent: September 28, 1982
    Assignee: Lockwood Graders (UK) Limited
    Inventor: Peter G. Long
  • Patent number: 4349112
    Abstract: Apparatus for inspecting nuclear fuel pellets in a sealed container for diameter, flaws, length and weight. The apparatus includes, in an array, a pellet pick-up station, four pellet inspection stations and a pellet sorting station. The pellets are delivered one at a time to the pick-up station by a vibrating bowl through a vibrating linear conveyor. Grippers each associated with a successive pair of the stations are reciprocable together to pick up a pellet at the upstream station of each pair and to deposit the pellet at the corresponding downstream station. The gripper jaws are opened selectively depending on the state of the pellets at the stations and the particular cycle in which the apparatus is operating. Inspection for diameter, flaws and length is effected in each case by a laser beam projected on the pellets by a precise optical system while each pellet is rotated by rollers.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 31, 1980
    Date of Patent: September 14, 1982
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the United States Department of Energy
    Inventors: Robert S. Wilks, Alexander Taleff, Robert H. Sturges, Jr.
  • Patent number: 4280625
    Abstract: The invention relates to the measurement of the shade of a particle. The particle is illuminated with light of variable intensity and viewed against a background level of illumination. A measurement is made of the ratio of time for which the intensity of light from the particle exceeds the intensity of the background to obtain a measurement of the shade of the particle.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 21, 1979
    Date of Patent: July 28, 1981
    Inventors: Jacobus H. Grobbelaar, Richard N. Colson, Charlie M. Levitt, Samuel Chatterley
  • Patent number: 4280624
    Abstract: The invention relates to an apparatus for inspecting the side walls of transparent bottles for the detection of dirt or foreign bodies therein which eliminates the necessity of rotating the bottle during inspection. The inspection is effected by projecting a plurality of images of the side walls of a bottle, as viewed from at least two different directions in plan, on to at least one integrated circuit device comprising an array of photodiodes arranged in a plurality of rows in combination with means to interrogate each diode in turn, along each row in turn, to provide a video signal comprising a sequence of electrical signals corresponding to the light energy each diode has received. The video signal is differentiated and unwanted signals outside of the limits of the side walls to be inspected are gated out, whereby to generate a video output pulse representative of dirt in the bottle.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 2, 1978
    Date of Patent: July 28, 1981
    Assignee: TI Fords Limited
    Inventor: Geoffrey E. Ford
  • Patent number: 4122952
    Abstract: In the photometric sorting of objects each object is examined in each of a predetermined number of zones for the presence or absence of one or more predetermined surface characteristics. The invention provides that a characteristic determined in one zone be attributed to at least one other zone into which the object extends.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 19, 1976
    Date of Patent: October 31, 1978
    Assignee: Sphere Investments Limited
    Inventor: Arthur W. Richards