Hydrogen From Hydrocarbons Patents (Class 252/376)
  • Patent number: 11040877
    Abstract: Process for making a hydrogen-containing synthesis gas (105) from a hydrocarbon feedstock (101), comprising the reforming of said hydrocarbon feedstock and purification of raw synthesis gas, said purification comprising shift conversion of carbon monoxide into carbon dioxide and subsequent absorption of carbon dioxide into an absorbing medium (7a, 14), resulting in a stream of a CO2-rich medium (5), and regeneration of said medium with recovery of CO2 absorbed therein, wherein said raw synthesis gas (102) is produced by the reforming step at a pressure of at least 45 bar, said regeneration of the CO2-loaded medium includes a step of chemical regeneration and the CO2-loaded medium has a temperature of at least 150° C. during said chemical regeneration.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 17, 2016
    Date of Patent: June 22, 2021
    Assignee: Casale SA
    Inventors: Raffaele Ostuni, Giada Franceschin
  • Patent number: 10906808
    Abstract: Processes for converting methane and/or other hydrocarbons to synthesis gas (i.e., a gaseous mixture comprising H2 and CO) are disclosed, in which at least a portion of the hydrocarbon(s) is reacted with CO2. At least a second portion of the methane may be reacted with H2O (steam), thereby improving overall thermodynamics of the process, in terms of reducing endothermicity (?H) and the required energy input, compared to “pure” dry reforming in which no H2O is present. Catalysts for such processes advantageously possess high activity and thereby can achieve significant levels of methane conversion at temperatures below those used conventionally under comparable conditions. These catalysts also exhibit high sulfur tolerance, in addition to reduced rates of carbon (coke) formation, even in the processing (reforming) of heavier (e.g., naphtha boiling-range or jet fuel boiling-range) hydrocarbons. The robustness of the catalyst translates to high operating stability.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 15, 2017
    Date of Patent: February 2, 2021
    Assignee: Gas Technology Institute
    Inventors: Terry Marker, Martin Linck, Jim Wangerow, Pedro Ortiz-Toral
  • Patent number: 10167194
    Abstract: One embodiment of the present invention is a unique reducing gas generator. Another embodiment is a unique method for generating a reducing gas. Other embodiments include apparatuses, systems, devices, hardware, methods, and combinations for generating reducing gas. Further embodiments, forms, features, aspects, benefits, and advantages of the present application will become apparent from the description and figures provided herewith.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 13, 2015
    Date of Patent: January 1, 2019
    Assignee: LG FUEL CELL SYSTEMS INC.
    Inventor: Mark Vincent Scotto
  • Patent number: 10071337
    Abstract: Systems and methods are provided for combined cycle power generation while reducing or mitigating emissions during power generation. Recycled exhaust gas from a power generation combustion reaction can be separated using a staged complementary swing adsorption process so as to generate a high purity CO2 stream while reducing/minimizing the energy required for the separation and without having to reduce the temperature of the exhaust gas. This can allow for improved energy recovery while also generating high purity streams of carbon dioxide and nitrogen.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 1, 2016
    Date of Patent: September 11, 2018
    Assignee: EXXONMOBIL RESEARCH AND ENGINEERING COMPANY
    Inventors: Narasimhan Sundaram, Hans Thomann, Edward W. Corcoran, Jr.
  • Patent number: 9776862
    Abstract: Provided is a hydrogen production apparatus enabling reduction of energy needed for separation and collection of CO2 in the hydrogen production. The hydrogen production apparatus includes a reformer, a heating device heating the reformer, a transformer, a hydrogen separation device separating and taking out hydrogen from transformed gas, a CO2 separation device separating and taking out CO2 from off-gas from which hydrogen was separated by the hydrogen separation device, a heat collecting device collecting heat of the reformed gas, heat of the transformed gas, and waste heat from the heating device, and a heat medium supply device supplying the heat medium having absorbed heat collected by the heat collecting device to the CO2 separation device. The absorption liquid having absorbed CO2 in off-gas is heated by the heat medium heated with collected heat, thereby releasing CO2.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 24, 2016
    Date of Patent: October 3, 2017
    Assignee: Kobe Steel, Ltd.
    Inventors: Akitoshi Fujisawa, Akira Matsuoka, Hiroo Hangai, Koji Noishiki
  • Patent number: 9187323
    Abstract: Process for increasing the hydrogen content of a synthesis gas containing one or more sulphur compounds, the synthesis gas including hydrogen, carbon oxides and steam, and having a ratio defined as R=(H2?CO2)/(CO+CO2)?0.6 and a steam to carbon monoxide ratio ?1.8, including the steps of (i) heating the synthesis gas; (iii) subjecting at least a portion of the heated synthesis gas to a first stage of water-gas shift in a first shift vessel containing a first sulphur-tolerant water-gas shift catalyst that is cooled in heat exchange with boiling water, to form a pre-shifted gas stream; and (iii) forming a shifted gas stream by subjecting at least a portion of the pre-shifted gas stream to a second stage of water-gas shift in a second shift vessel containing a second sulphur-tolerant water-gas shift catalyst that is cooled in heat exchange with a gas stream including the synthesis gas.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 10, 2012
    Date of Patent: November 17, 2015
    Assignee: JOHNSON MATTHEY PUBLIC LIMITED COMPANY
    Inventors: Peter Edward James Abbott, Richard James Beavis, Philip Charles Southerden
  • Patent number: 9040011
    Abstract: The present invention concerns a process for producing ammonia synthesis gas from the reforming of hydrocarbons with steam in a primary reformer (1) equipped with a plurality of externally heated catalytic tubes and then in a secondary reformer (2) together with an oxidant gas. In this process, the reaction of said hydrocarbons with said steam in said primary reformer (1) is performed at an operating pressure of at least 45 bar in the catalytic tubes and a flow of essentially pure oxygen or oxygen-enriched air is added to said secondary reformer as oxidant gas for substantially reforming together with said all the hydrocarbons content of said product gas exiting the primary reformer (1). In the case essentially pure oxygen is used as oxidant gas, a flow of nitrogen is added downstream the secondary reformer (2) to reach a N2/H2 molar ratio corresponding to or close to the stoichiometric ratio for ammonia synthesis.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 6, 2008
    Date of Patent: May 26, 2015
    Assignee: Casale SA
    Inventors: Ermanno Filippi, Marco Badano, Geoffrey Frederick Skinner
  • Publication number: 20150086465
    Abstract: A process for producing ammonia synthesis gas from the reforming of hydrocarbons with steam in a primary reformer (1) equipped with a plurality of externally heated catalytic tubes and then together with air in a secondary reformer (2) is characterized in that the reaction of said hydrocarbons with said steam in said primary reformer (1) is performed at an operating pressure of more than 35 bar in the catalytic tubes, in that air is added to said secondary reformer in excess over the nitrogen amount required for ammonia synthesis and in that the excess of nitrogen is removed downstream the secondary reformer preferably by cryogenic separation or by molecular sieves of the TAS or PSA type. This process allows to obtain high synthesis gas production capacities and lower investment and energy costs.
    Type: Application
    Filed: December 5, 2014
    Publication date: March 26, 2015
    Applicant: Casale SA
    Inventors: Ermanno FILIPPI, Marco BADANO, Geoffrey Frederick SKINNER
  • Publication number: 20150014596
    Abstract: A process for producing ammonia synthesis gas from a hydrocarbon source, comprising: conversion of the hydrocarbon source into a raw synthesis gas (14) in ATR or POX reactor (11) which is fired with oxygen (12) or oxygen-enriched air (28); a water-gas shift treatment of the raw synthesis gas (14), which consist of a medium-temperature shift (15) at a temperature of 200-300° C., thus obtaining a shifted synthesis gas (16); purification of said shifted synthesis gas (16) including at least a step of pressure-swing adsorption (17) to remove residual carbon oxides and methane from the synthesis gas, obtaining a purified synthesis gas (18), and optionally, addition of nitrogen (19) to said purified synthesis gas (18), thus obtaining ammonia synthesis gas with a desired hydrogen to nitrogen ratio.
    Type: Application
    Filed: January 15, 2013
    Publication date: January 15, 2015
    Applicant: Casale SA
    Inventors: Ermanno Filippi, Raffaele Ostuni
  • Patent number: 8900334
    Abstract: The goal of the invention consists in making available a method for supplying fuel to a pressurized gasification system, which ensures, in economically efficient manner, that the emission of pollutants from the coal transfer and the transport is minimized or completely avoided. This is achieved in that a gas that contains at least 10 ppm vol. CO is used for transfer and/or conveying, whereby a gas that contains oxygen is mixed into this gas, and that this gas mixture is heated to a temperature that oxidizes at least 10% of the pollutants contained in the gas.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 23, 2009
    Date of Patent: December 2, 2014
    Assignee: ThyssenKrupp UHDE GmbH
    Inventors: Johannes Kowoll, Stefan Hamel, Michael Rieger
  • Publication number: 20130330917
    Abstract: A system (10) for delivery of dilute fluid, utilizing an active fluid source (12), a diluent fluid source (14), a fluid flow metering device (24) for dispensing of one of the active and diluent fluids, a mixer (28) arranged to mix the active and diluent fluids to form a diluted active fluid mixture, and a monitor (42) arranged to sense concentration of active fluid and/or diluent fluid in the diluted active fluid mixture, and responsively adjust the fluid flow metering device (24) to achieve a predetermined concentration of active fluid in the diluted active fluid mixture. A pressure controller (38) is arranged to control flow of the other of the active and diluent fluids so as to maintain a predetermined pressure of the diluted active fluid mixture dispensed from the system. The fluid dispensed from the system then can be adjustably controlled by a flow rate controller, e.g., a mass flow controller, to provide a desired flow to a fluid-utilizing unit, such as a semiconductor process tool.
    Type: Application
    Filed: August 12, 2013
    Publication date: December 12, 2013
    Applicant: Advanced Technology Materials, Inc
    Inventors: Jeffrey J. Homan, Jose I. Arno, Joseph D. Sweeney
  • Patent number: 8591770
    Abstract: A process for producing a synthesis gas containing hydrogen and nitrogen, suitable for production of ammonia, wherein a raw synthesis gas (13) obtained by reforming of a natural gas feedstock is purified in a cryogenic separator (CS), and a portion of purified gas (16) is expanded and used as a cooling medium in the same separator, said expanded portion (16) being then re-introduced in the main stream of purified synthesis gas. A suitable apparatus and revamping of conventional plants according to the invention are also disclosed.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 9, 2009
    Date of Patent: November 26, 2013
    Assignee: Ammonia Casale SA
    Inventors: Ermanno Filippi, Geoffrey Frederick Skinner
  • Patent number: 8480768
    Abstract: A gasifier 10 includes a first chemical process loop 12 having an exothermic oxidizer reactor 14 and an endothermic reducer reactor 16. CaS is oxidized in air in the oxidizer reactor 14 to form hot CaSO4 which is discharged to the reducer reactor 16. Hot CaSO4 and carbonaceous fuel received in the reducer reactor 16 undergo an endothermic reaction utilizing the heat content of the CaSO4, the carbonaceous fuel stripping the oxygen from the CaSO4 to form CaS and a CO rich syngas. The CaS is discharged to the oxidizer reactor 14 and the syngas is discharged to a second chemical process loop 52. The second chemical process loop 52 has a water-gas shift reactor 54 and a calciner 42. The CO of the syngas reacts with gaseous H2O in the shift reactor 54 to produce H2 and CO2. The CO2 is captured by CaO to form hot CaCO3 in an exothermic reaction.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 13, 2011
    Date of Patent: July 9, 2013
    Assignee: ALSTOM Technology Ltd
    Inventors: Herbert E. Andrus, Jr., Michael S. McCartney
  • Patent number: 8394154
    Abstract: A process for preparation of synthesis gas and/or hydrogen by counter-currently providing an oxidation reactant stream through an oxidation chamber and a reforming reactant stream through a steam reforming chamber is described. Also provided is a reactor for conducting the reaction.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 28, 2007
    Date of Patent: March 12, 2013
    Assignee: Texaco Inc.
    Inventors: Lixin You, Curtis Krause, Kevin Nguyen, Amanda Vincent
  • Publication number: 20120308466
    Abstract: A process for producing ammonia synthesis gas from the reforming of hydrocarbons with steam in a primary reformer (1) equipped with a plurality of externally heated catalytic tubes and then together with air in a secondary reformer (2) is characterized in that the reaction of said hydrocarbons with said steam in said primary reformer (1) is performed at an operating pressure of more than 35 bar in the catalytic tubes, in that air is added to said secondary reformer in excess over the nitrogen amount required for ammonia synthesis and in that the excess of nitrogen is removed downstream the secondary reformer preferably by cryogenic separation or by molecular sieves of the TAS or PSA type. This process allows to obtain high synthesis gas production capacities and lower investment and energy costs.
    Type: Application
    Filed: August 16, 2012
    Publication date: December 6, 2012
    Applicant: Ammonia Casale S.A.
    Inventors: Ermanno Filippi, Marco Badano, Geoffrey Frederick Skinner
  • Patent number: 8110012
    Abstract: In a retrofit system for hot solids combustion and gasification, a chemical looping system includes an endothermic reducer reactor 12 having at least one materials inlet 22 for introducing carbonaceous fuel and CaCO3 therein and a CaS/gas outlet 26. A first CaS inlet 40 and a first CaSO4 inlet 64 are also defined by the reducer reactor 12. An oxidizer reactor 14 is provided and includes an air inlet 68, a CaSO4/gas outlet 46, a second CaS inlet 44, and a second CaSO4 inlet 66. A first separator 30 is in fluid communication with the CaS/gas outlet 26 and includes a product gas and a CaS/gas outlet 32 and 34 from which CaS is introduced into said first and second CaS inlets. A second separator 50 is in fluid communication with the CaSO4/gas outlet 46 and has an outlet 52 for discharging gas therefrom, and a CaSO4 outlet from which CaSO4 is introduced into the first and second CaSO4 inlets 62, 66.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 31, 2009
    Date of Patent: February 7, 2012
    Assignee: ALSTOM Technology Ltd
    Inventors: John H. Chiu, Herbert E. Andrus, Gregory N. Liljedahl, Paul R. Thibeault
  • Publication number: 20110297886
    Abstract: A process and a plant for producing a makeup synthesis gas (6) for the synthesis of ammonia where a hydrocarbon feedstock is reformed in a primary reformer (10) and in an autothermal reformer (14) in parallel with said primary reformer; nitrogen is furnished by an air separation unit (13), and O2-enhched air (8) produced in said air separation unit is fed to the autothermal reformer. A method for the revamping of the front-end of an ammonia plant is also disclosed.
    Type: Application
    Filed: October 9, 2009
    Publication date: December 8, 2011
    Applicant: AMMONIA CASALE S.A.
    Inventor: Sergio Panza
  • Patent number: 8057560
    Abstract: A fuel processor having a movable burner, a method of operating the fuel processor, and a fuel cell system having the fuel processor. The fuel processor includes a combustion chamber, a reformer burner, a portion of which is partially disposed inside the combustion chamber, a reformer which is heated by heat transfer from the combustion chamber, and a burner-moving apparatus that moves the reformer burner with respect to the combustion chamber. The method of operating the fuel processor includes determining the load on and a plurality of temperatures within the fuel processor and moving the reformer burner depending upon such information.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 24, 2007
    Date of Patent: November 15, 2011
    Assignee: Samsung SDI Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Hyun-chul Lee, Soon-ho Kim, Doo-hwan Lee, Kang-hee Lee
  • Publication number: 20110223090
    Abstract: A process for producing ammonia synthesis gas from the reforming of hydrocarbons with steam in a primary reformer (1) equipped with a plurality of externally heated catalytic tubes and then together with air in a secondary reformer (2) is characterized in that the reaction of said hydrocarbons with said steam in said primary reformer (1) is performed at an operating pressure of more than 35 bar in the catalytic tubes, in that air is added to said secondary reformer in excess over the nitrogen amount required for ammonia synthesis and in that the excess of nitrogen is removed downstream the secondary reformer preferably by cryogenic separation or by molecular sieves of the TAS or PSA type. This process allows to obtain high synthesis gas production capacities and lower investment and energy costs.
    Type: Application
    Filed: July 18, 2008
    Publication date: September 15, 2011
    Applicant: Ammonia Casale S.A.
    Inventors: Ermanno Filippi, Marco Badano, Geoffrey Frederick Skinner
  • Patent number: 7988752
    Abstract: A gasifier 10 includes a first chemical process loop 12 having an exothermic oxidizer reactor 14 and an endothermic reducer reactor 16. CaS is oxidized in air in the oxidizer reactor 14 to form hot CaSO4 which is discharged to the reducer reactor 16. Hot CaSO4 and carbonaceous fuel received in the reducer reactor 16 undergo an endothermic reaction utilizing the heat content of the CaSO4, the carbonaceous fuel stripping the oxygen from the CaSO4 to form CaS and a CO rich syngas. The CaS is discharged to the oxidizer reactor 14 and the syngas is discharged to a second chemical process loop 52. The second chemical process loop 52 has a water-gas shift reactor 54 and a calciner 42. The CO of the syngas reacts with gaseous H2O in the shift reactor 54 to produce H2 and CO2. The CO2 is captured by CaO to form hot CaCO3 in an exothermic reaction.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 26, 2008
    Date of Patent: August 2, 2011
    Assignee: ALSTOM Technology Ltd
    Inventors: Herbert E. Andrus, Jr., Michael S. McCartney
  • Patent number: 7867299
    Abstract: Methods and apparatus for producing hydrogen with reforming catalysts. The reforming catalysts may be platinum group metals on a support material, and they may be located in a reforming reaction zone of a primary reactor. The support material may be an oxidic support having a ceria and zirconia promoter, or may include a neodymium stabilizer. The support material may also include at least one Group IA, Group IIA, manganese, or iron metal promoter. The primary reactor may have a first and second reforming reaction zones, where upstream catalysts located in the first reforming reaction zone and downstream catalysts located in the second reforming reaction zone may be selected to perform optimally under the conditions in their respective reforming reaction zone.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 3, 2005
    Date of Patent: January 11, 2011
    Assignee: GM Global Technology Operations LLC
    Inventors: Michael Ian Petch, Jonathan Charles Frost, Suzanne Rose Ellis, Jessica Grace Reinkingh, Mark Robert Feaviour, Jillian Elaine Bailie, David Wails, Paul James Millington
  • Publication number: 20100303703
    Abstract: The present invention concerns a process for producing ammonia synthesis gas from the reforming of hydrocarbons with steam in a primary reformer (1) equipped with a plurality of externally heated catalytic tubes and then in a secondary reformer (2) together with an oxidant gas. In this process, the reaction of said hydrocarbons with said steam in said primary reformer (1) is performed at an operating pressure of at least 45 bar in the catalytic tubes and a flow of essentially pure oxygen or oxygen-enriched air is added to said secondary reformer as oxidant gas for substantially reforming together with said all the hydrocarbons content of said product gas exiting the primary reformer (1). In the case essentially pure oxygen is used as oxidant gas, a flow of nitrogen is added downstream the secondary reformer (2) to reach a N2/H2 molar ratio corresponding to or close to the stoichiometric ratio for ammonia synthesis.
    Type: Application
    Filed: November 6, 2008
    Publication date: December 2, 2010
    Applicant: Ammonia Casale S.A.
    Inventors: Ermanno Filippi, Marco Badano, Geoffrey Frederick Skinner
  • Patent number: 7824455
    Abstract: A method of reducing the amount of carbon monoxide in process fuel gas in a feed stream for a fuel cell. The method includes introducing a hydrocarbon feed stream into a primary reactor and reacting the hydrocarbon feed stream in effective contact with a reforming catalyst forming primary reactor products containing hydrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and methane; placing a high activity water gas shift catalyst system into a water gas shift converter, introducing the primary reactor products into the water gas shift converter in effective contact with the high activity water gas shift catalyst system, and reacting the carbon monoxide and water to form carbon dioxide and hydrogen using a water gas shift reaction forming the feed stream for the fuel cell; and introducing the feed stream into the fuel cell. The high water gas shift catalyst system includes a noble metal, a support comprising a mixed metal oxide of cerium oxide and at least one of zirconium oxide or lanthanum oxide.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 10, 2003
    Date of Patent: November 2, 2010
    Assignee: General Motors Corporation
    Inventors: Anca Faur-Ghenciu, Nathan Edward Trusty, Mark Robert Feaviour, Jessica Grace Reinkingh, Phillip Shady, Paul Joseph Andersen
  • Publication number: 20100200812
    Abstract: There is provided a method for producing a raw gas for ammonia synthesis in which light hydrocarbons from a tube 3, steam from a tube 6 and oxygen-enriched air having an oxygen concentration of 40 to 60% by volume from an oxygen-enriched air supply source 7 are heated and are then introduced to a one-step reforming reactor 5 to thereby carry out a steam reforming reaction and an air partial oxidation reaction at the same time, and the resultant is subsequently passed through a shift reactor 12, a decarbonating device 14 and a methanation reactor 16 to remove carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide, thereby yielding a raw gas suitable for ammonia synthesis having a hydrogen to nitrogen molar ratio of about 3:1.
    Type: Application
    Filed: November 29, 2007
    Publication date: August 12, 2010
    Applicants: JGC CORPORATION, OSAKA GAS CO., LTD.
    Inventors: Nobuhiro Yamada, Yoshinori Mashiko, Shuichi Funatsu, Yoshiyuki Watanabe
  • Patent number: 7682597
    Abstract: The invention relates to a method for extracting hydrogen from a gas containing methane, especially natural gas. Hydrocarbons contained in the gas are catalytically broken down in a reformer (4) by steam in order to form hydrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide. Catalytic conversion of the obtained carbon monoxide with steam occurs in a downstream conversion step in order to form carbon monoxide and water. Carbon dioxide is removed from the converted gas flow (8) by gas washing (7), and the washed hydrogen-rich gas flow (10) is subsequently divided in a pressure-swing adsorption system (11) into a product gas flow (12) made of hydrogen and a waste gas flow (13). The waste gas flow (13) is introduced with hydrogen (14), which is separated from the gas flow (10) after gas washing, into a reformer (4) which is essentially a carbon-free combustible gas, and is combusted there. The invention also relates to a system for carrying out the method.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 24, 2004
    Date of Patent: March 23, 2010
    Assignee: Uhde GmbH
    Inventors: Michael Blumenfeld, Vincent Liu, Bernd Mielke, Marcus Michel
  • Patent number: 7641881
    Abstract: An ammonia and fertilizer production process is based on partial oxidation of fossil fuel, which co-produces polycarbonsuboxide. The four step process is low-cost and low-carbon-dioxide emission. It comprises the steps of reacting fossil fuel with oxygen in air and steam in an electric discharge plasma to produce a gas exit stream of polycarbonsuboxide, hydrogen with associated nitrogen (110); cooling the gas stream to condense and separate the polycarbonsuboxide as a solid polymer (120); compressing the gas stream to pressures for synthesis of ammonia (140); and, converting the gas stream to ammonia by employing a catalytic converter (150). Optional steps involve gas cleanup, which include removal of contaminants from the gas stream and adding hydrogen or nitrogen to the gas stream to adjust the ratio of hydrogen to nitrogen to three to one, respectively, prior to converting the gas stream to ammonia (130).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 9, 2007
    Date of Patent: January 5, 2010
    Assignee: HCE, LLC
    Inventor: Meyer Steinberg
  • Publication number: 20090184293
    Abstract: The invention relates to a process for the production of synthesis gas from a hydrocarbon feedstock, wherein the entire hydrocarbon feed is passed through a radiant furnace, heat exchanger reformer and autothermal reformer in a series arrangement, and in which effluent gas from the autothermal reformer is used as heat source for the reforming reactions occurring in the heat exchange reformer.
    Type: Application
    Filed: December 15, 2008
    Publication date: July 23, 2009
    Inventor: Pat A. Han
  • Patent number: 7431865
    Abstract: Ammonia synthesis gas production having a shift reaction stage employing a copper-based catalyst wherein the air supplied to the process is passed through an absorber that removes sulfur and/or halide contaminants, is described. The absorber has a support carrying an absorbent for sulfur compounds and/or absorbent for halide compounds. The removal of the contaminants improves the lifetime e.g. copper-zinc low temperature shift catalysts.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 30, 2002
    Date of Patent: October 7, 2008
    Assignee: Johnson Matthey PLC
    Inventors: Andrew Mark Ward, Alan Bruce Briston
  • Patent number: 7163648
    Abstract: The present invention relates to a method for manufacturing a hydrogen- and nitrogen containing gas mixture, where a mixture of steam and a carbon containing gas is fed to the retentate side of at least one hydrogen transport membrane syngas and sweep gas generator where said gas and steam are converted to synthesis gas. A part of the hydrogen in said synthesis gas is transported through the membrane to the permeate side in said generator where it reacts with oxygen in an air stream fed to said permeate side to generate heat and a nitrogen and steam containing gas.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 11, 2002
    Date of Patent: January 16, 2007
    Assignee: Norsk Hydro ASA
    Inventors: Knut Ingvar Åsen, Henrik Solgaard Andersen
  • Patent number: 7138001
    Abstract: Low-energy hydrogen production is disclosed. A reforming exchanger is placed in parallel with a partial oxidation reactor in a new hydrogen plant with improved efficiency and reduced steam export, or in an existing hydrogen plant where the hydrogen capacity can be increased by as much as 20–30 percent with reduced export of steam from the hydrogen plant.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 15, 2004
    Date of Patent: November 21, 2006
    Assignee: Kellogg Brown & Root LLC
    Inventors: Stanislaus A. Knez, Avinash Malhotra, David P. Mann, Martin J. Van Sickels
  • Patent number: 7090816
    Abstract: A process for manufacturing ammonia from syngas with excess air for reforming and nitrogen removal with low pressure losses is disclosed. Auto-refrigeration for cooling the syngas for cryogenic hydrogen enrichment is provided by expansion of a hydrogen-lean waste fluid stream from a distillation column.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 17, 2003
    Date of Patent: August 15, 2006
    Assignee: Kellogg Brown & Root LLC
    Inventors: Avinash Malhotra, Tufail Ahmad, Bradley Richard Welter
  • Patent number: 6726850
    Abstract: A multistage catalytic partial oxidation (CPO) process for oxidizing a hydrocarbon feedstream comprising C1-C4 hydrocarbons, with an oxygen-containing feedstream to produce a product comprising CO and H2, also known as synthesis gas or syngas.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 14, 2000
    Date of Patent: April 27, 2004
    Inventors: Sebastian C. Reyes, Jennifer S. Feeley, Frank Hershkowitz, Harry W. Deckman, Ioannis P. Androulakis
  • Patent number: 6685754
    Abstract: A method for the production of a hydrogen-containing gas composition, such as a synthesis gas including hydrogen and carbon monoxide. The molar ratio of hydrogen to carbon monoxide (H2:CO) in the synthesis gas can be well-controlled to yield a ratio that is adequate for the synthesis of useful products such as methane or methanol, without the need to remove carbon oxides from the gas stream to adjust the ratio.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 24, 2002
    Date of Patent: February 3, 2004
    Assignee: Alchemix Corporation
    Inventors: James Kelly Kindig, Thomas E. Weyand
  • Publication number: 20030009943
    Abstract: The invention concerns a method for producing a gas mixture containing hydrogen and carbon monoxide, and optionally nitrogen, from at least a hydrocarbon such as methane, propane, butane or LPG or natural gas, which consists in performing a partial catalytic oxidation (1) of one or several hydrocarbons, at a temperature of 500° C., at a pressure of 3 to 20 bars, in the pre of oxygen or a gas containing oxygen, such as air, to produce hydrogen and carbon monoxide; then in recuperating the gas mixture which can subsequently be purified or separated, by pressure swing adsorption, temperature swing adsorption of by permeation (3), to produce hydrogen having a purity of at least 80% and a residue gas capable of supplying a cogeneration unit In another embodiment, the gas mixture can subsequently be purified of its water vapour impurities and carbon dioxide to obtain a thermal treatment atmosphere containing hydrogen, carbon monoxide and nitrogen.
    Type: Application
    Filed: August 21, 2002
    Publication date: January 16, 2003
    Inventors: Cyrille Millet, Daniel Gary, Philippe Arpentinier
  • Patent number: 6395243
    Abstract: A method is provided for performing catalytic or non-catalytic processes which uses oxygen supplied from the permeate side of a mixed oxygen ion and electron conducting membrane by means of a sweep gas at an elevated temperature. The sweep gas is formed by burning fuel in a sweep gas preheater. The sweep gas containing oxygen picked up from the membrane is reacted with a hydrocarbon fuel in a catalytic reactor to form a syngas containing nitrogen and hydrogen. The nitrogen and hydrogen containing syngas is worked up into ammonia; the ammonia is burned in an ammonia burner to produce a nitrogen oxides containing gas, and the nitrogen oxides containing gas is used in the production of nitric acid. The process is able to directly transfer the oxygen containing sweep gas to the catalytic reactor, without any intermediate cooling; recompression and reheating.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 21, 2000
    Date of Patent: May 28, 2002
    Assignee: Norsk Hydro ASA
    Inventors: Knut Ingvar Åsen, Stein Julsrud
  • Patent number: 6254807
    Abstract: A process for enhancing H2 or CO production in a partial oxidation reaction by feeding H2O or CO2 with the feed hydrocarbon and oxygen over a transition metal monolith catalyst such as unsupported Ni monolith or alternatively contacting the hydrocarbon/oxygen first with a noble metal then with a transition metal with the H2O or CO2 being added before or after the noble metal catalyst. The addition of H2O suppresses CO and enhances H2 production and the addition of CO2 suppresses H2 and enhances CO production. Little steam or CO2 reforming occurs with the addition of up to 32% H2O or CO2 respectively. Thus, the ratio of H2:CO which is about 2 in a conventional partial oxidation is manipulated by the addition of either water or CO2 to the partial oxidation.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 12, 1998
    Date of Patent: July 3, 2001
    Assignee: Regents of the University of Minnesota
    Inventors: Lanny D. Schmidt, Paul M. Witt
  • Patent number: 6224789
    Abstract: Process for the preparation of hydrogen and/or carbon monoxide rich gas by catalytic steam reforming of a hydrocarbon feedstock, wherein a first stream of the feedstock is autothermally steam reformed in parallel with a second stream of the feedstock being steam reformed in presense of a steam reforming catalyst in heat conducting relationship with hot effluent from the autothermal steam reforming and with steam reformed hot effluent withdrawn from steam reforming catalyst, and the effluent from the autothermal steam reforming step and the heat exchange steam reforming step are combined after having supplied heat to steam reforming reactions proceeding in the second stream of the feedstock.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 30, 1999
    Date of Patent: May 1, 2001
    Assignee: Haldor Topsoe A/S
    Inventor: Ib Dybkjær
  • Patent number: 6162267
    Abstract: A process and apparatus are disclosed for the operation of a fuel cell to generate electric power from a feed stream comprising a hydrocarbon or an alcohol. The fuel cell comprises a proton exchange membrane which produces electric power from a hydrogen product stream which comprises essentially no carbon monoxide. The hydrogen product stream is produced from the feed stream in a novel steam reforming zone containing a steam reforming catalyst disposed in a bell-shaped catalyst zone. The bell-shaped catalyst zone is disposed over a combustion zone such that the exhaust gas from the combustion flows around the bell-shaped catalyst zone to heat the catalyst from the inside and the outside of the catalyst zone. Furthermore, the bell-shaped catalyst zone maintains a high inlet and a high outlet temperature to avoid methane slippage in the steam reforming zone. Heat for the steam reforming zone is provided by a fuel stream and at least a portion of the anode waste gas stream from the fuel cell.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 11, 1998
    Date of Patent: December 19, 2000
    Assignee: UOP LLC
    Inventors: James W. Priegnitz, Anil R. Oroskar, Kenneth J. Stippich, Jr., Gavin P. Towler, Kurt Vanden Bussche
  • Patent number: 6159395
    Abstract: The present invention provides a process for the production of a synthesis gas mixture containing carbon oxides and hydrogen from a hydrocarbon feedstock material comprising: providing a reforming zone having a plurality of chambers charged with a catalyst effective for catalysis of at least one reforming reaction; supplying to the chambers of the reforming zone a vaporous mixture of the hydrocarbon feedstock and a reforming reagent; maintaining the reforming zone under suitable reforming conditions for reforming of the hydrocarbon feedstock and reforming reagent to form the synthesis gas mixture by supplying to the reforming zone a fuel for heating the chambers by combustion and by supplying to the steam reforming zone a vaporous steam comprising combustion oxygen in which the fuel may be combusted; humidifying the vaporous steam comprising combustion oxygen; exchanging heat between the humidified vaporous steam comprising combustion oxygen entering the reforming zone and the synthesis gas mixture exiting th
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 7, 1998
    Date of Patent: December 12, 2000
    Assignee: Kvaerner Process Technology Limited
    Inventors: Simon Robert Early, Timothy Douglas Gamlin, Mark Andrew Linthwaite
  • Patent number: 6129861
    Abstract: In a reactor and a method for the conversion of methanol to hydrogen wherein the reactor comprises first and second chambers divided by a membrane which is permeable for hydrogen and CO but not for CO.sub.2, the methanol is converted in the first chamber by a catalyst disposed therein to a gas mixture comprising hydrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide, and the hydrogen and carbon monoxide pass through the membrane into the second chamber wherein the CO is converted by another catalyst disposed therein to methane.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 3, 1998
    Date of Patent: October 10, 2000
    Assignee: Forschungszentrum Julich GmbH
    Inventors: Josefin Meusinger, Lambertus Haart, Ulrich Stimming
  • Patent number: 6123873
    Abstract: Method for initiating operation of an autothermal reformer including the steps of preparing a hot gas which is rich in hydrogen by contacting a methanol and steam containing feed gas with a methanation catalyst and introducing the hot gas into the autothermal reformer, thereby heating the reformer with heat contained in the hot gas to a temperature which is sufficiently high to initiate and maintain subsequent reforming reactions to be carried out in the reformer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 12, 1999
    Date of Patent: September 26, 2000
    Assignee: Haldor Topsoe A/S
    Inventor: Ivar Ivarsen Primdahl
  • Patent number: 6077459
    Abstract: Process and process unit for the preparation of ammonia synthesis gas from a hydrocarbon feedstock comprising sequentially primary and secondary catalytic steam reforming of the feedstock in a primary heat exchange steam reformer and in a subsequent secondary reformer, wherein an effluent stream of primary steam reformed gas is heated by indirect heat exchange with a hot product effluent of secondary reformed gas prior to introduction of the primary steam reformed gas into the secondary reformer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 5, 1998
    Date of Patent: June 20, 2000
    Assignee: Haldor Topsoe A/S
    Inventors: Carsten Lau Laursen, Henrik Otto Stahl
  • Patent number: 6051162
    Abstract: A process for the generation of a protective nitrogen-based atmosphere for the performance of heat treatments of metal articles in three phases, including an initial phase in which a gaseous hydrocarbon feed and an oxidant containing oxygen react on a first catalyst to form a reaction product, a second phase in which the reaction product is added to nitrogen contaminated by the presence of oxygen and a third phase in which the reaction product is conveyed to a second catalyst to form a low-dew point gaseous mixture as a protective atmosphere.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 11, 1998
    Date of Patent: April 18, 2000
    Assignee: Praxair Technology, Inc.
    Inventors: Jaak Stefaan Vandensype, Gianluca Porto
  • Patent number: 6048473
    Abstract: A process for operating a system for water vapor reforming of methanol includes a mixture preparation step for preparing a water vapor/methanol mixture from water and methanol, which mixture is subsequently introduced into a reforming reactor in a quantity which depends on the load condition of the system. According to the invention, the water vapor/methanol mixture ratio of the water vapor/methanol mixture introduced into the reforming reactor is maintained at a predeterminable desired value unaffected by short-term load changing operations, to avoid undesirable short-term increases of the CO-concentration in the reformate.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 16, 1997
    Date of Patent: April 11, 2000
    Assignee: DaimlerChrysler AG
    Inventors: Michael Denda, Christian Duelk, Robert Gerberich, Norbert Wiesheu
  • Patent number: 5929286
    Abstract: A method of forming a hydrogen rich gas from a source of hydrocarbon fuel in which the hydrocarbon fuel contacts a two-part catalyst comprising a dehydrogenation portion and an oxide-ion conducting portion at a temperature not less than about 400.degree. C. for a time sufficient to generate the hydrogen rich gas while maintaining CO content less than about 5 volume percent. There is also disclosed a method of forming partially oxidized hydrocarbons from ethanes in which ethane gas contacts a two-part catalyst comprising a dehydrogenation portion and an oxide-ion conducting portion for a time and at a temperature sufficient to form an oxide.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 5, 1998
    Date of Patent: July 27, 1999
    Assignee: The University of Chicago
    Inventors: Michael Krumpelt, Shabbir Ahmed, Romesh Kumar, Rajiv Doshi
  • Patent number: 5925328
    Abstract: A process for the preparation of ammonia synthesis gas includes supplying a feedstock gas, optionally mixed with a flue gas, to at least one pair of reforming reactors. Each reactor has a process and fuel side and a combustion side. Each pair of reactors is arranged in parallel on the process and fuel side, and in series on the combustion side. A flame temperature in each pair of reactors is controlled by supplying an excess of combustion air to a first reactor of the pair, and oxygen-depleted combustion air to a second reactor of the pair.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 2, 1997
    Date of Patent: July 20, 1999
    Assignee: Haldor Topsoe A/S
    Inventors: Henrk Otto Stahl, Ib Dybkj.ae butted.r, Carsten Lau Laursen
  • Patent number: 5744067
    Abstract: This invention relates to the production of hydrogen-rich gas by the partial oxidation of a saturated gaseous hydrocarbonaceous fuel or a mixture of saturated gaseous hydrocarbonaceous fuel and a liquid hydrocabonaceous fuel in a gas generator. In the process, a saturated gaseous hydrocarbonaceous fuel from a subsequent fuel gas saturator is preheated by indirect heat exchange with a portion of shifted process gas stream from a catalytic water-gas direct shift conversion zone and reacted in said partial oxidation gas generator. The process gas stream from the noncatalytic partial oxidation gas generator is quench cooled and scrubbed with water and preheated by indirect heat exchange with a second portion of the process gas stream from the shift conversion zone prior to catalytically reacting the CO and H.sub.2 O in the process gas stream in the shift conversion zone to increase its H.sub.2 content.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 21, 1996
    Date of Patent: April 28, 1998
    Assignee: Texaco Inc.
    Inventor: Frederick Charles Jahnke
  • Patent number: 5211880
    Abstract: A process for the preparation of ammonia synthesis gas by steam reforming and/or partial oxidation of a hydrocarbon feedstock comprises the further steps of catalytically converting a part of the synthesis gas to methanol, liquifying and separating the prepared methanol from remaining nitrogen rich gas, then reconverting the nitrogen depleted methanol to hydrogen and carbon oxides gas and recombining the gas with the reminder of the nitrogen containing synthesis gas to obtain stoichiometric ammonia synthesis gas.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 20, 1991
    Date of Patent: May 18, 1993
    Assignee: Haldor Topsoe A/s
    Inventors: Ivar I. Primdahl, Giorgio P. Serra
  • Patent number: 5202057
    Abstract: Nitrogen is economically recovered from the flue gas evolved in a hydrocarbon steam reforming furnace by hydrogenation of free oxygen therein and removal of carbon dioxide and other minor impurities from the flue gas by pressure swing adsorption with recovery of high purity nitrogen is unsorbed effluent. The process is utilized to highest advantage in the production of ammonia syngas wherein natural gas or other hydrocarbon feed is subjected to steam reforming in a fuel-fired furnace. The nitrogen obtained by purification of the flue gas is combined with the purified hydrogen separated from the reformate providing the syngas for conversion to ammonia. In a preferred embodiment, the steam reforming is carried out in two stages, the first stage being performed in a conventional fuel-fired steam reforming furnace to which a major portion of the fresh hydrocarbon feed is charged.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 28, 1992
    Date of Patent: April 13, 1993
    Assignee: Air Products and Chemicals, Inc.
    Inventors: David M. Nicholas, Joseph P. Bushinsky, Ravi Kumar, Wilbur C. Kratz
  • Patent number: 5122299
    Abstract: Synthesis gases are produced by reaction of steam, oxidant, and a major portion of fresh hydrocarbon feed in an exothermic catalytic reforming zone to a first reformed gas having very low methane content. The balance of the fresh feed is reacted with steam in an endothermic catalytic reforming zone to a second reformed gas having a low methane content. The first and second reformed gases are combined and passed in indirect heat exchange with reactants in the endothermic reforming zone to provide all of the heat required therein and are then recovered as product synthesis gases.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 14, 1991
    Date of Patent: June 16, 1992
    Assignee: The M. W. Kellogg Company
    Inventor: Joseph R. LeBlanc