Cryogenic Cooling Patents (Class 241/DIG37)
  • Patent number: 6145323
    Abstract: A method and apparatus for the cleaning of residue from the surface of a container where the method comprises cooling the container and residue adhered to the container surface to a low temperature, substantially embrittling the residue, fragmenting the residue, separating the residue from the surface of the container and removing the residue from the container. The container is placed in an enclosure with an opening in the top of the enclosure to permit access to the interior of the container when a container lid is removed. The system includes a rotating base to turn the container to facilitate freezing and removal of the residue.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 29, 1999
    Date of Patent: November 14, 2000
    Assignees: James L. Popp, Carolyn Popp
    Inventors: James L. Popp, Carolyn Popp, James Dean, Robert E. Clark
  • Patent number: 6076752
    Abstract: In a grinding/pulverizing system the combustion of the material being processed is avoided by grinding or pulverizing the material at temperatures below the combustion temperature of the material, and/or in an atmosphere of reduced oxygen level incapable of supporting combustion of the material at the processing temperature.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 1, 1998
    Date of Patent: June 20, 2000
    Assignee: Quality Botanical Ingredients, Inc.
    Inventors: Mark Paradowski, Ralph John Altreche, Carlos Mendez
  • Patent number: 6013685
    Abstract: A process for recycling of packings containing reactive residues wherein the packings are introduced into a cold zone and cooled until the residues contained therein solidify and are then crushed in the cooled state, the crushed packings are divided into a fraction containing the reactive residues and at least one further fraction, the residue-containing fraction is introduced into a mixing zone into which an agent reactive with the residues is simultaneously introduced, optionally together with a catalyst, the temperature in the mixing zone being held below the softening temperature of the residues and the reactive agent, and the resulting mixture of residue-containing fraction and reactive agent and optionally catalyst is brought to a temperature sufficient for reaction and reacted in a reaction zone.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 18, 1997
    Date of Patent: January 11, 2000
    Assignee: Rathor AG
    Inventor: Mathias Pauls
  • Patent number: 5992499
    Abstract: Method and apparatus for reclaiming sand from a foundry sand containing, inter alia, a clay binder by cooling the foundry sand to a temperature at or below -40.degree. C. (-40.degree. F.) followed by separation of the sand from the binder while the sand is maintained at a temperature at or below 0.degree. C. (32.degree. F.). Foundry sands with clay binders have a water content to 1% to 15% by weight prior to being cooled.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 9, 1998
    Date of Patent: November 30, 1999
    Assignees: Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., American Metalcasting Services Int'l Inc.
    Inventors: William Lee Tordoff, Jeremy Paul Miller
  • Patent number: 5927620
    Abstract: An improved method for treating crumb rubber particles for use in asphalt compositions is characterized by activating the particles to enhance the rheological properties thereof. A slurry of crumb rubber particles is formed by adding water thereto. The slurry is heated to a temperature of 85-90.degree. C. to release excess oils and chemicals from the particles into the slurry. The slurry is dried to produce a fine mesh rubber product with enhanced rheological properties.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 11, 1997
    Date of Patent: July 27, 1999
    Assignee: Phaltech Corporation
    Inventor: Mohammed Memon
  • Patent number: 5887803
    Abstract: The invention relates to a process and an apparatus for grinding and sifting a product, in which the product is embrittled by a coolant and is comminuted in a mill (8), the comminuted product being fed, after comminution while keeping away ambient air and the moisture this involves, to a sifter (14). With the process and the apparatus according to the invention, the product can be comminuted and sifted in a closed-loop process without separating agents having to be fed to the ground product prior to sifting to overcome electrostatic charging. The sifter (14) is preferably operated with the gaseous coolant which is used to operate the mill (8) so that any losses of sifter circuit gas occurring during sifting can be compensated by feeding in a gaseous coolant. The total duration of the process can be reduced considerably.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 20, 1996
    Date of Patent: March 30, 1999
    Assignee: Messer Griesheim GmbH
    Inventors: Oliver Dietrich, Wilfried Duesberg, Manfred Stahl
  • Patent number: 5842650
    Abstract: A method and an arrangement are provided for breaking up composite material comprised of elastic materials combined with metallic materials. The composite material is placed into an insulated vat holding liquid nitrogen via a transporting device and is positioned below a unipolar electrode arrangement. An energy source generates high-energy pulses that are applied to the composite material by the electrode arrangement. The composite material is torn apart by the high-energy pulses and is separated by a subsequently resulting pressure pulse.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 6, 1996
    Date of Patent: December 1, 1998
    Assignee: TZN Forschungs - und Entwicklungszentrum Unterluss GmbH
    Inventor: Juergen Hofmann
  • Patent number: 5775603
    Abstract: The present invention relates to an ultra-high energy impact system for reducing the particle size of materials to an average diameter as small as about 40 .mu.m. The system includes a cooling station for cooling the materials to a temperature within the range of from about -40.degree. F. to about -450.degree. F. by direct contact with refrigerant, preferably liquid refrigerant; a milling station for reducing the particle size of the cooled materials which does not require direct cooling by refrigerant and which includes a rotor or rotors each operating at a tip speed within the range of from about 500 to about 1500 feet per second; and an atmosphere modifier for reducing the pressure of the gaseous atmosphere within the milling station to less than 20 inches of mercury absolute.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 23, 1996
    Date of Patent: July 7, 1998
    Assignee: Praxair Technology, Inc.
    Inventors: Rudolph Hugo Kohler, Robert Bruce Davis, Frederic Neal Steigman
  • Patent number: 5761912
    Abstract: A method and apparatus for the cleaning of residue from the surface of a container where the method comprises adhering a bulk material to the residue, cooling the container and residue adhered to the container surface to a low temperature, substantially embrittling the residue and then impacting the container to fragment and separate the residue from the surface of the container. The cooling may be effected to multiple containers in a semi-continuous fashion placing the containers sequentially in one end of an enclosure, contacting cold cryogen to the residue and container, advancing the containers to the other end of the enclosure and withdrawing the containers sequentially.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 3, 1997
    Date of Patent: June 9, 1998
    Inventors: James L. Popp, Carolyn Popp
  • Patent number: 5758831
    Abstract: A process and apparatus for comminuting cryogenic feedstock particles, the process comprising the steps of embrittling the particles with a cryogenic medium, positioning the cryogenically embrittled particles in a comminutor having a cavity, the comminutor having means for generating a high-voltage electrical discharge in the cavity, comminuting the particles in the cavity with forces created by the high-voltage electrical discharge pulse, and transferring the comminuted particles from the comminutor and wherein the positioning includes continuously transporting the particles through the comminutor. Transporting of the particles may be accomplished by entraining the particles in the cryogenic medium. The means for generating the forces for comminuting the particles includes generating the high-voltage electrical dischargeacross at least two electrodes.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 31, 1996
    Date of Patent: June 2, 1998
    Assignee: Aerie Partners, Inc.
    Inventors: Kenneth D. Collins, Bradley J. Deghuee, Ronald A. Walrod
  • Patent number: 5735471
    Abstract: The present invention relates to a method for disintegration of thermoplastic elastomeric materials containing fibres, wires or the like. This method comprises the following two steps: subjecting segments of the elastomeric materials to temperatures able to bring the segments into a brittle glass-like state (by means of a freezing chamber), and gradual disintegrating of the frozen segments by disintegrating means provided to separate the segments from the wires and fibres. This disintegration is effected by means of a bending force applied to the frozen segments causing them to break into small particles while the wires and fibres remain substantially intact. After the disintegration, separation of the small particles, wires and fibres takes place by separating means.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 18, 1996
    Date of Patent: April 7, 1998
    Inventor: Louis Muro
  • Patent number: 5704104
    Abstract: A method and machine are disclosed for using a cold dry abrasion step for separating segments of discarded carpet into pile material (usually nylon) and backing layers (usually polypropylene) for recycling. A preferred method of abrasion uses dry ice pellets (made of frozen carbon dioxide) which are ejected at high speed from a set of nozzles that shoot the pellets directly into an abrasion zone, as a segment of discarded carpet on a conveyor system is being stripped apart and disassembled. The dry ice pellets "freeze" the binder material (usually latex) by lowering it to a temperature that makes the binder brittle and easy to break apart. The pellets also serve as abrasive agents, in a manner comparable to sand-blasting; however, unlike sandblasting or liquid (steam or chemical) systems, the dry ice pellets evaporate (sublimate) directly into gas without going through a liquid phase, and without leaving any liquid or gritty residue.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 27, 1995
    Date of Patent: January 6, 1998
    Inventors: Forrest C. Bacon, Wendell R. Holland, Lial H. Holland
  • Patent number: 5692687
    Abstract: A medical waste handling device in which the medical waste material, including syringes, are ground and crushed in a grinding unit while being sanitized and subjected to a cold temperature of about -50.degree. F. to make the waste material brittle, passing the fragmented waste material into a removable receptacle in a housing and in which the receptacle is further provided with a disinfectant to secondarily sanitize the medical waste material.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 11, 1996
    Date of Patent: December 2, 1997
    Inventor: Richard D. Kateley
  • Patent number: 5683040
    Abstract: The invention relates to a method for recycling electronic waste in the form of disassembled printed circuit boards from electronic devices, from which the components have not been removed, known as printed circuit boards. After removal of the batteries, mercury switches and PCB-containing capacitors, the printed circuit boards are mechanically precomminuted and the particles are cryogenically embrittled with liquid nitrogen and comminuted in a hammermill.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 20, 1996
    Date of Patent: November 4, 1997
    Assignee: Daimler-Benz AG
    Inventors: Ralf Jakob, Michele Melchiorre
  • Patent number: 5634599
    Abstract: The invention relates to process for recycling tires and other recyclable materials. The process includes a series of steps designed to reduce a rubber or polymer tire into pulverized material. The process involves first shredding the tires or recyclable material into chips. The chips are then cooled to cryogenic temperatures at which said pieces become brittle. The brittle pieces are then pulverized in the second step. Pulverized material is then screened, removing large chunks of rubber or polymer from the mixture. Finally, the remaining fiber and magnetic material is separated out of the pulverized material, through the use of a magnetic separator and a vibrational (fiber) separator.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 24, 1995
    Date of Patent: June 3, 1997
    Assignee: Crumbrubber Technology Co., Inc.
    Inventors: Iosif Khais, Angelo Reali, Michael Reali, Igor Reznik
  • Patent number: 5597123
    Abstract: The present invention relates to ultra-high energy impact systems and processes for reducing the particle size of materials to an average diameter as small as about 40 .mu.m. The systems include a cooling station for cooling the materials to a temperature within the range of from about -40.degree. F. to about -450.degree. F.; a milling station for reducing the particle size of the cooled materials, which station includes a rotor operating at a tip speed within the range of from about 600 to about 1500 feet per second; and an atmosphere modifier for modifying the gaseous atmosphere within the milling station.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 30, 1995
    Date of Patent: January 28, 1997
    Assignee: Praxair Technology, Inc.
    Inventors: Frederic N. Steigman, Rudolph H. Kohler, Robert B. Davis
  • Patent number: 5590838
    Abstract: Apparatus for reducing to particles tread portions and beaded side wall portions of vehicle tires, particularly extra large vehicle tires, or for preparing such vehicle tires for recapping, comprises a tire holder assembly, having a paired set of dual jacks carried by opposite ends, respectively, of elongate, rigid, tire clamping frames, and a rotary, cutter blade assembly made up of a side-by-side series of disks carrying cutter blades of chisel type offset from one another to provide a helically oriented series of such cutting blades. Opposite side and end members of each of the frames provide for clamping corresponding side wall beads of a received tire, while opposite ends of opposite end members of the respective frames, usually clamping corners thereof, span respective chords of the circumferences of corresponding beads of the tire.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 13, 1993
    Date of Patent: January 7, 1997
    Assignee: Garb Oil & Power Corporation
    Inventor: John C. Brewer
  • Patent number: 5588600
    Abstract: A process for recovering crumb rubber from used vehicle tires wherein the tires are comminuted in three comminuting operations, the second and third of which are prefaced by contact with a liquid cryogenic. The cryogenic liquid which is gassified upon contact with the tire particles, is reliquefied and recycled.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 7, 1995
    Date of Patent: December 31, 1996
    Inventors: Kenneth F. Perfido, Anthony M. Cialone
  • Patent number: 5566550
    Abstract: Apparatus for cryogenic separation of elastomeric products from metallic products and textile fibers combined as composite waste products having two cryogenic chambers capable of alternately receiving waste composite products to be directly contacted by a cryogenic fluid and for alternately discharging cryogenically frozen products therefrom. The chambers are in communication through a valved duct for transferring the cryogenic fluid from one chamber to the other alternately and there is a pressure equalizing valved duct to facilitate the fluid transfer in an equalized pressure environment. The chambers are rotatable through an angle sufficient to permit the cryogenic fluid transfer to be effected by gravity from one chamber to the other alternately, so that when one of the chambers is operating as a cryogenic chamber, the other can be discharged and reloaded and vice-versa.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 26, 1994
    Date of Patent: October 22, 1996
    Assignee: Gerardo Pagaza-Melero
    Inventors: Gerardo Pagaza-Melero, Raymundo Fernandez-Y-Sosa, Santiago Bastida-Sanchez, Agustin Bastida-Sanchez, Victor Pagaza-Melero, Jesus F. Pagaza-Melero
  • Patent number: 5566894
    Abstract: A thermoplastic slab breaking apparatus comprising a housing with a slab receiving aperture and an exit aperture on the base of said housing; a conveyor for conveying a continuous hot melt thermoplastic slab from a hot zone to a cool zone within said housing; a first rotatable slab breaker member comprising a pinwheel or a rigid rod with a plurality of rigid tines projecting radially outward therefrom and positioned in close proximity to the end of the conveyor in the cool zone, wherein the rod axis resides approximately in a plane defined by the conveyed slab and perpendicular to a line defined by the conveyed slab; and an optional second breaker member comprising a rigid rod with a plurality of rigid tines projecting radially outward therefrom and positioned approximately axially parallel and beneath the first slab breaker member; wherein the conveyor continuously transports the slab to the rotating first slab breaker and forces the slab into contact with the rotating tines of the slab breaker whereby the s
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 1, 1995
    Date of Patent: October 22, 1996
    Assignee: Xerox Corporation
    Inventor: Earl G. Karch
  • Patent number: 5535946
    Abstract: The present invention discloses a method for safely and easily shredding a variety of material particularly material having a low melt temperature and/or containing material sensitive to high static electric charges, such as 1.1 and 1.3 class material. The method comprises applying a cloud of gas vapor onto the shredding means to cool the shredding means to a temperature below that of the melt temperature of the material being shredded and to also reduce the static electric charge on the resulting particles of material which may develop during the shredding process. Further described is an apparatus for carrying out the method.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 28, 1994
    Date of Patent: July 16, 1996
    Assignee: United Technologies Corporation
    Inventors: Ross P. Clark, Ronald D. Stewart
  • Patent number: 5533680
    Abstract: Dry ice snow is used to embrittle thermoset or thermoplastic materials for further treatment. The dry ice snow is formed from carbon dioxide gas directly obtained from naturally occurring carbon dioxide gas wells.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 28, 1994
    Date of Patent: July 9, 1996
    Assignee: U.S. Rubber Reclaiming, Inc.
    Inventor: Bobby D. LaGrone
  • Patent number: 5524838
    Abstract: A method and apparatus for separating and recovering rubber, fiber, and steel from tires cryogenically cools and grinds tire rubber. The method reduces by 45 to 60 percent the amount of nitrogen required to cool and embrittle the rubber prior to being ground. Only the surface of the rubber is embrittled prior to grinding.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 7, 1994
    Date of Patent: June 11, 1996
    Inventors: H. John Ellers, Milton M. Masson
  • Patent number: 5513809
    Abstract: A cryogenic vibratory mill designed to receive cooling fluid such as liquid nitrogen within a grinding chamber for grinding of feed material such as crumb rubber from vehicle tires for cryogenic comminution within a grinding chamber. Cooling within the grinding chamber is achieved by passing cooling fluid such as liquid nitrogen therethrough wherein most of the cooling fluid passes through longitudinal channels formed longitudinally in the cylindrically shaped grinding rods. The operating temperature is normally less than -120 degrees Fahrenheit. A vibrating drive is operative to vibrate the housing and the grinding rods therein to achieve comminution of the feed stock rubber passing therethrough. With this design most of the cooling is achieved by passing of the cooling fluid through the channels defined in the grinding rods with only a minimum amount of cooling achieved by cooling fluid passing through the grinding chamber between the rods.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 3, 1995
    Date of Patent: May 7, 1996
    Assignee: TDF, Inc.
    Inventor: Harold Perkel
  • Patent number: 5456738
    Abstract: A process and apparatus for extracting gold from circuit boards, gold fingers and gold pins is described comprising the steps of applying liquid nitrogen directly to the surface of the circuit boards, gold fingers and gold pins, thus freezing the gold. A vibration is then instituted to loosen the gold from the substrate to which it was attached. The gold flakes or particles are then collected by a high powered vacuum apparatus.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 9, 1994
    Date of Patent: October 10, 1995
    Inventor: David J. Gil
  • Patent number: 5456085
    Abstract: A method and apparatus for the cleaning of residue from the surface of a container where the method comprises cooling a container and residue adhered to the container surface to a low temperature, substantially embrittling the residue and then impacting the container to fragment and separate the residue from the surface of the container. The cooling may be effected by contacting cold vaporized cryogen to the residue and container in an insulated box having a cryogen sprayer, an opening, and a door. A method for reducing the bulk volumes of containers comprising cooling the container to a low temperature to substantially embrittle the container and then stressing the container to fracture and break apart the embrittled portions and thereby reduce the bulk volume of the container.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 7, 1994
    Date of Patent: October 10, 1995
    Inventors: James L. Popp, Carolyn Popp
  • Patent number: 5431348
    Abstract: The ultracentrifugal disintegrator includes a device for cooling the annular zone (7), extending from the outer face (8) of the rotor (4) to the inner face (9) of the sieve (5), by feeding a gaseous coolant to the upper part of the zone (7), vertically with respect to the zone (7). Such a disintegrator is used for the cryocomminution of heat sensitive material.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 19, 1993
    Date of Patent: July 11, 1995
    Assignee: Debio Recherche Pharmaceutique SA
    Inventors: Piero Orsolini, Frederic Heimgartner, Edith Heimgartner
  • Patent number: 5431347
    Abstract: A waste disposal system includes a stock yard for storing waste articles, a pre-treatment apparatus for separating a metal bulk from each waste article fed from the stock yard, a cryogenic crushing apparatus for crushing the separated metal bulk, and a crushing apparatus for crushing the portion of the waste article other than the metal bulk. The system further includes a light-weight article separating apparatus for separating the crushed waste from said crushing apparatus into foamed material and other wastes, and a foaming agent collecting apparatus which separates the foamed material into solid plastics and gaseous foaming agent and then cools and liquefies the gaseous foaming agent.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 2, 1993
    Date of Patent: July 11, 1995
    Assignee: Hitachi, Ltd.
    Inventors: Masakatsu Hayashi, Yoshiyuki Takamura, Tsutomu Hasegawa, Hideharu Mori, Tatsuji Katoh
  • Patent number: 5385307
    Abstract: The raw material in used tire carcasses is reclaimed by cutting the tire into quarter segments and freezing the segments with liquid nitrogen in a controlled environment freezing chamber. Rotary air locks pass material to and from the chamber. Steel and fiber materials are removed in a stripping chamber where the frozen rubber both broken into smaller chunks. A robot arm with magnets and hooked fingers removes the fiber and steel. The rubber chunks are then pressed through dies to reduce the size to a uniform rubber crumb. The press consists of multiple pointed fingers in registration with multiple sized holes in a screen type die. The rubber crumb is removed with a suction device and dried using heat from a closed loop nitrogen cycle on the way to collection containers.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 27, 1993
    Date of Patent: January 31, 1995
    Inventor: Essa T. Azar
  • Patent number: 5383396
    Abstract: An installation for the preparation of frozen vegetables, comprising from upstream in the downstream direction a device (10) for washing the fresh vegetables and a device (14) for the spin-drying of the washed vegetables; the freezing device (16) of the rapid individual type; at least one device (22) suitable for exerting on the frozen vegetables sufficient mechanical stresses to allow them to be broken into a plurality of fractions; at least one device (23) for sorting the frozen uniform fractions; a device (30) for packaging at least one of the frozen fractions; means for disposing of the fraction or fractions coming from the sorting device and intended not to be used; this installation being specially designed for the preparation of aromatic herbs or plants.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 30, 1993
    Date of Patent: January 24, 1995
    Assignee: Societe de developpement de l'industrie agro-alimentaire et de la pepiniere europeenne-SODIAPE
    Inventor: Luc Darbonne
  • Patent number: 5369215
    Abstract: Polymeric feedstocks, such as scrap or waste tires, rubber, and plastics, in a size range of -6 to +25 mesh are washed with an organic solvent to remove stabilizing additives which have migrated to the surface of the polymer particles, thus eliminating the stabilizers from participation in subsequent reactions and allowing the final production of more pure monomeric products. The polymer particles are exposed to ozone under conditions to cause stress cracking, fissuring and cleavage of the polymer feedstock particles. The ozonated polymer particles are depolymerized to produce one or more monomeric compounds, with the reaction taking place rapidly and occurring in the presence of a system of one or more catalysts which may be metallic salts. The depolymerization is accomplished under conditions of elevated temperatures and reduced pressure, the conditions being less severe than those conditions associated with thermal pyrolysis.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 16, 1993
    Date of Patent: November 29, 1994
    Assignee: S-P Reclamation, Inc.
    Inventor: Gerald A. Platz
  • Patent number: 5368240
    Abstract: Apparatus for reducing to particles scrap rubber, consisting of an inclined pre-cooling tunnel (11) comprising a conveying means (27) and adapted to be charged via a feed shaft (13), a main cooling tunnel (12) filled, at least in part, with a cooling medium (38) and provided with a conveyor means (41) and a size reduction device (46) downstream of the main cooling tunnel (12). The main cooling tunnel (12) and the pre-cooling tunnel (11) are interlinked via at least one gasification pipe (48) conveying a cooling medium.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 15, 1993
    Date of Patent: November 29, 1994
    Assignee: UBD Patent - und Lizenzverwaltungsgesellschaft
    Inventor: Olivier Bonnet
  • Patent number: 5301881
    Abstract: A waste disposal system includes a stock yard for storing waste articles, a pre-treatment apparatus for separating a metal bulk from each waste article fed from the stock yard, a cryogenic crushing apparatus for crushing the separated metal bulk, and a crushing apparatus for crushing the portion of the waste article other than the metal bulk. The system further includes a light-weight article separating apparatus for separating the crushed waste from said crushing apparatus into foamed material and other wastes, and a foaming agent collecting apparatus which separates the foamed material into solid plastics and gaseous foaming agent and then cools and liquefies the gaseous foaming agent.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 5, 1993
    Date of Patent: April 12, 1994
    Assignee: Hitachi, Ltd.
    Inventors: Masakatsu Hayashi, Yoshiyuki Takamura, Tsutomu Hasegawa, Hideharu Mori, Tatsuji Katoh
  • Patent number: 5299748
    Abstract: An apparatus for reducing extra large vehicle tires to particles or to prepare them for recapping comprises a tire holder assembly, made up of a set of dual jacks, in combination with a rotary cutter blade assembly made up of a side-by-side series of discs carrying cutter blades of chisel type. The set of dual jacks are preferably carried by an arbor having opposite shaft ends adapted to matingly interconnect with corresponding ends of a motivating shaft for quick and easy interchange of one size tire holder assembly for another size. When the tire is to be recapped, arcuate attachments are secured to members of the tire holder assembly that contact a tire bead so as to preserve the circumferential integrity of such bead during cutting, and the cutter blade assembly is replaced by wire buffing brushes following removal of the tread portion of the tire by cutting.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 6, 1992
    Date of Patent: April 5, 1994
    Assignee: Garb Oil & Power Corporation
    Inventor: John C. Brewer
  • Patent number: 5288760
    Abstract: Laminated scrap produced by a reaction injection molding process, comprising a thermoplastic resin substrate and a vinyl skin, together with a polyurethane foam layer disposed therebetween, is ground with cryogenic coating. Thereafter, the granulated particles of the scrap lamination are passed serially through density-based separators to separate the laminated layers. The method and apparatus of the invention permit the separation of the layers of such scrap parts, such that one or more of the constituent parts may be recovered.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 31, 1992
    Date of Patent: February 22, 1994
    Assignee: Ford Motor Company
    Inventor: Jack W. Morgan
  • Patent number: 5271234
    Abstract: A method for removing tile adhered by a substance to a floor includes the step of enclosing a volume generally above an area of the floor and tile, with the tile and floor defining the bottom of the volume enclosed. The temperature in the volume enclosed is reduced so that the substance adhering the tile to the floor becomes embrittled. The apparatus is maintained in position over the area of the floor for a predetermined time to produce the required embrittlement of the adhering substance, and then moved to expose the area of the floor previously below the volume enclosed. The tile is then removed from the floor. An apparatus for use in the method is also disclosed.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 18, 1992
    Date of Patent: December 21, 1993
    Assignee: David L. Carter
    Inventors: David L. Carter, James B. Simms
  • Patent number: 5264640
    Abstract: Scrap rubber chunks from used tires are processed and the monomeric chemicals from which the tire rubber was synthesized are recovered. Rubber chunks reduced to a finely divided size are exposed to gaseous ozone to break down the cross-linked structure of the rubber. Subsequent thermal depolymerization occurs in a reactor chamber. Finely divided silica is introduced within the reactor to prevent agglomeration of rubber particles and to enhance the maintenance of a uniform reactor temperature. Reduced pressure within the reactor permits rapid removal of monomer vapors. Once the monomer vapors are separated, silica and carbon residues are recovered separately for either recycle or disposal.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 6, 1992
    Date of Patent: November 23, 1993
    Assignees: S-P Reclamation, Inc., John S. Schwab
    Inventor: Gerald M. Platz
  • Patent number: 5252347
    Abstract: An installation for the preparation of frozen vegetables, comprising from upstream in the downstream direction a device (10) for washing the fresh vegetables and a device (14) for the spin-drying of the washed vegetables; the freezing device (16) of the rapid individual type; at least one device (22) suitable for exerting on the frozen vegetables sufficient mechanical stresses to allow them to be broken into a plurality of fractions; at least one device (23) for sorting the frozen uniform fractions; a device (30) for packaging at least one of the frozen fractions; means for disposing of the fraction or fractions coming from the sorting device and intended not to be used; this installation being specially designed for the preparation of aromatic herbs or plants.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 7, 1991
    Date of Patent: October 12, 1993
    Assignee: Societe de Developpement de l'Industrie Agro-Alimentaire et de la Pepiniere Europeene - SODIAPE
    Inventor: Luc Darbonne
  • Patent number: 5230140
    Abstract: A process for the environmentally safe disposal of used fluorescent lamp potted ballast assemblies and the like, with the potential for component part reclamation and/or recycling, involving preferred cryogenic freezing of the potted assembly to the extent that the frozen potting becomes sufficiently brittle throughout to enable it to be pulverized away in small particles, cleanly from all the components, with only that component with a hazardous material needing to be incinerated or otherwise environmentally safely disposed of, and with all the other components and parts in condition for salvage, re-use, and/or reclamation.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 24, 1991
    Date of Patent: July 27, 1993
    Assignee: Anthony Nardella
    Inventors: Anthony Nardella, Bruce Norian
  • Patent number: 5203511
    Abstract: A method and apparatus for fine grinding materials normally difficult to grind at ambient temperature, e.g. plastic and elastomeric materials in a fluid classification type impact mill utilizing liquid cryogen to pre-cool the material to be ground, to cool the material and the mill during grinding and to recycle vaporized cryogen from the mill back into the mill as the medium for conveying material to be ground into the mill.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 8, 1990
    Date of Patent: April 20, 1993
    Assignee: Air Products and Chemicals, Inc.
    Inventors: Andrew P. Ondush, Richard D. Ritter, Arthur H. Anderson
  • Patent number: 5091034
    Abstract: To remove a thick insulating coating from a steel pipeline, with high efficiency and speed, multiple cooling and scraping steps are performed sequentially. In a first cooling step, a low temperature coolant is sprayed onto the coating for a time sufficient to cool only a portion of the coating to a temperature below the embrittlement temperature thereof. After scraping away the embrittled outer layers of the coating, subsequent cooling and scraping steps are performed until all of the coating has been embrittled and removed. It has been found that the time required for removing the coating by use of such multiple spraying and scraping steps is substantially less than that where the coating is to be embrittled in a single step.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 9, 1990
    Date of Patent: February 25, 1992
    Assignee: Liquid Air Corporation
    Inventor: Jean-Luc Hubert
  • Patent number: 5025632
    Abstract: A method and apparatus for cryogenic removal of solid materials includes a wand connected in fluid communication with a cryogen fluid source. The wand directs the cryogen against a selected portion of solid material. The wand has a spray nozzle to direct the spray against an inner exposed surface of energetic material typically contained within a munition casing. The wand is connected to a mounting element to allow movement of the wand within the munition body. The munition is mounted on a rotatable base for rotating the munition and to expose the material to the cryogenic fluid spray. The cyrogenic fluid spray, such as liquid nitrogen, is utilized in a dry washout process to freeze and embrittle the surface layer either by precooling and fluid spray, or by spray alone. The embrittle layer is then eroded away by the spray into small particles for removal by pneumatic transport, vacuum, or other collection and removal system. A mechanism may be provided for vibrating the material to loosen the particles.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 13, 1989
    Date of Patent: June 25, 1991
    Assignee: General Atomics
    Inventor: Michael H. Spritzer
  • Patent number: 5011087
    Abstract: A system for separating contaminants from the plastic flake obtained by granulating synthetic plastic containers and products, which have contaminants bonded thereto, has a cryogenic housing for receiving the flake and a transport mechanism incorporated with the housing for moving the flake in a flow stream through the housing. The flake is mixed with a cryogenic medium at a subzero temperature and an impeller receives the frozen flake in a flow stream. An impact wall is provided outboard of the impeller and the impeller is rapidly revolved to radially separate the flakes and hurl the flakes individually at the impact wall with sufficient force to break the bond between the flakes and contaminant.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 14, 1990
    Date of Patent: April 30, 1991
    Inventors: Larry D. Richardson, Tommy M. Pohlman
  • Patent number: 4981535
    Abstract: Solid particles of microscopic size are mixed in a nitrogen atmosphere at conditions of pressure and temperature such that at least a monolayer of nitrogen molecules is adsorbed on the particle surfaces but at conditions at which liquid nitrogen cannot exist in the mixture.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 4, 1985
    Date of Patent: January 1, 1991
    Assignee: General Technology Applications, Inc.
    Inventors: Albert F. Hadermann, Paul F. Waters, Jerry C. Trippe
  • Patent number: 4979685
    Abstract: A process for crushing a hafnium (Hf) crystal bar comprises the steps of maintaining the Hf crystal bar at an extremely low temperature by holding the crystal bar in contact with a cryogenic refrigerant and crushing the crystal bar at the extremely low temperature by clamping and compressing the crystal bar between nickel (Ni)-base superalloy members. An apparatus for crushing the Hf crystal bar comprises a Ni-base superalloy-made container for containing the cryogenic refrigerant, the container having a bottom portion capable of being selectively opened and closed, a heat insulator for covering the container filled with the cryogenic refrigerant so as to maintain the interior of the container at the extremely low temperature, Ni-base superalloy-made pressing terminals for clamping the Hf crystal bar therebetween in the container, and a pressing device for exerting pressure on the pressing terminals so as to compress and crush the Hf crystal bar.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 18, 1990
    Date of Patent: December 25, 1990
    Assignee: Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Takuo Shioda, Jiro Yamada
  • Patent number: 4962893
    Abstract: Fluidized-bed counter-jet mills are gas-jet mills with which extremely fine milling results can be produced with very little wear and tear. An improvement in the milling results can be achieved by cooling the gas jets with a refrigerant, but the improvement that can be achieved is not substantial and the consumption of refrigerant is very high. In order to lower the consumption of refrigerant while considerably improving the fineness of the milled material, the coarse material which is separated by the grader of the mill is cooled by the refrigerant within the fluidized-bed counter-jet mill and fed back into the milling chamber. Liquid nitrogen is the preferred refrigerant with which the sump of the mill is cooled.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 2, 1989
    Date of Patent: October 16, 1990
    Assignee: Messer. Griesheim
    Inventors: Klaus Bochmann, Hans-Joachim Risto, Wolfgang Volker, Helmut Gursky, Dieter Steidl
  • Patent number: 4951881
    Abstract: A process for crushing a hafnium (Hf) crystal bar comprises the steps of maintaining the Hf crystal bar at an extremely low temperature by holding the crystal bar in contact with a cryogenic refrigerant and crushing the crystal bar at the extremely low temperature by clamping and compressing the crystal bar between nickel (Ni)-base superalloy members. An apparatus for crushing the Hf crystal bar comprises a Ni-base superalloy-made container for containing the cryogenic refrigerant, the container having a bottom portion capable of being selectively opened and closed, a heat insulator for covering the container filled with the cryogenic refrigerant so as to maintain the interior of the container at the extremely low temperature, Ni-base superalloy-made pressing terminals for clamping the Hf crystal bar therebetween in the container, and a pressing device for exerting pressure on the pressing terminals so as to compress and crush the Hf crystal bar.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 11, 1989
    Date of Patent: August 28, 1990
    Assignee: Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Takuo Shioda, Jiro Yamada
  • Patent number: 4934609
    Abstract: Described are deodorant and/or antiperspirant vehicles which contain fragrance-containing polymer pellets containing 1 to 80% fragrance, the polymeric pellets produced by means of cryogenically grinding an extruded mixture of perfume composition and polymer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 19, 1984
    Date of Patent: June 19, 1990
    Assignee: International Flavors & Fragrances Inc.
    Inventors: Jerome I. Lindauer, Sharon L. Reich, Rose L. Trizzino, Valerie M. Suran, David E. Cincotta
  • Patent number: 4917834
    Abstract: A mixture of unlike particulate solids is dispersed in liquid nitrogen to form a slurry. The slurry is then subjected to shear and impact forces of sufficient intensity and duration to break up agglomerates, to comminute at least the larger particles, and to obtain a randomly mixed homogeneous suspension. The suspension is thereafter stabilized by removal of liquid nitrogen to form a past or powder which may be further processed into shapes by extrusion or molding. One preferred embodiment utilizes a batch-to-continuous process for the compounding of rubber with carbon black and other additives.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 16, 1988
    Date of Patent: April 17, 1990
    Assignee: General Technology Applications, Inc.
    Inventors: Albert F. Hadermann, Jerry C. Trippe
  • Patent number: 4863106
    Abstract: A process and apparatus for the low temperature comminution of tires includes the separation of the tires into tire portions including tread portions, sidewall portions and bead portions. The tire portions are cooled and crushed to form rubber granules and scrap material. The rubber granules are sorted from the scrap material in a process that includes the step of suspending the granules in a moving stream of low temperature gas. The stream of gas and rubber granules is impacted on a solid surface to grind the granules. The low temperature gas is preferably recycled and cooled by heat exchange with another circulating low temperature gas such as nitrogen.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 13, 1988
    Date of Patent: September 5, 1989
    Assignee: TDE, Inc.
    Inventor: Harold Perkel