Abstract: A generator including a source of electric energy connected to means for generating sparks between the electrodes of an ignition spark plug, is characterized in that it comprises a first power portion including first means forming a capacitor for storing energy in series with first means forming a diode, wherein the first means forming a capacitor are also connected to the ignition spark plug through a gas spark gap and at least one second triggering portion including second means forming an energy storage capacitor in series with second means forming a diode, wherein the second means forming a capacitor are connected through at least one controlled semiconductor switching unit, to a primary winding of a voltage step-up transformer for which one secondary winding is connected in series with the gas spark gap between the first means forming a capacitor and the ignition spark plug.
Abstract: A new and improved outdoor lighting control system for an outdoor lighting system network for automatically sensing, conveying, and recording data relevant to the operation of the lighting system network so that both control and maintenance can be performed more efficiently. At each of plural lamp locations in the network, there is a controller module that receives electric power input and that supplies electric power to the remaining lamp locations. Each controller module has a first relay to deliver current to one or more outdoor illumination lamps at the controller module's location, and a second relay for switching electric power on to a succeeding lamp location. A first current sensor monitors current to the lamps at each lamp location, and a second current sensor monitors current to the remaining locations. The network's power lines form portions of a bi-directional data link via which data is transmitted from each controller module to a command station, and vice versa.
Abstract: In accordance with the invention the circuitry arrangement comprises a central unit (5) and a plurality of peripheral units, such as control apparatuses for lamps, connected with the central unit via a data bus. These peripheral units are each connected with the data bus (1) via a coupling unit (3), each coupling unit (3) having a receiving branch for the transfer of information from the central unit (5) to the peripheral unit, and a transmission branch for the transfer of information from the peripheral unit to the central unit (5). Here, the central unit (5) sends out information in the form of a modulated a.c or pulse voltage onto the data bus. The transmission branch applies information to the data bus (1) in that the output resistance of the transmission branch is varied. Because the receiving branch in the coupling unit (3) is continuously active and the transmission branch is inactive in the case of non-sending operation, at most a very small return current is consumed in the coupling unit (3).
Abstract: The invention relates to a light calibration system consisting of a compact LED source with feedback control of intensity. The source is positioned in the focal plane of the microscope objective and produces flat-field illumination of up to 31 microwatts. The source can be easily used to determine the performance of microscope optics and camera response. It can also be used as a standard light source for calibration of experimental systems. Selectable light intensities are produced by controlling the LED input power via a feedback circuit consisting of a photodiode that detects output light intensity. Spectral coverage extends between 550 nm and 670 nm using green, yellow and red LEDS mounted side-by-side and which are individually selected. The LED chips are encapsulated in plastic diffusers which homogenize the light, and a flat field of illumination is obtained through a thin 1 mm diameter aperture positioned directly over each chip.
October 15, 1993
Date of Patent:
February 6, 1996
University of Virginia Patent Foundation
Abstract: A high voltage/high current electric pulse generator. Spark gap switches (E1, E2, E3) having a trigger electrode are connected to a trigger control circuit (CD). Switch (E1) is connected between the outer conductor of cable (C2) and an inner conductor of cable (C1). Switch (E2) is connected between the outer conductor of cable (C3) and the inner conductor of cable (C2). Switch (E3) is connected between output terminal (S) and the internal conductor of coaxial cable (C3). The outer conductor of cable (C1) is connected to ground and voltage source (SHT) is connected to internal conductors of the cables. The source charges cables (C1, C2, C3) in parallel when switches (E1, E2, E3) are off. A first ballast resistor (r) is connected between the first electrode and the trigger electrode. Load resistor (R6) is connected between the output terminal(S) and the external conductor of cable (C3). Resistor (R5) is connected between the outer conductor of cable (C 3) and the outer conductor of cable (C2).
April 28, 1992
Date of Patent:
March 21, 1995
Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique
Abstract: It is known that electrical discharges in capillary tubing shows a positive volt-ampere characteristic even for low pressure gas fills. In contrast, conventional fluorescent lamps exhibit a negative volt-ampere characteristic and, accordingly, require special ballast circuits for operation. In the present invention, a fluorescent lamp comprises a plurality of discharge tube sections which are connected by capillary tube sections to provide the necessary ballasting action to prevent lamp current runaway. In one embodiment of the present invention, the ballastless lamp is configured in a compact configuration which may include much simpler ballast components configured in a package similar to a conventional screw-in incandescent lamp.
Abstract: A flash lamp in which a flash tube, transformer, capacitor and base are coupled together to form a unitary integral lamp. A portion of the flash tube, the transformer and capacitor may be encapsulated by a plotting compound. An electrical circuit consisting of a flash lamp and a conventional incandescent light is also provided for operation in parallel from a remotely located power supply.
Abstract: A lighting unit is described utilizing an energy efficient metal vapor arc lamp as the main source of light supplemented by a standby filamentary light source producing light when the arc lamp is being started, the filament thereof serving as a resistive ballast for the arc lamp under normal operation. The lighting unit is designed as a more efficient replacement for the incandescent lamp. The lighting unit includes a rectifier for conversion of 60 hertz ac to dc, and a dc energized operating network, including a ferrite transformer and a transistor switch. The operating network produces an output adapted to each operating state of the arc lamp, including the provision of a high ignition potential, a power boost for the lamp during the glow to arc transition, warm-up and ballasting provisions, and means for sustaining the arc during transients which reduce the line voltage.
Abstract: Two ignition plugs are provided for each cylinder of an engine. Since it is desirable that these two plugs be sparked by one ignition coil, separate output terminal of a secondary coil of the ignition coil are respectively connected to each of the two plugs. An impedance circuit element is provided between one terminal of the secondary coil and ground to disturb a balance of the output voltages from the secondary coil terminals. The voltage of the other terminal of the secondary coil then reaches the break-down voltage between the air gap of its respective ignition plug first due to this imbalance of terminal voltages. The voltage of the one terminal then reaches the break-down voltage between the air gap of its respective ignition plug after the breaking-down of the other ignition plug. The two ignition plugs of each cylinder can thus be sparked at approximately the same time by providing the impedance circuit element between one output terminal of the ignition coil and ground.