Extruding With Other Step Patents (Class 29/DIG47)
  • Patent number: 5853553
    Abstract: A sacrificial anode and method of making a sacrificial anode are provided. The anode includes an extruded galvanically active metal rod and integrally formed end cap which has a cylindrically shaped portion with a threaded exterior surface. The anode is formed by extruding the rod, forging the end cap from the anchoring end portion of the rod, and machining the outer surface of the end cap to provide threads.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 5, 1998
    Date of Patent: December 29, 1998
    Assignee: Alumax Extrusions, Inc.
    Inventor: Richard Twigg
  • Patent number: 5765275
    Abstract: The drive unit is improved in precision while the number of its manufacturing steps is a minimum. The drive unit reduces its manufacturing cost, and comprises a base plate 1 assuming a predetermined shape in cross-section so as to form a pair of frame portions 2 in its opposite sides. The plate 1 is made of metal, formed by using an extrusion process, and provided with: a concave portion 4 with a central hole 3a through which a motor M is mounted on the plate 1; and, a mounting hole 3c through which a swing arm is mounted on the plate 1. The motor M has its spindle 5 mounted in the central hole 3a of the plate 1 in an insertion manner. The swing arm 6 has its base portion supported by a pivot 8 through a pair of ball bearings 7. The pivot 8 is mounted on the plate 1 through the mounting hole 3c in an insertion manner.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 18, 1996
    Date of Patent: June 16, 1998
    Assignee: Minebea Kabushiki-Kaisha
    Inventor: Rikuro Obara
  • Patent number: 5649277
    Abstract: An apparatus and process for the free-forming manufacture of three-dimensal components. A powder-binder mixture, or a material with a high melting point, is plasticized or made molten, by raising the temperature inside a process chamber. The resulting molten material is discharged under pressure through a nozzle which is arranged at the end of the process chamber. The material inside the process chamber is deposited in layers. The processing direction and processing speed of the nozzle are programmed. An embodiment of the invention is disclosed in which a non-molten powder is deposited and supported by the deposition of a second powder alongside the non-molten powder.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 13, 1994
    Date of Patent: July 15, 1997
    Assignee: Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft Zur Foerderung Der Angewandten Forschung E.V.
    Inventors: Mathias Greul, Ewald Staskewitsch, Wilhelm Steger, Theo Pintat, Martin Geiger, Klaus Melchior
  • Patent number: 5388322
    Abstract: A shatterproof pressure vessel for storing pressurized gas used in a hybrid-type air bag inflator until the gas is expanded for inflating an air bag, is formed of a thin wall, metal tube made by extruding a metal ring axially through a constricted die orifice to provide an elongated tube. The extrusion generally aligns the metal grain structure into a generally elongated, axially oriented fiber-like configuration. End closures are secured to the opposite ends of the tube to form the sealed pressure vessel. One end closure is openable to receive an ejection from a solid propellant means which is actuated for heating and expanding the gas within the vessel. The opposite end closure is openable to release the expanding gas into a vehicle occupant restraining air bag for inflation of the bag.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 28, 1993
    Date of Patent: February 14, 1995
    Inventor: Joseph A. Simon
  • Patent number: 5361477
    Abstract: A method for extruding metals and alloys, particularly difficult-to-work high temperature alloys, is described which comprises inserting a billet of the metal or alloy into an extrusion can, heating the canned billet to a temperature in a temperature range in which the ductility of the billet material is substantially maximum, cooling the canned billet sufficiently to establish a preselected temperature difference between the billet and can at which the difference between the flow stress of the billet material and the flow stress of the can material is substantially minimum, and extruding the canned billet to preselected shape.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 10, 1994
    Date of Patent: November 8, 1994
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the Secretary of the Air Force
    Inventors: Sheldon L. Semiatin, Venkat Seetharaman, Robert L. Goetz, Vinod K. Jain
  • Patent number: 5342575
    Abstract: Billets are produced from powdery alloys by a process which comprises densely packing in a can a powdery metal or alloy easy of plastic working and a powdery alloy difficult of plastic working in that order, sealing hermetically the can and thereafter degassing the same; or a process which comprises densely packing a powdery alloy difficult of plastic working in a can and, then, densely packing a powdery metal or powdery alloy easy of plastic working in the can to make the powdery metal or alloy into a lid of the can, wherein the powdery alloy easy of plastic working is coarse powder, while the powdery alloy difficult of plastic working is fine powder, and the powdery alloy is a rapidly solidified powdery alloy comprising an Al-base, Mg-base, Ni-base, Ti-base or Fe-base alloy.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 20, 1993
    Date of Patent: August 30, 1994
    Assignee: Yoshida Kogyo K.K.
    Inventor: Yoshitaka Nagai
  • Patent number: 5089075
    Abstract: Breathing composite sheet can be produced from a thermoplastic resin and a porous substrate, such as a non-woven fabric sheet, by extrusion-laminating technique using a specified cooling roll, the surface of which has been at least partly modified with a covering material having specified ranges of thermal conductivity and hardness properties. The extruded molten thermoplastic film carried on the porous substrate is effectively perforated at the modified surface of the cooling roll so as to give a breathing composite sheet.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 27, 1990
    Date of Patent: February 18, 1992
    Assignee: Tosoh Corporation
    Inventor: Takefumi Sonoda
  • Patent number: 4899712
    Abstract: The invention concerns a method of manufacturing a single-block fuel injection rail. The rail according to the inventive process comprises at least one rectilinear hollow tube, to which are joined at least one fuel intake tip, at least one injection intake and rail fastening means. The method comprises striking, in the hot state, a metal billet placed in a die, imparting thereto a longitudinal solid primary shape having transverse branching, whose axes are perpendicular to the longitudinal axes of the primary form, and cooling and machining the primary form so as to give the rail its final shape. The rail is formed from an aluminum alloy and the billet is struck at a temperature between about 430.degree. and 460.degree. C. The process may be used in the manufacture of fuel injection rails for the automobile industry.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 19, 1988
    Date of Patent: February 13, 1990
    Inventors: Gerard De Bruyn, Daniel Ciecko
  • Patent number: 4864705
    Abstract: A method of making a carburetor by first extruding a length of material and then cutting a carburetor body of predetermined length from the extrusion. The extrusion includes a passageway. A venturi member is molded of plastic material and inserted in the passageway. A fuel bowl is molded from plastic material and is secured to the body by means of a resilient clip.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 4, 1988
    Date of Patent: September 12, 1989
    Assignee: Tecumseh Products Company
    Inventors: Thomas G. Guntly, Mark E. Federspiel, Michael J. Kurth
  • Patent number: 4663098
    Abstract: A method of manufacturing high performance cable having a low profile configuration is disclosed. The method includes the steps of drawing, through an extrusion press, conductor subassemblies each including spaced, parallel, insulated wire pairs surrounded by an intermediate insulator. Prior to extrusion, conductive EMI shields are formed in-line around the subassemblies. The method also includes the step of extruding an insulating body around spaced, parallel pairs of shielded subassemblies with the wires in a common plane.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 27, 1985
    Date of Patent: May 5, 1987
    Assignee: AMP Incorporated
    Inventors: Kenneth R. Gilliam, Raymond J. Look, Richard E. Thurman
  • Patent number: 4364162
    Abstract: A process for the after-treatment of powder-metallurgically produced extruded tubes of stainless steel or highly alloyed nickel steels, pressings initially being produced by introducing into a capsule of thin sheet steel a powder consisting predominantly of spherical particles which have been produced from the required starting material by sputtering and, after the capsule has been closed, the density of the powder is increased to at least about 80% to about 93% of the theoretical density by cold isostatic pressing and the pressings obtained are then extruded into tubes at temperatures around 1200.degree. C.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 6, 1979
    Date of Patent: December 21, 1982
    Assignee: Granges Nyby AB
    Inventors: Peter Nilsson, Christer Aslund
  • Patent number: 4235008
    Abstract: A gutter construction for the periphery of swimming pools is formed of at least two prefabricated members joining together. First is a main gutter member which is molded from a longitudinally slit, plastic cylindrical material and includes a vertical rear wall and a horizontal bottom wall extending forwardly from the lower edge of the rear wall. A front rim member is also molded from a tubular plastic material and has the lower wall thereof secured to the upper surface of the main gutter member near the front or free edge thereof. A perforated gutter cap rests atop the upper edge of the rear wall of the main gutter member and the juncture of the lip and rear wall of the tubular member which forms a seat for the front edge of the gutter cap. All of the members, i.e.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 17, 1979
    Date of Patent: November 25, 1980
    Inventor: David L. Meredith
  • Patent number: 4192063
    Abstract: A method for manufacturing a base of a semiconductor device is made up of the steps of silver soldering a metal ring of weldable and extrudable material on a metal blank of thermally and electrically conductive material to thereby form a base body; and thereafter extruding the base body so as to form a generally complete base. When the base body is extruded, a raised portion for mounting a semiconductor pellet thereon and a stud to be threaded are formed on the upper and lower surfaces of the base body, respectively and at the same time, an annular projection, which is used as a projection to weld to the upper surface of the base a shell to cover the semiconductor pellet, is formed on the upper surface of the metal ring.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 24, 1978
    Date of Patent: March 11, 1980
    Inventor: Yoshio Sato
  • Patent number: 4187711
    Abstract: A method of manufacturing a high fin density heat dissipator is disclosed in which the dissipator is extruded through a die in a partially cylindrical shape with the elongated fins arranged on the base and extending radially therefrom. The extruded dissipator is straightened under tensile and bumping forces in a manner such that the base assumes a planar shape and the fins become substantially parallel to each other. Apparatus for straightening the extruded dissipator and a die for extruding the same are illustrated and described.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 24, 1978
    Date of Patent: February 12, 1980
    Assignee: Wakefield Engineering, Inc.
    Inventors: Ronald B. Lavochkin, Thomas D. Coe
  • Patent number: 4173061
    Abstract: Scrap bars of extruded goods are reclaimed as billets for extrusion. An external force is applied to an aggregate of scraps, in which the scraps are piled in the form of a bundle having a predetermined length, so as to reduce its size in directions perpendicular to the longitudinal axes of the scrap bars, thereby forming a billet. The extruded goods produced from the billet have almost no pores and are not inferior to those produced from cast billets.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 1, 1978
    Date of Patent: November 6, 1979
    Assignee: Ube Industries, Ltd.
    Inventors: Kazushige Shimizu, Takuma Maeda
  • Patent number: 4173058
    Abstract: In a method for manufacturing photographic film processing rollers useful in processing self-processable type film units, an adhesive priming composition is first applied to the surface of a cylindrical metal rod of given length. The rod is then pushed through a cross-head extrusion die to deposit a melted polymer comprising an elastomeric urethane resin on its surface to provide the rod's surface with a thin coating whose coefficient of friction is greater than that of the metal. The extruded coating is then hardened, and then the rod is cut into roller segments each having a predetermined length. Afterwards, each roller segment is centerless ground to provide it with journals at its opposite ends and to reduce the thickness of the polymeric coating intermediate the journals to provide a film-contacting traction coating of predetermined thickness and smoothness.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 3, 1977
    Date of Patent: November 6, 1979
    Assignee: Polaroid Corporation
    Inventor: Frank M. Stieger
  • Patent number: 4124935
    Abstract: A method for manufacturing a base of a pressure mount type semiconductor device which has a base body of electrically and thermally conductive metal material and a cylindrical wall integrally and vertically provided on the top of the base body and adapted to engage a pellet pressurizing member so that the pellet pressurizing member is restrained from its upward movement, the base body being integrally provided with an annular projection of weldable material which is used to projection weld to the base on the upper surface, a shell to cover a semiconductor pellet on the base and with a stud to be threaded later.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 22, 1976
    Date of Patent: November 14, 1978
    Inventor: Yoshio Sato
  • Patent number: 4113073
    Abstract: A wheel cylinder body is made from a constant cross section extrusion having a bore forming the working chamber of the wheel cylinder without further finishing of the chamber wall. A block-like step section, formed as part of the extrusion on the outside of the cylinder portion, is drilled and threaded for appropriate inlet and bleeder screw connections, and mounting holes. The inlet and bleeder screw holes intersect the bore so that they do not engage the sealing cups of the wheel cylinder pistons during wheel cylinder operation.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 23, 1977
    Date of Patent: September 12, 1978
    Assignee: General Motors Corporation
    Inventors: George Lusa, Thomas P. Mathues
  • Patent number: 4090283
    Abstract: Globular rollers are provided herein. The rollers include one globular or two semi-globular segments of rigid structurally strong material. If it is formed of two semi-globular segments, one of the semi-globular segments is provided with a male flange, and the other of the semi-globular segments is provided with a female recess. The two semi-globular segments are joined at the male flange/female recess seam. Whether it is formed of one globular or two semi-globular segments, a resilient material is coated thereon, and, if necessary permanently joining the two semi-globular segments together. The roller is also provided with a pair of diametrically opposed, aligned apertures or identations disposed within a pair of diametrically opposed flattened chords of the globular rollers. The apertures or indentations are preferably provided with bearing surfaces, e.g. ball bearings or rollers bearings.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 3, 1977
    Date of Patent: May 23, 1978
    Inventor: George Woolley
  • Patent number: 4078288
    Abstract: An entrance door with a plurality of extruded sections that are interconnected to form a rectangular frame, a glass panel mounted within the frame. The door is partially fabricated by punching openings at specified locations on the extruded sections. The openings are punched in a press that is provided with guideways and stops for positioning the extruded sections in alignment with a punching tool. The punched openings are configured to receive a lock mechanism and hinge hardware as well as tie rods that are used for interconnecting the sections.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 11, 1976
    Date of Patent: March 14, 1978
    Inventor: Harold B. Abramson
  • Patent number: 4069962
    Abstract: A composite baking mold comprising a plurality of individual mold spaces is made by extruding elongated portions of aluminum or other light metal and cutting off the portions at an angle to their longitudinal axes and assembling the cut componens by welding or riveting to form lengthwise and cross-width components defining the partial molds of the composite mold.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 8, 1976
    Date of Patent: January 24, 1978
    Inventor: Magnus Allan Holmqvist
  • Patent number: 4061354
    Abstract: A motorcycle swingarm is shown in which each arm is an extrusion of lightweight metal which in cross-section is a diamond with a cross rib and integral upper and lower fins. The upper fin is the larger, and is shaped to taper from both ends. The arms are bent slightly intermediate their ends, and at one end have a sleeve bearing welded thereto. At such one end, arcuate plates are also located between the arms and welded to them. At their other ends, each arm is slotted to receive an oblong slotted block which is welded to the arm. Also, the arms intermediate their ends have tabs welded thereto for providing connection points for shock absorbers and chain tensioners.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 15, 1976
    Date of Patent: December 6, 1977
    Assignee: Cross Up, Inc.
    Inventor: John Tudor Blum
  • Patent number: 4049185
    Abstract: A process for the formation of a mount for a semi-conductor, such as a rectifier or the like, in which a steel ring and a steel tube are brazed in position on the upper surface of a previously formed hexagonal copper billet, following which the parts are cold-formed in a plurality of extrusion steps for producing an accurately formed mount in which the copper material is work-hardened.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 11, 1977
    Date of Patent: September 20, 1977
    Assignee: The Nippert Company
    Inventor: Russell A. Nippert
  • Patent number: 4043023
    Abstract: A method for making seamless pipe from molten premium steel which is cast by a centrifugal process into hollow billets. The billets are then outer diameter turned, cut to length, and bored. By such centrifugal casting followed by machining, the inner diameter is formed in the billet without a piercing operation. The turning and boring also remove normal impurities in the billet. The billet is then heated and hot extruded in reduction ratios of high magnitude, from about 5 to 1 up to about 60 to 1 for converting large grain castings into fine grain size forgings or cold worked material.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 5, 1977
    Date of Patent: August 23, 1977
    Inventor: Daniel L. Lombard
  • Patent number: 4033024
    Abstract: Method for producing extruded structural profiles from aluminum or aluminum alloy scrap materials. The scrap materials are compacted under room temperature or under heat suitable for hot extrusion into a cylindrical body which is of such a dimension that is suitable for insertion into an extruder. The compacted body has an average density which is 70 to 86 percent of that of aluminum, and includes longitudinal air passages. Suction pressure is applied to the interior of the extruder during extruding process for removing air entrapped in the body, which may otherwise cause voids in the extruded products.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 25, 1975
    Date of Patent: July 5, 1977
    Assignee: Riken Keikinzoku Kogyo Kabushiki Kaisha
    Inventors: Toshiro Takahashi, Toshihiro Nagano, Katsuhiko Nakamura, Masaru Kikuchi, Kazuo Suzuki
  • Patent number: 4028795
    Abstract: Aluminum or aluminum alloy scraps or wastes are broken into chips and converted into a cylindrical body to be extruded under a temperature suitable to produce extruded structural profiles. The method is characterized by the fact that the interior of the extruder is evacuated prior to or simultaneously with the extrusion step so as to exhaust air entrapped in the cylindrical body.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 8, 1975
    Date of Patent: June 14, 1977
    Assignee: Riken Keikinzoku Kogyo Kabushiki Kaishi
    Inventors: Toshiro Takahashi, Toshihiro Nagano, Katsuhiko Nakamura, Masaru Kikuchi
  • Patent number: 4028785
    Abstract: A bimetallic tube comprising a copper-base alloy and a reactive metal such as titanium, is produced by assembling concentrically a tubular member of each of such materials and interposing a layer of copper, nickel or silver between them, forming a bond between the reactive metal and the copper, nickel or silver and extruding the assembly. The bimetallic tube is useful for heat exchange purposes when corrosive fluids are involved and has better heat transfer properties than an all-reactive metal tube.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 30, 1974
    Date of Patent: June 14, 1977
    Assignee: Yorkshire Imperial Metals Limited
    Inventors: Kenneth Thomas Jackson, Lance Porter
  • Patent number: 4011655
    Abstract: An exhaust gas sensor probe and its method of manufacture are disclosed. A tube of ceramic material is arranged to support a resistive type ceramic exhaust gas sensor within the cup-shaped cavity in the end portion of the tube. The tube is also provided with a generally continuous groove around the exterior of the cup-shaped end portion to support a heater wire in close heat conductive relation to the sensor ceramic wafer. The ceramic tube is fixedly received within a housing which may include for example sufficient electrical connective means in the form of electrical terminals to electrically communicate the sensor and the heater wire to an external source of electrical energy and/or a utilization means. The present invention also provides a heat retaining end cap member having an infrared reflective coating for assisting in the retention of heat for those resistive type sensor ceramics which require an operating temperature substantially higher than the temperature of their normal environment.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 3, 1975
    Date of Patent: March 15, 1977
    Assignee: Ford Motor Company
    Inventors: Gordon L. Beaudoin, Dante S. Giardini, Allen H. Meitzler
  • Patent number: 4011654
    Abstract: An exhaust gas sensor probe and its method of manufacture are disclosed. A tube of ceramic material is arranged to support a resistive type ceramic exhaust gas sensor within the cup-shaped cavity in the end portion of the tube. The tube is also provided with a generally continuous groove around the exterior of the cup-shaped end portion to support a heater wire in close heat conductive relation to the sensor ceramic wafer. The ceramic tube is fixedly received within a housing which may include for example sufficient electrical connective means in the form of electrical terminals to electrically communicate the sensor and the heater wire to an external source of electrical energy and/or a utilization means. The present invention also provides a heat retaining end cap member having an infrared reflective coating for assisting in the retention of heat for those resistive type sensor ceramics which require an operating temperature substantially higher than the temperature of their normal environment.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 3, 1975
    Date of Patent: March 15, 1977
    Assignee: Ford Motor Company
    Inventors: Gordon L. Beaudoin, Dante S. Giardini, Allen H. Meitzler
  • Patent number: 3971118
    Abstract: A composite baking mold comprising a plurality of individual mold spaces is made by extruding elongated portions of aluminum or other light metal and cutting off the portions perpendicularly to their longitudinal axes and assembling the cut components by welding or riveting to form lengthwise and cross-width components defining the partial molds of the composite mold.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 9, 1974
    Date of Patent: July 27, 1976
    Inventor: Magnus Allan Holmqvist
  • Patent number: 3967484
    Abstract: A method of manufacturing low energy-loss waveguide circuit elements in which a film of metal with a low resistivity is joined to a base metal by thermal pressing or electric plating, and a hard male die of a desired shape is pressed into the base metal from above the metal film, whereby a plastic strain is caused in the base metal thereby to form a recessed portion in the base metal having an internal surface covered with the low resistivity metal.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 26, 1974
    Date of Patent: July 6, 1976
    Assignees: Hitachi Electronics, Ltd., Hitachi, Ltd.
    Inventors: Soji Takahashi, Hiroshi Okada
  • Patent number: 3959864
    Abstract: Method for producing an ejector device including forming a profile rail, drilling holes in the rail to receive ejector nozzles therein and inserting the nozzles in the holes, closing the ends of the rail with end walls, and severing a desired length of the rail to produce the device.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 25, 1974
    Date of Patent: June 1, 1976
    Assignee: Aktiebolaget Piab
    Inventor: Peter Hans Tell
  • Patent number: 3953923
    Abstract: A length of extruded heat-conductive metal forms an elongated body which defines a pair of spaced parallel holes extending longitudinally through the body. An elongated heating element extends longitudinally through one of the holes, and the body and heating element are bent about an axis extending transversely of the body into generally U-shape. The other hole in the body provides a passageway for fluid to be heated by the heating element. A method for making the heater involves the extruding of metal to provide a generally straight body having a pair of holes extending longitudinally therethrough, inserting a heating element through one of the holes for snug engagement with the body, and thereafter bending the body with the heating element in generally U-shape to cause tight heat transfer engagement of the heating element with the body.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 9, 1974
    Date of Patent: May 4, 1976
    Assignee: Lake Center Industries
    Inventor: H. Eugene Rygmyr
  • Patent number: 3948496
    Abstract: An oxygen-fuel cutting torch comprises an integral aluminum body extruded to form three straight-through gas feed passages. The passages connect with a laterally mounted gas dispensing tip assembly and have dead-end terminal seals. Source oxygen is divided between a first passage and a second passage for supplying cutting oxygen and preheat oxygen respectively. Fuel gas fed through a third passage mixes with the preheat oxygen within the tip assembly, the preheat oxygen and fuel gas flow rates being adjusted by respective throttling valves. Each valve is seated in a transverse bore hole in the torch body that intersects the corresponding gas passage. Cutting oxygen is fed to the torch tip through a bore-seated valve in the first passage that is opened against spring bias by a manually operated lever.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 16, 1975
    Date of Patent: April 6, 1976
    Assignee: Airco, Inc.
    Inventor: Henry A. Miller
  • Patent number: 3947949
    Abstract: Disks are cut from copper or a copper alloy which can be precipitation-hardened. A copper alloy powder is prepared and dispersion-hardened. The disks are assembled in a stack and alternate with powder layers and extruded. Subsequent heat treatment of the extruded product strengthens it throughout. The method is used specifically to make a hardened copper alloy to be used for making electrodes for resistance welding.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 23, 1975
    Date of Patent: April 6, 1976
    Assignee: Kabel-und Metallwerke Gutehoffnungshutte AG
    Inventor: Hans-Joachim Wallbaum
  • Patent number: RE34224
    Abstract: A method of making a carburetor by first extruding a length of material and then cutting a carburetor body of predetermined length from the extrusion. The extrusion includes a passageway. A venturi member is molded of plastic material and inserted in the passageway. A fuel bowl is molded from plastic material and is secured to the body by means of a resilient clip.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 16, 1990
    Date of Patent: April 20, 1993
    Assignee: Tecumseh Products Company
    Inventors: Thomas G. Guntly, Mark E. Federspiel, Michael J. Kurth