Abstract: Disclosed is an electronics device for use with a refrigerator/freezer for controlling the dispensing of ice cubes by an ice auger through a door flap when a cradle is pressed. The electronics device comprises a solenoid in operative connection with the door flap, and the solenoid is powerably connectable to a 120 Volt AC line power source. The electronics device also comprises a relay switch controlled by two NPN bipolar transistors in a Darlington configuration which are in parallel connection with a diode and a capacitor. The relay switch is also connected to the power source and connects the power source to the solenoid when the cradle is pressed causing the door flap to open. The power source powers the ice auger to dispense ice cubes through the door flap, and the capacitor causes the transistors to be biased on while the capacitor is charged to a voltage greater than a voltage of the diode.
Abstract: An AC load switching system predicts when a zero voltage cross-over condition will exist for purposes of switching an AC load to minimize inrush currents. Prediction is carried out by characterizing the switching devices, which preferably are electromechanical in nature, and determining closure and bounce delays associated with each type of switching device. The system includes a processor, which could be a programmed microprocessor. The processor stores characterization parameters for the load switching elements including closure delay time as well as bounce time intervals. The processor energizes a switching element to close same at a time during the AC line cycle such that when the delay interval has passed and one half of the bounce interval has passed, the line voltage will be at a cross-over or zero voltage condition thereby resulting in minimal inrush current when the contacts have completely closed.
Abstract: A method for on-line dynamic contingency screening of electric power systems employs a sequence of contingency classifiers which are based on a method for finding the controlling unstable equilibrium point of the power system known as the boundary of stability region based controlling unstable equilibrium point method (BCU method). Dynamic security assessment of the power system is accomplished by evaluating the power system's response to a plurality of postulated disturbances known as contingencies. The BCU classifiers determine which of these contingencies are definitely stable, and require no further analysis. Other contingencies which are either classified as being unstable or undecided are then applied to a time-domain simulation program to determine if they are in fact unstable, and therefor warrant further action.
Abstract: An electrically operated control device and system for an appliance and method of operating the same are provided, the system comprising a power source of alternating electrical current that has a repeating voltage wave cycle and a repeating current wave cycle, a load for using the electrical current to provide an output of the load for the appliance, a relay having normally open contacts and a coil for closing the contacts only when the coil is energized, an electrical circuit for interconnecting the power source to the load through the contacts only when the contacts are closed, and a control unit for causing the coil to close the contacts substantially at a certain point on the voltage wave cycle each time the relay coil closes the contacts from the open condition thereof whereby the current flow through the contacts at each closing thereof is at substantially a desired level thereof.
Abstract: A frequency slider circuit for reducing power dissipation in the form of switching losses in a switching device when the switching device is near its desired maximum temperature limit is disclosed herein. The switching device controls an electric load, such as a motor. The frequency slider circuit samples a current of the switching device. The frequency slider circuit then uses a current transducer to convert the current to a signal level. The signal level is then processed by a model of the thermal response of the switching device. The output of the thermal model is compared to a reference signal, and if the output of the thermal model is greater than the reference signal, the switching frequency of the switching device will be lowered gradually to keep the power generated during the switching periods to be below a predetermined value. A minimum frequency clamping circuit is included to ensure that the switching frequency never drops below a minimum value, to ensure stable operation of the switching device.
Abstract: Apparatus and methods are claimed for detecting tampering with a load management terminal, wherein the terminal has a load control relay coupled to a power line for selectably decoupling the load from the power line. One embodiment of the claimed apparatus for detecting tampering comprises a current sensor coupled to the load control relay for sensing whether load current is flowing through the load control relay contacts when the contacts are closed. A timer is provided for measuring elapsed time during which no current is sensed flowing through the closed contacts. An indicator provides an indication of tampering when the elapsed time measured by the timer exceeds a pre-determined time limit. Preferably, in this embodiment, the current sensor comprises a voltage detector coupled to the control coil of the relay for detecting whether an AC voltage has been induced in the control coil by the load current.
May 28, 1993
Date of Patent:
January 30, 1996
ABB Power T&D Company Inc.
Jerry M. Kennon, Michael A. Murphy, Kenneth C. Shuey
Abstract: A fast and reliable method for determining power system transient stability is presented for on-line power system dynamic security assessment. This method is based on the direct (Lyapunov theory) approach controlling the unstable equilibrium point (UEP). Lyapunov technique, however, cannot be used on-line, since calculating the controlling UEP is a computational intensive problem, even for a computer. The invention comprises determining the controlling UEP of a reduced system and relates the controlling UEP of the reduced system to the controlling UEP of the original system. The invention has a sound theoretical basis. The invention eliminates the difficulty of having to find the controlling UEP. The method of the invention determines the constant energy region that surrounds the controlling UEP of the original system. This region is used to approximate the stability region boundary intersection point that a particular fault trajectory will traverse.
Abstract: A circuit for electrically controlled intermittent motion having a time-delay relay and an all-purpose double-pole-double-throw relay for use in conjunction with a gear-head motor having an output shaft, which, upon application to the circuit of a triggering signal either momentary or prolonged for several minutes, rotates approximately 360.degree. and stops.
Abstract: A fail-safe circuit for preventing an inadvertent communication of a signal from an input terminal to an output terminal includes a series switching network electrically connected between the input terminal and the output terminal. The series switching network contains two switching circuits electrically connected in series. One switching circuit is an electrical switching circuit and the other is an electromechanical switching circuit. The switching circuits are chosen such that defects causing the electrical switching circuit to short circuit do not affect the electromechanical switching circuit and defects causing the electromechanical switching circuit to short circuit do not affect the electrical switching circuit. The fail-safe circuit also includes circuitry for preventing inadvertent communication of the signal from the input terminal through the series switching network to the output terminal when one of the switching circuits is in a short circuited state or condition.
Abstract: In order to automatically restore a normal switching position of a relay armature from an accidental OFF switching induced by external impact or the like, the output of the relay is monitored and is applied to a differentiating circuit. A comparator is provided to reflect on and off operations of a main switch. In the event that the output of the relay falls suddenly, the differentiating circuit outputs a pulse to a wave-shaping circuit (e.g., Schmitt trigger). A gate circuit is supplied with the outputs of the wave-shaping circuit and the comparator. The output of the gate circuit momentarily allows a relay driver to actuate the relay in response to the undesired change in relay status, and hence the relay armature resumes ON switching position.
Abstract: A capacity responsive keyboard which eliminates the necessity for metal films on the touch surface includes an insulated substrate having a plurality of electrically conductive plate members mounted thereon and a dielectric member positioned over the plate members. A piece of compressible, electrically-conductive foam is compressed between each plate member and the dielectric member to eliminate air from the electrical path between the dielectric member and the plate members. A grid of conductor segments separates the plate members defining a guard band to reduce interference between the switches. The guard band is connected with one power supply line of a switching circuit which produces outputs in response to capacity changes caused by a user touching the dielectric member.
Abstract: A motor vehicle suspension control includes a solenoid actuator having an actuating coil connected in series with a transistor across an electric power source and circuit protection apparatus for the transistor. The voltage across the transistor is monitored, after a short time delay following turn-on, as a signal indicative of excessive current therethrough. If the signal so indicates, the transistor is turned off for a period of time and then turned on again for another try. This continues for a predetermined maximum number of attempts. Specific clocked digital circuitry is disclosed for controlling the operation and producing the different required time delays or counts.
Abstract: A microprocessor based recloser control including a independent memory is disclosed. The independent memory is alterable by processor means and by input and output means independent of the processor means. The independent memory is non-volatile and requires little energy to alter its contents. Events which would otherwise be ignored when the processor means is disabled, because of an insufficiency of power for reliable operation, are recordable in the independent memory.
Abstract: A sensing circuit system including circuitry for sensing impedance variations of a variable impedance element. As disclosed, a bridge circuit system includes a bridge circuit to which the variable impedance element is couplable. The bridge circuit system further includes circuitry for detecting open circuit or short circuit fault conditions of the variable impedance element. The variable impedance element is coupled to the bridge circuit by a connector, having two connector components, which is also operable to couple the fault detection circuitry to the bridge circuit only when the two components of the connector are connected together.
Abstract: An electronic relay circuit for replacement of an A-type relay in a step-by-step selector and connector of a telephone exchange system is implemented with a first operational amplifier (10) connected to the tip (T) and ring (R) conductors of a telephone line, and a second operational amplifier (24') with hysteresis for use as a comparator. A capacitor (C1) with a diode (D1) in parallel couples the input terminal of the comparator to a reference voltage from a voltage divider (R1, R2) in order that signal transitions from the input amplifier appear as common mode signals for a period determined by the RC time constant of a coupling resistor (R3) for ON-HOOK to OFF-HOOK transitions limited in amplitude by the parallel diode (D1) and the RC time constant of a resistor (R4) connected to a source of negative voltage for OFF-HOOK to ON-HOOK transitions limited in amplitude by a series diode (D2). A diode (D3) in series with the voltage divider introduces a compensating voltage drop for the diode (D2).
Abstract: An electronic switch for use in the tip and ring circuit of a rotary dial telephone pulsing system is disclosed. The electronic switch is a functional replacement for a single pole, double throw electromechanical pulsing relay having normally open and normally closed output terminals, with the state of the output terminals being reversed in response to the connection of an external impedance load to an input sensing node. Normally open and normally closed output nodes are driven by first and second output switching circuits. The operating states of the first and second output switching circuits are reversed in response to a switching signal generated by a binary switch. The binary switch is biased off with no switching signal being produced in the absence of the external impedance load so that one output terminal is normally open and the other output terminal is normally closed.
Abstract: A control system for eddy current coupling drive for armoured face conveyors wherein the systems controls a number of eddy current drives via a pair of power supply lines and a single pilot line. A main contactor controlled by a relay is held closed by contact of a pilot relay which is energized only if relay contacts in individual control units for each drive remain closed. These last mentioned contacts open if certain operating conditions are not met.
Abstract: A system for controlling an electrical circuit, such as a lamp circuit, in response to the human touch whereby the circuit may be turned on and off by means of the human touch upon a conductive element of the circuit, one such conductive element being a portion of a living plant electrically connected within the system.
Abstract: This invention provides a method and apparatus for determining a precise switching sequence for the power switching elements of electric power delivery systems of the on-off switching type and which enables extremely fast transient response, precise regulation and highly stable operation. The control utilizes the values of the power delivery system power handling network components, a desired output characteristic, a system timing parameter, and the externally imposed operating conditions to determine where steady state operations should be in order to yield desired output characteristics for the given system specifications. The actual state of the power delivery system is continuously monitored and compared to a state-space boundary which is derived from the desired equilibrium condition, and from the information obtained from this comparison, the system is moved to the desired equilibrium condition in one cycle of switching control.
June 7, 1977
Date of Patent:
April 11, 1978
William Wesley Burns, III, Thomas George Wilson