Abstract: A chemical dispensing apparatus includes a housing that is connectable to a source of water, such as a standard garden house, and an internal space in which is disposed a rotatable container containing a quantity of chemical concentrate to be mixed with the source of water as it flows through the housing and is dispensed from the housing from a sprinkler head or misting nozzle. The flow of water through the housing powers a water turbine which is connected to the rotatable container, such that the container is rotated as water flows through the housing. In an alternative embodiment, the water turbine is replaced with an electric motor. Rotation of the container cause the chemical concentrate to dissolve which is then mixed with the water before it is dispensed through the sprinkler or mister.
Abstract: A rotatable aerosol product 10 comprising an aerosol product 11 and a rotatable stand 12 attached to the bottom part of the aerosol product, wherein spray continues during rotation and the rotation frequency is 35 frequencies/minute or lower. A spray hole 13a of a nozzle 13 is positioned eccentrically from the rotation center and rotated by counteraction of spray from the nozzle 13. Rotation frequency is regulated by a friction force between a rotation member 31 and a fixed member 32 or a ball 33.
Abstract: A shower of tobacco particles is admitted into the inlet at the top of and descends by gravity and/or under the action of a driven cell wheel in a generally upright duct. The particles are moisturized prior to admission into the duct or due to contact with droplets of water in the inlet, and are thereupon caused to traverse an orbiting shower of steam, water and/or another conditioning medium in an intermediate portion of their path in the duct. Such treatment entails a swelling and thus increases the volume of the particles. The conditioning medium is discharged via orifices radially outwardly from at least one substantially horizontal conduit which is rotated about its axis and can be provided with external pins or analogous mechanical impellers serving to cause the particles of tobacco to orbit about the conduit prior to descending into the range of a dryer at a level below the intermediate portion of the path, e.g., at the outlet of the duct.
Abstract: An applying means in a discharge means includes a set of electrodes, and the electrodes face the ground level, are aligned along one continuous plane, are separated from each other at specified intervals in the horizontal direction, and are set to the same electrical potential. When the direct current high voltage is supplied from a power supply means, electric force lines are directed upward in the air above the applying means, producing charged particles based on corona discharge from the applying means. The charged particles absorb water in the air, condensing and binding into water, and dispersing the fog.
April 19, 1999
Date of Patent:
November 28, 2000
Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co., Ltd.
Palei Aleksei Alekseevich, Lapshin Vladimir Borisovich, Popova Irina Sergeevna, Chernishev Leonid Sergeevich, Masaya Tanaka, Katsuji Yamamoto
Abstract: A method for making artificial snow using micro particulate material for the performance enhancement of snow making equipment, wherein very small particles of material are mixed into the water supply system which supplies water to the snow making guns at a skiing area. The particles serve as the nucleus for snow crystals to grow upon when sprayed into the atmosphere by the snow making guns. The water, which has the nucleating material mixed into it, is sprayed out of the snow making guns in the form of fine droplets, small enough for the cold ambient air at the skiing slope to freeze the small water droplets into the solid form of snow flakes. The nucleating material, which originally is in the form of a fine powder, may be mixed in a suitable container with a portion of the water, so it can be appropriately metered through a pump, into the water pipe that feeds the snow making guns.
Abstract: Factors controlling the effect of cloud seeding were critically examined, and a new horizontal penetration seeding method using liquid homogeneous ice nucleants at the lower level of the supercooled portion of clouds was invented to maximize the microphysics-dynamics interaction between the seeded ice crystal thermal and the supercooled cloud through optimal utilization of the phase change energy. Cloud seeding tests showed a remarkable effect. This method allows the development of twin rotating horizontal cylinders of ice crystal thermal, which slowly rise, expand and entrain the supercooled cloud droplets to provide the supersaturated condition and time for the required growth of seeded ice crystals. When the thermal reaches the top of the cloud, it spreads horizontally while lowering the ice crystals of sufficiently large size and fall velocity resulting in an effective treatment of the existing and induced cloud volume for precipitation augmentation and the associated dynamic effect.
Abstract: A chemical composition is disclosed herein for effectuating a complex detoxification of fumes, chemical fogs, and a reduction of visibility obscuration caused by fumes and dispersed extinguishing agents in confined areas of fire origin.The composition includes four solid, crystalline components: two chemical nucleators for cooling and rapid condensation of water vapors, two oxides for converting carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide; and includes two clathrates in aqueous solution, for inclusion complexation of primary toxic gases and components of the dispersion mediums in smokes, and dispersed phase in the water vapors.
Abstract: A new control circuit for firing an ultrasonic vertical anti-hail cannon on a repeated basis from a remote location. The control circuit employs a micro-controller with electrically erasable programmable read only memory and random access memory. When main power is provided the program is read from memory and several safety tests are run before the program goes into a routine that provides for repeated cannon firings. In the preferred embodiment a telephone pager is employed in the control circuit to enable repeated cannon fire by merely paging the cannon from a remote location. Likewise, the repeated cannon fire can be halted by paging the control circuit. The control circuit employs certain safety protocols to minimize the likelihood of inadvertent cannon fire and to permit manual firing and servicing of the cannon.
March 13, 1998
Date of Patent:
November 2, 1999
Hail Bangers, Inc.
James P. Swindeman, Bernard F. Swindeman, Gerald S. Banks
Abstract: The modular system with double ventilation--mechanic and thermic--for the reduction or annulment of the formation of fog banks, that determines the slowest possible cooling of the ground and of the adjacent air layers maintaining their temperature higher than the steam condensation one, comprises an internal combustion engine (1) for the production of mechanic and thermic energy to be used for heating the soil as well as the movement of the air masses above; a plurality of propellers (2) of different dimensions for opposing the phenomenon of the thermic reversal that occurs in the night, when the warm air rises to the higher layers, while the cold air moves down to the lower ones; and a pipe system (3) for heat dispersion which acts as a radiator and in the same time produces an ascensional current of warm air that pushes into the higher layers the fog possibly formed.
Abstract: A fog generator comprising a pump which delivers under hitch pressure a volatilizable chemical into a centrifuge-heater component which centrifuges and heats the chemical efficiently. The centrifuge forces heavier particles of the volatilizable chemical against highly heated areas of the centrifuge member to provide added pressure to the volatilizable chemical passing through the centrifuge resulting in increased production of ultra-fine fog. One embodiment describes a fog generator which includes an ice chamber through which some of the volatilized chemical may be directed to cool the volatilized chemical passing through ice particles therein and make more effective the production of low-lying fog. To make the use of the ice chamber even more efficient, the ice chamber includes means for efficient removal of water which has accumulated from melted ice.
Abstract: A view tank including an upper partition plate and a lower partition plate dividing the tank body into an upper section, a middle section, and a lower section. The walls of the middle section are transparent and openable for planting purposes. The lower section is a water storage section, and water is pumped to a fog generating box for generating fog. Excessive water flows down from the upper portion of the middle section. The upper section has a light for illuminating the middle section, and a fan for blowing the hot air in the upper and middle sections to the outer rim of the transparent walls of the middle section so as to remove water moisture on the walls. The respective walls of the three sections may be fabricated into integral units which are then assembled as a whole.
Abstract: The invention concerns a method of preventing or eliminating fog over an area of land, for example an aircraft runway, a motorway carriageway, part of a road or some other area. The method calls for water to be sprayed through several nozzles into a given body of air over the area to form finely divided water droplets. The invention also concerns a system for carrying out this method.
October 12, 1995
Date of Patent:
September 22, 1998
Institut fur Entwicklung und Forschung Dr. Vielberth KG
Abstract: The invention relates to a device for generating a fog, characterized in that it comprises: a) a first closed vessel (1) kept at temperature and filled with a mixture having such a vapor pressure curve that pressure can be generated by varying the temperature of the mixture; b) a second closed vessel (2, 2', 2") with a heat exchanger kept at a higher temperature; c) a pipe (7) with a valve (8) connecting the mixture from the first vessel to the second vessel (2, 2', 2"); d) an outlet (16, 16') in the wall of the second vessel (2, 2', 2") for distributing the fog generated under pressure in this latter vessel into the environment.
Abstract: The present invention's fog generating apparatus has a mixing chamber. A steam nozzle in the mixing chamber injects high pressure steam into the chamber. The injected steam entrains ambient air, pulling it through an air opening into the mixing chamber. The steam and air mix to form humid air. Cryogenic fluid, preferably liquid nitrogen, is injected through a nozzle, which is positioned in the path of the humid air. The cryogenic fluid rapidly cools the warm, humid air which generates large quantities of fog. Depending of the way the steam is injected and the design of the mixing chamber, the present invention can generate slow or fast moving fog.
Abstract: An embodiment of this invention comprises a plurality of mono-filaments as condensation collectors. Plurality of filaments are connected to hang vertically from this horizontal cord, cable, rope on either side. A network of any size can be built. On a clear night the dew condenses on the collectors and makes rain. The condensate collector only works when there are no clouds to obstruct the heat radiation of the earth into the outer space.
Abstract: A method of dissipating hydrometeors (clouds) that includes transmitting electromagnetic radiation (e.g., light energy, from the sun, for example) that is absorbed by water vapor into the cloud to be dissipated and continuing the transmission of such energy into the cloud until it dissipates. The source of electromagnetic radiation can be a large mirror located on the surface of the earth, that reflects sunlight into the cloud to be dissipated. In a still more specific embodiment of the invention, the wind speed, direction, cloud altitude and sun movement relative to the earth is tracked to determine the mirror orientation and tracking necessary to disperse a particular cloud or clouds. In addition, an array of earth-mounted mirrors could be utilized in a coordinated fashion to dissipate a group or larger volume of clouds.
Abstract: Weather in the vicinity of a land mass such as a continental arid zone near, and usually eastward of a body of water is modified by preferably propelling a ship pulling a submerged body having plurality of vertically displaced foils having an angle of attack that effects an upward displacement to the water in response to the surface displacement of the ship. The upward displacement of the water moves cooler sub-surface water toward the surface thereby cooling the surface water and reducing its heat loss in the summer. As a result, the heat capacity of the water is increased and additional heat will be stored in the water as a consequence of the greater absorption of solar radiation thereby increasing winter storms and the amount of rainfall over the land mass during the winter.
Abstract: The shock wave generator has a combustion control system including a pressure transducer for detecting whether an explosion in the combustion chamber takes place. When combustion is weak, as may be the case when the chamber is particularly wet or cold, extra fuel is added. If no explosion is detected, there is a failure and continued fuel injection is stopped. If normal explosions are not detected after injecting extra fuel a number of times, continued fuel injection and operation is stopped.
Abstract: To improve the transmission of positive ions from ground level to cloud level by a shock wave generator, a shroud is provided which surrounds the barrel of the generator for guiding a convective air flow vertically along the sides of the barrel to an orifice of the barrel. Positive ions present in the ambient air and also created by the environment surrounding the hot barrel are drawn upwardly by convection and a negative pressure following each explosion. The shroud is higher than the barrel and positive ions are drawn into the area in front of the barrel where shock waves displace the ions upwardly to cloud level for preventing hail nuclei formation.
Abstract: The shock wave generator has a barrel made of four half conical shells with a vertical seam line plane of the Upper shells perpendicular to a vertical seam line plane of the lower shells. The upper and lower shells are connected about a horizontal circular seam line. The barrel guides shock waves for hailstone nuclei disruption and is resistant to mechanical shock and thermal stress endured during higher frequency operation.
Abstract: By reaction of Cl and ClO radicals with alkaline cations, such as K.sub.2 O.sub.2, Na.sub.2 O.sub.2, CaO, CaO . MgO, Ca(OH).sub.2, CaCO.sub.3, (Ca Mg) (CO.sub.3).sub.3, Na.sub.2 CO.sub.3, NaHCO.sub.3 and NaHCO.sub.3 . Na.sub.2 CO.sub.3 . 2 H.sub.2 O, these radicals are either bound in ultraviolet radiation stable crystalline inorganic lattices or in high stability alkaline salt solutions. Since most of these salts are hygroscopic, they are able to pick up water vapor from the atmosphere, increase in size, and fall through the stratosphere and troposphere resulting in a faster removal rate than would otherwise occur.
Abstract: A method of cloud seeding for precipitation enhancement comprises releasing hygroscopic seeding particles from a seeding flare 10. The particles are obtained by burning, in the flare, a pyrotechnic composition which includes, as an oxidizing agent, a compound selected from the group consisting in potassium chlorate and potassium perchlorate. The particles are allowed to enter a suitable cloud formation. The particles act as seeds or nuclei for precipitable water drop formation, thereby to enhance precipitation from the cloud formation.
Abstract: An orchard heat exchanger comprises an engine-driven shaft having an air propeller on each end. The assembly is enclosed in an open-ended horizontal cylindrical shroud, which has a large converging-diverging air inlet at the top, and is trailer mounted. The orchard heat exchanger has the capability of being elevated to treetop level. In a first embodiment, the engine-propeller-shroud assembly may be rotated in a horizontal plane. In a second embodiment, there is no horizontal rotational capability, but the cylindrical shroud is fitted with directional louvers at each end.
Abstract: A microclimate control apparatus utilizing the water vapor present in the earth's atmosphere as a natural energy source for promoting vertical air movement inside the apparatus, to gather, transport and distribute condensed water. The apparatus is positioned in the air using a proportional suspending system and a balloon enclosure (24) that suspends a tubular sleeve (53) containing water condensation surfaces within, and a hollow, convective lifting column (72) held in the atmosphere by circular ring balloons (106) positioned along the height of the apparatus, its altitude being controlled by a vertical cable (42) wound on a motorized reel (46) attached to the ground. The apparatus' water condenser (54) generates and maintains condensation conditions for the water present in the ascending air stream, promoting convective air movement inside the apparatus.
Abstract: Fog is dispelled from a site by passing fog-laden air into a drying unit where it is contacted with a dessicant liquid (either an aqueous solution or a deliquescent absorbent which is not calcium chloride or a liquid dessicant such as glycerol or certain others) under conditions which effectuate absorption of the water particles and some water from the air effective to increase the temperature of the air and dry it to a predetermined relative humidity range, then discharging the dried heated air from the unit into fog-laden air at the site to effectuate vaporization of suspended water particles and associated cooling of the discharged air without development of thermals of the discharged air sufficient to create substantial circulation of fog-laden air into the site.
Abstract: Fog is dispelled from a site by passing fog-laden air into a drying unit where it is contacted with an aqueous solution of calcium chloride under conditions which effectuate absorption of the water particles and some water from the air effective to increase the temperature of the air and dry it to a predetermined relative humidity range, then discharging the dried heated air from the unit into fog-laden air at the site to effectuate vaporization of suspended water particles and associated cooling of the discharged air without development of thermals of the discharged air sufficient to create substantial circulation of fog-laden air into the site.
Abstract: A method of producing a breathable fog comprises (a) passing air through a dryer unit to remove moisture; (b) cooling the dried air to a temperature below 0.degree. C.; and (c) inducing water vapor into the dried and cooled air to produce breathable fog.
Abstract: A method and apparatus for dissipating fog. A low enclosure includes a plurality of slits in the top thereof. A space heater is in communication with the enclosure and provides a flow of heated air thereinto. Heat is transferred to the air above the enclosure by convection through the slits and by radiation from the heated top. A plurality of such enclosures are positioned adjacent a runway to evaporate fog in the air surrounding the runway.
Abstract: A system for reducing air pollution comprising a tower including an air intake at least 200 m above the ground, air outlets at more than 30 m above the ground, and a duct extending between the air take and the air outlets and having a flow cross-section of at least 25 m.sup.2, and a blower located in the duct for drawing air through the air intake and expelling it from the outlets as jets moving at least 1 m/sec and extending at least 500 m from the outlet.
Abstract: The invention relates to a process for the controlled disposal of an aerosol cloud by means of directed sound waves of high intensity in the audible frequency range. According to the invention, sound waves are emitted by an aircraft (8, 10) operating close to the periphery of the cloud (4). The frequency spectrum of the wave consists of a basic frequency and a superposing frequency of twice the basic frequency valve and phase-shifted in relation to the basic frequency at substantially 90.degree., so as to cause the particles to coagulate and to migrate towards the sound source, and to be collected at the aircraft.
May 25, 1988
Date of Patent:
July 18, 1989
European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM)
Abstract: An artificial fog generator device is provided with air jet pipes, an oil bath, filtering screens, and an enclosing housing to include all of these elements, and outlet channels for directing the generated cloud of oil bubbles from the housing, and an air compressor that feeds high pressure air into the spraying pipes. A much more efficient generator of fine oil bubbles is achieved by locating the air jet pipes directly above the surface of the oil bath. The compressed air is fed into the pipes that are located directly above the oil bath and high pressure air jets spraying into the oil bath cause a cloud of fine oil bubbles to fly out of the oil bath. The generated oil bubbles than pass through the filtering screens and are then directed out of the housing through the outlet channels. The fog or smoke generator housing may be portable, and have a carrying handle, and may contain the air compressor, and a power supply and battery to power the air compressor.
Abstract: A method and apparatus for eliminating fog on a stadium, on airports, highways and the like, dissolves the fog by discharging a mixture of warm and cold air, respectively produced by a warm air, direct combustion generator and a double suction centrifugal ventilator. The warm air generator and cold air ventilator are placed side-by-side with a portable housing and separated by an internal wall.The mixture of warm and cold is discharged such that discharge satisfies the relation:10 Kcal/h:m.sup.3 of ventilated air/hat a velocity less than or equal to 20 m/s.
Abstract: To accomplish the removal of warm fog about an area such as an airport runway (11) shown in FIG. 1, a plurality of nozzles (17) along a line (15) adjacent the area propelled water jets (19) through the fog to heights of approximately twenty-five meters. Each water jet (19) breaks up forming a water drop size distribution that falls through the fog overtaking, colliding, and coalescing with individual fog droplets and thereby removes the fog. A water retrieval system (15) is used to collect the water and return it to reservoirs (21) for pumping it to the nozzles (17) once again.
July 23, 1984
Date of Patent:
November 1, 1988
The United States of America as represented by the Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration
Abstract: Process wherein air is continuously sucked and returned in a closed cycle, the moisture of the air being reduced down to a value lower than the saturation limit value. The treatment is carried out by means of a metal carbide, preferably calcium carbide and/or a substance capable of binding water by hydrolysis or hydration, for example sodium hydrophosphate or anhydrous sodium sulfate which may be contained when mixing both substances into a quantity up to 85% by weight, preferably 35 and 65% by weight, in the substance reacting with the condensed moisture. The plant is comprised of a system of conduits (1-5) containing suction nozzles and connected to a container (7, 8) intended to receive the material reacting with the air moisture and connected to the suction nozzle of a fan (6) to which is coupled a pressure line (1-5) surrounding the limited area and comprising discharge openings.
Abstract: An installation intended to cause precipitation at a site includes a lance for spraying water into the air using a pump that is controlled by a timer. A lightning conductor is erected at the site for protecting the timer and pump from lightning, as well as protecting a tank containing water to be sprayed which is also at the site. A probe for sensing atmospheric conditions that are conducive to rain is also provide at the site. The timer and the probe are controlled by a remotely located computer which, upon information received from the probe, activates the timer which in turn activates the pump.
Abstract: A mixer/charger is used simultaneously to mix and electrically to charge a fluid or fluid-like material, and such electrically charged product is distributed into another fluid for various purposes. In one case the charged product may be mixed with particulate matter used to form smoke--an apppropriate polarity can cause repulsion of the smoke producing particulates thereby to reduce agglomeration and to maximize the suspension time of such particulates in surrounding environment. Alternatively, by distributing the charged product into particulate containing fluid and selecting the polarity such that such particulates tend to agglomerate, expeditious removal of such particulates can be accomplished. The charged product also may be used for distributing mist, distributing ionic material in air, e.g. for sense of wellbeing, and for seeding clouds.
Abstract: Atmospheric occurrences that decrease visibility, particularly fog, smoke, smog and the like, are cleared at sites such as airports by an array of EGD spray units emitting submicron size charged water droplets to attach to airborne particulates and electrostatically precipitate those to ground. Independent variables of the array and the EGD jets from the spray units are controlled to control the dependent variables characterizing the space-charge cloud thus developed. The methods and apparatus control the height to which clearing of the airborne particulates occurs to improve visibility and the time required for such clearing. Specific compact spray units are self-contained, can be radio operated, and are movable. Placement of the units for removal of radiation and advection fog with respect to airport runways include a square array of the spray units proximate the runway for radiation fog control and upwind location of arrays for advection fog precipitation.
Abstract: A fog generator comprises a duct which is preferably vertical and very tall, an air mover for moving air down through the duct, an air director which includes a spout to direct the air emerging from the duct in a substantially horizontal stream in a chosen direction away from the duct and a fog generator which generates a fog into the moving air preferably after the air has left the spout. The spout is preferably rotatable in a horizontal plane. The invention enables a generated fog to be placed where required by the air stream in which it is entrained rather than relying on natural wind drift.
December 16, 1985
Date of Patent:
February 17, 1987
Development Finance Corporation of New Zealand
Ernest D. Sanders, Lawrence D. Sanders, Nigel D. Sanders