Plural Cathode And/or Anode Discharge Device Load Patents (Class 315/334)
  • Patent number: 9035561
    Abstract: An exemplary light emitting diode (LED) driving system includes a direct current/direct current (DC/DC) converter, a detection circuit, a control circuit, a pulse width modulation (PWM) controller, and a current balance circuit. The DC/DC converter outputs a suitable direct current voltage to drive an LED array. The detection circuit detects cathode voltages of LED strings of the LED array. The control circuit generates and outputs a control signal to the PWM controller, and generates and outputs various adjusting signals. The current balance circuit adjusts current flowing through two of the LED strings, which have a minimum and a maximum detected cathode voltage, respectively. The current balance circuit includes switches. A related LED driving method is also provided.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 11, 2013
    Date of Patent: May 19, 2015
    Assignee: Ampower Technology Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Cheng-Hung Tsai, Yong-Long Lee
  • Patent number: 9024544
    Abstract: In a field emission device, the fundamental cause of spherical aberration in an emitted electron beam trajectory is eliminated or mitigated. An aberration suppressor electrode 31 is provided at a lower vertical position than an extraction gate electrode 13 so its opening inner peripheral edge 31e faces a position near an emitter tip 11tp. The vertical position of the opening inner peripheral edge 31e of the aberration suppressor electrode 31 is made lower than the vertical position of the emitter tip 11tp. An aberration suppressing voltage Vsp is applied to the aberration suppressor electrode 31 that is a lower voltage than the potential of the emitter 11 and controls equipotential lines near the emitter tip 11tp to make them parallel.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 10, 2010
    Date of Patent: May 5, 2015
    Assignee: National University Corporation Sizuoka University
    Inventors: Masayoshi Nagao, Tomoya Yoshida, Yoichiro Neo
  • Patent number: 8975832
    Abstract: A display and method of making a display, comprising first and second stacked, non-inverted, dielectrically isolated, organic light emitting diodes formed on a silicon on insulator substrate. The display includes a means for applying both a positive or negative voltage across the stack, and a common intermediate control node situated between the diodes. The control node is electrically connected through vias to receive a control voltage signal, such that altering the relationship between the control voltage signal and the voltage applied across the stack regulates the actuation of the individual diodes.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 5, 2012
    Date of Patent: March 10, 2015
    Assignee: eMagin Corporation
    Inventors: Ilyas I. Khayrullin, Amalkumar P. Ghosh, Ihor Wacyk
  • Publication number: 20150041642
    Abstract: In eight electrodes arranged at an interval of a rotational angle of 45° around an ion optical axis, two neighboring electrodes are electrically connected together as one group, and electrodes in alternate groups are also electrically connected together. A voltage VDC+v cos ?t is applied to electrodes in alternate groups around the optical axis, and a voltage VDC?v cos ?t is applied to the other electrodes. Then, while an ion guide has the same electrode structure as that of an octupole-type ion guide, a radio-frequency electric field mainly having a quadrupole field component is formed, and the ion guide can be used as a quadrupole-type ion guide. Accordingly, only by changing the wiring for applying a voltage by using the electrodes having the same structure, ion guides of, for example, a quadrupole type and an octupole type, having different properties such as ion receiving properties and ion passing properties can be achieved.
    Type: Application
    Filed: March 16, 2012
    Publication date: February 12, 2015
    Applicant: SHIMADZU CORPORATION
    Inventors: Daisuke Okumura, Hiroto Itoi
  • Publication number: 20130342106
    Abstract: A thermionic emission device includes an insulating substrate, a patterned carbon nanotube film structure, a positive electrode and a negative electrode. The insulating substrate includes a surface. The surface includes an edge. The patterned carbon nanotube film structure is partially arranged on the surface of the insulating substrate. The patterned carbon nanotube film structure includes two strip-shaped arms joined at one end to form a tip portion protruded from the edge of the surface of the insulating substrate and suspended. The patterned carbon nanotube film structure includes a number of carbon nanotubes parallel to the surface of the insulating substrate. The patterned carbon nanotube film structure is connected between the positive electrode and the negative electrode in series.
    Type: Application
    Filed: August 23, 2012
    Publication date: December 26, 2013
    Applicants: HON HAI PRECISION INDUSTRY CO., LTD., TSINGHUA UNIVERSITY
    Inventors: YANG WEI, SHOU-SHAN FAN
  • Patent number: 8519618
    Abstract: A display having a first substrate and a second substrate parallel to each other, a cathode layer, a plurality of electroluminescences, a plurality of anodes, and a driving circuit is provided. The first substrate has a first surface. The second substrate has a second surface and a third surface opposite to each other, and the second surface faces the first surface. At least one of the first and the second substrates is transparent. The cathode layer disposed at the first surface has a plurality of tips. The plural electroluminescences are disposed at the second surface, and an interval is formed between the plural electroluminescences and the cathode layer. The positions of the plural anodes are at the third surface and correspond to the positions of plural electroluminescences on the second substrate. The driving circuit is disposed at the third surface and electrically connected to the plural anodes.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 30, 2011
    Date of Patent: August 27, 2013
    Assignee: HTC Corporation
    Inventor: Weng-Chang Shen
  • Patent number: 8358089
    Abstract: A light-emitting diode (LED)-based solid-state device comprises a color mixing mechanism to dynamically change the correlated color temperature (CCT) of a white light. With different lumen proportions for white phosphor-coated LEDs and integrated red and green LEDs, the light mixtures can be located in any one of eight CCT quadrangles. In practice, CCTs of a white-light can be tuned in a continuous manner. Because all the possible light mixtures on the chromaticity diagram correspond to a line segment that overlays the Planckian locus within the eight CCT tolerance quadrangles, the effect of LED intensity fluctuations that may put the mixture out of white light region is reduced. Also, because the two additional LEDs that mix with the white phosphor-coated LEDs contribute to the overall spectral power distribution (SPD) that substantially matches the SPD of standard illuminants, a CRI of 80 can be reached.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 8, 2010
    Date of Patent: January 22, 2013
    Assignee: Lightel Technologies Inc.
    Inventors: Chungho Hsia, Pai-Sheng Shen
  • Publication number: 20120229051
    Abstract: In a field emission device, the fundamental cause of spherical aberration in an emitted electron beam trajectory is eliminated or mitigated. An aberration suppressor electrode 31 is provided at a lower vertical position than an extraction gate electrode 13 so its opening inner peripheral edge 31e faces a position near an emitter tip 11tp. The vertical position of the opening inner peripheral edge 31e of the aberration suppressor electrode 31 is made lower than the vertical position of the emitter tip 11tp. An aberration suppressing voltage Vsp is applied to the aberration suppressor electrode 31 that is a lower voltage than the potential of the emitter 11 and controls equipotential lines near the emitter tip 11tp to make them parallel.
    Type: Application
    Filed: November 10, 2010
    Publication date: September 13, 2012
    Applicant: NATIONAL UNIVERSITY CORPORATION SIZUOKA UNIVERSITY
    Inventors: Masayoshi Nagao, Tomoya Yoshida, Yoichiro Neo
  • Publication number: 20110175554
    Abstract: The present invention aims to provide a plasma display panel that can be driven at low voltage and can offer favorable image display performance. In order to achieve the aim, on a surface of the front panel 1 on which the display electrode 5 is formed, the protective layer 7 made by using a crystalline oxide material that contains a crystalline oxide selected from the group consisting of (i) at least one of SrCeO3 and BaCeO3 and (ii) a solid solution of SrCeO3 and BaCeO3 is disposed so as to face the discharge space 14. By using the crystalline oxide material that contains the crystalline oxide selected from the group consisting of (i) at least one of SrCeO3 and BaCeO3 and (ii) a solid solution of SrCeO3 and BaCeO3, chemical stability can be improved without reducing secondary electron emission efficiency. A PDP capable of lowering drive voltage compared with a case where MgO is used can be obtained by using the crystalline oxide material.
    Type: Application
    Filed: March 29, 2010
    Publication date: July 21, 2011
    Inventors: Osamu Inoue, Hiroshi Asano, Yayoi Okui, Kojiro Okuyama
  • Patent number: 7619364
    Abstract: To increase radiation intensity of deuterium lamp with continuous spectrum in UV region including vacuum UV in order to enable the lamp to illuminate wide area in high intensity. A pair of electrodes 7 and 8 is covered with dielectrics, placed outside of a UV transparent tubular discharge vessel 1 and plunged into the discharge vessel 1. There is a shield box 2 with a separator 3 between the electrodes 7 and 8 in the discharge vessel 1. Deuterium gas, hydrogen gas, mixture gas with deuterium, or mixture gas with hydrogen is enclosed in the discharge vessel 1 as discharge gas. A slit 4 is formed on the separator 3 along the axis of the discharge vessel 1 in order to squeeze the discharge path arising between the electrodes 7 and 8. The slit 4 makes radiant points continuous and then the lamp length would not be limited. When sine wave in high voltage is applied between the electrodes 7 and 8, dielectric-barrier discharge is caused.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 16, 2007
    Date of Patent: November 17, 2009
    Assignee: ORC Manufacturing Co., Ltd.
    Inventor: Makoto Yasuda
  • Patent number: 7129642
    Abstract: An electron emitter has an emitter section formed on a substrate, and a cathode electrode and an anode electrode formed on a same surface of the emitter section. A slit is formed between the cathode electrode and the anode electrode. A drive voltage from a pulse generation source is applied between the cathode electrode and the anode electrode, and the anode electrode is connected to the ground. A collector electrode is provided above the emitter section at a position facing the slit. The collector electrode is connected to a bias voltage source through a resistor. The emitter section is made of a piezoelectric material.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 11, 2003
    Date of Patent: October 31, 2006
    Assignee: NGK Insulators, Ltd.
    Inventors: Yukihisa Takeuchi, Tsutomu Nanataki, Iwao Ohwada
  • Patent number: 6894438
    Abstract: A lighting system that includes a lamp and a control circuit configured to apply signals to the lamp in pulsed mode operation. The lamp may employ ferroelectric ceramic cathodes to enhance life of the lamp when used with the pulsed mode drive circuitry. The drive circuitry applies signals within a desired frequency range to lower input power while providing enhance output within a desired wavelength band, such as 365 nm to make use of an afterglow regime from an emissive medium within the lamp.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 13, 2002
    Date of Patent: May 17, 2005
    Assignee: General Electric Company
    Inventors: Sung Su Han, Joseph Darryl Michael, Ralph William Moulder
  • Patent number: 6822404
    Abstract: An energy-saving, high-outputting and high-efficiency, electric discharge type of illumination apparatus and associated units having thin divisional electrode pieces arranged at relatively narrow intervals on an electrode-application area, which is defined on the bottom of a flat container. The divisional electrode pieces are fixed to the electrode-application area with an intervening sheet of good electrically insulating and thermally conductive material laid therebetween. A front glass having a fluorescence coating on its inside is placed to confront the electrode-application area. Cooling water is circulated in the electrode-application area for cooling the divisional electrode pieces. A multi-poled magnet sheet arranged outside the electrode-application area is aligned with the electrode-to-electrode space. Lower frequency power supplies are connected to the divisional electrodes to supply that with voltages of the same amplitude.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 30, 2002
    Date of Patent: November 23, 2004
    Assignees: Toyama Prefecture
    Inventors: Kazunori Matsumoto, Toru Nakajima, Shigeki Kawabata, Shigekazu Yamazaki, Seiji Oda, Tomohisa Yamamoto
  • Patent number: 6492777
    Abstract: This invention is a space-efficient pixel control circuit for a field emission flat panel matrix-addressable array display. The invention reduces by one the number of transistors required at the intersection of each row line and column line within the array. In addition, only two lines need be routed through the array (i.e., row and column). The array space saved by increased layout efficiency may be used to increase pixel density within the array. The new space-efficient pixel control circuit has a single transistor in a base electrode grounding path that is directly controlled by is a row line. A current-limiting resistor is interposed between the single grounding transistor and a column line to which an inverse video signal is applied. The magnitude of the current through the current-limiting resistor is inversely proportional to the inverse column signal voltage. Thus, pixel brightness is directly proportional to the voltage drop across the current-limiting resistor.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 6, 1999
    Date of Patent: December 10, 2002
    Assignee: Micron Technology, Inc.
    Inventor: Glen E. Hush
  • Patent number: 6157137
    Abstract: A multi-electron beam source comprises an electron emitting element part including: a plurality of electron emitting elements provided two-dimensionally in a matrix-like arrangement on a substrate; opposing terminals of electron emitting elements arranged adjacently in the column direction thereof being electrically connected to each other; terminals on the same side of all the electron emitting elements in the same row being electrically connected; and the plurality of electron emitting elements being arranged in "m" rows, "m" representing a number of two or more, and a driving circuit part for driving said electron emitting element part. The multi-electron beam source has means for removing a spike noise superposed onto the driving pulse generated by said driving cirucit part.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 22, 1997
    Date of Patent: December 5, 2000
    Assignee: Canon Kabushiki Kaisha
    Inventors: Hidetoshi Suzuki, Ichiro Nomura, Tetsuya Kaneko, Haruhito Ono
  • Patent number: 6157145
    Abstract: A method of operating cold cathode in discharge lamps, including discharge lamps operating with a dielectrically hindered discharge that include two electroconducive electrodes facing each other between which a ferro-electric material is sandwiched. At least one of the electrodes presents one or more openings. When the cathode is operating, a voltage of quickly alternating polarity is applied to both electrodes, thereby freeing electrons on the surface of the ferro-electric material. The working voltage of the discharge lamp causes an acceleration of said electrons, which pass through the openings towards the anode and are used for igniting the discharge lamp and keeping it in an operating mode.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 30, 1998
    Date of Patent: December 5, 2000
    Assignee: Patent-Treuhand-Gesellschaft fuer elektrische Gluenlampen mbH
    Inventors: Frank Vollkommer, Lothar Hitzschke
  • Patent number: 6091202
    Abstract: An electron beam exposure apparatus, comprising an electron emitting apparatus including an extracting electrode and a plurality of electron emitting elements having end portions exposed individually in a plurality of openings formed in rows and columns on a principal face of the extracting electrode, a control power supply for applying a voltage between the extracting electrode and selected ones of the electron emitting elements to emit electrons from the selected electron emitting elements, an acceleration electrode in the form of a flat plate having a number of very small openings equal to the number of and corresponding to the electron emitting elements, and a converging electrode in the form of a flat plate having a number of very small openings equal to the number of and corresponding to the electron emitting elements.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 5, 1996
    Date of Patent: July 18, 2000
    Assignee: NEC Corporation
    Inventor: Naoaki Aizaki
  • Patent number: 5920154
    Abstract: This invention is a space-efficient pixel control circuit for a field emission flat panel matrix-addressable array display. The invention reduces by one the number of transistors required at the intersection of each row line and column line within the array. In addition, only two lines need be routed through the array (i.e., row and column). The array space saved by increased layout efficiency may be used to increase pixel density within the array. The new space-efficient pixel control circuit has a single transistor in a base electrode grounding path that is directly controlled by a row line. A current-limiting resistor is interposed between the single grounding transistor and a column line to which an inverse video signal is applied. The magnitude of the current through the current-limiting resistor is inversely proportional to the inverse column signal voltage. Thus, pixel brightness is directly proportional to the voltage drop across the current-limiting resistor.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 27, 1997
    Date of Patent: July 6, 1999
    Assignee: Micron Technology, Inc.
    Inventor: Glen E. Hush
  • Patent number: 5874808
    Abstract: A low turn-on voltage volcano-shaped field emitter, a method of fabrication, and integration into an addressable array suitable for applications in field emitter displays and other electron generating applications are disclosed. In one embodiment, the device is fabricated using a stepped insulator in which the distance between the gate and the emitter near the emission surface is significantly reduced with respect to the thickness of the insulator and separates the gate from the emitter. By keeping the large gate-to-emitter distance, the device capacitance is reduced and fabrication yield is increased, since pinholes in the insulator are significantly reduced. In another embodiment of the present invention, the integration of the device into an addressable array suitable for electron emission is described. The array incorporates a network of resistors which assures uniform emission.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 21, 1997
    Date of Patent: February 23, 1999
    Inventors: Heinz H. Busta, Jay E. Pogemiller
  • Patent number: 5714848
    Abstract: A circuit arrangement for alternatingly, at a frequency f, establishing and extinguishing a discharge in each of a plurality of discharge paths, each of which is associated with a first electrode situated at a first end of the discharge path and with a second electrode situated at a second end of the discharge path. Operating voltages are generated from a supply voltage during operation and are present across respective discharge paths and are periodic at the frequency f. The same operating voltage is present across each discharge path. During operation each discharge path is associated with an auxiliary electrode situated alongside the discharge path and the circuit arrangement further comprises respective switching devices for connecting and disconnecting each of the auxiliary electrodes at the frequency f to a terminal of the circuit arrangement to establish an ignition voltage during a part of each period between one of the electrodes and the auxiliary electrode associated with the same discharge path.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 4, 1995
    Date of Patent: February 3, 1998
    Assignee: U.S. Philips Corporation
    Inventors: Rainer Hilbig, Uwe Chittka, Pieter Postma
  • Patent number: 5682085
    Abstract: A multi-electron beam source comprises an electron emitting element part including: a plurality of electron emitting elements provided two-dimensionally in a matrix-like arrangement on a substrate; opposing terminals of electron emitting elements arranged adjacently in the column direction thereof being electrically connected to each other; terminals on the same side of all the electron emitting elements in the same row being electrically connected; and the plurality of electron emitting elements being arranged in "m" rows, "m" representing a number of two or more, and a driving circuit part for driving said electron emitting element part. The multi-electron beam source has means for removing a spike noise superposed onto the driving pulse generated by said driving circuit part.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 6, 1995
    Date of Patent: October 28, 1997
    Assignee: Canon Kabushiki Kaisha
    Inventors: Hidetoshi Suzuki, Ichiro Nomura, Tetsuya Kaneko, Haruhito Ono
  • Patent number: 5677598
    Abstract: A low-pressure mercury discharge lamp with a lamp vessel having a first lamp vessel portion (La1) with a first electrode (E11) and a first luminescent layer which radiates white light of a first color temperature during lamp operation and a second lamp vessel portion (La2) with a second electrode (E12) and with a second luminescent layer which radiates white light of a second colour temperature different from the first during lamp operation. The first lamp vessel portion and the second lamp vessel portion are interconnected by a connection which allows a filling of mercury and a rare gas in both portions to pass and together enclose a discharge space. The discharge space contains only one further electrode (E13) for both the first and second lamp vessel portions.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 19, 1994
    Date of Patent: October 14, 1997
    Assignee: U.S. Philips Corporation
    Inventors: Johannes T. W. De Hair, Lukas Kastelein
  • Patent number: 5642017
    Abstract: This invention is a space-efficient pixel control circuit for a field emission flat panel matrix-addressable array display. The invention reduces by one the number of transistors required at the intersection of each row line and column line within the array. In addition, only two lines need be routed through the array (i.e., row and column). The array space saved by increased layout efficiency may be used to increase pixel density within the array. The new space-efficient pixel control circuit has a single transistor in a base electrode grounding path that is directly controlled by a row line. A current-limiting resistor is interposed between the single grounding transistor and a column line to which an inverse video signal is applied. The magnitude of the current through the current-limiting resistor is inversely proportional to the inverse column signal voltage. Thus, pixel brightness is directly proportional to the voltage drop across the current-limiting resistor.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 2, 1994
    Date of Patent: June 24, 1997
    Assignee: Micron Display Technology, Inc.
    Inventor: Glen E. Hush
  • Patent number: 5461009
    Abstract: A microtip structure with high uniformity, low operating voltage and no resistive dissipation for a field emission display is described. A substrate is provided. A first conductive layer is formed on the substrate that acts as a cathode. A second conductive layer with a narrow circular opening acts as a gate. A first dielectric layer separates the cathode and the gate. The microtip extends up from the cathode and into the opening. A second dielectric layer is over the gate, with a circular opening that is larger than and concentric with the narrow circular opening in the gate. A means to provide a brief, charging voltage to the gate, followed by a longer operational voltage, wherein the amplitude of the operational voltage is lower than the amplitude of the charging voltage, is included.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 8, 1993
    Date of Patent: October 24, 1995
    Assignee: Industrial Technology Research Institute
    Inventors: Jammy C. Huang, Chun-Hui Tsai
  • Patent number: 5357172
    Abstract: In a flat panel display in which low-voltage row and column address signals control a much higher pixel activation voltage by respectively gating at least one pair of series coupled MOSFETs to ground for each pixel, effective current regulation is achieved by placing a current-regulating resistor in series with each pair of the series-coupled MOSFETs. The resistor is coupled directly to ground and to the source of the MOSFET furthest from the emitter node. By coupling the current-regulating resistor directly to the ground bus, stable current values are achieved over a wide range of cathode voltages.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 1, 1993
    Date of Patent: October 18, 1994
    Assignee: Micron Technology, Inc.
    Inventors: John K. Lee, Stephen L. Casper, Tyler A. Lowrey
  • Patent number: 5218273
    Abstract: An electronic device that provides a multiplicity of electronic circuit functions within a single device package by utilizing a plurality of field emission devices wherein at least some of the field emission devices are employed to perform more than a single circuit function.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 25, 1991
    Date of Patent: June 8, 1993
    Assignee: Motorola, Inc.
    Inventors: Robert C. Kane, Ross E. Ruthenberg
  • Patent number: 5189341
    Abstract: An electron emitting element capable of preventing pollution of the emitter due to absorption of gas thereon, to thereby ensure stable emission of electrons over a long period of time even in a low vacuum atmosphere. The electron emitting element is constructed so as to permit a part of electrons emitted from one of emitters to impinge on the other of the emitters being ready for emission to clean it.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 16, 1991
    Date of Patent: February 23, 1993
    Assignee: Futaba Denshi Kogyo Kabushiki Kaisha
    Inventors: Shigeo Itoh, Teruo Watanabe, Hisashi Nakata, Toshinori Takagi
  • Patent number: 4999543
    Abstract: A brilliance control circuit capable of automatically controlling the brilliance of fluorescent display tubes, comprising a lighting voltage regulating circuit incorporating a circuit element which decreases the lighting voltage when the current flowing through the fluorescent display tube increases, and increases the lighting voltage when the current decreases.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 26, 1988
    Date of Patent: March 12, 1991
    Assignee: Sharp Kabushiki Kaisha
    Inventors: Masanori Sano, Masanori Ueyama, Kenji Watanabe
  • Patent number: 4988925
    Abstract: An arc discharge lamp which can be operated in any orientation without significant variation in performance includes an even number of electrodes at least equal to four, a discharge vessel including a spherical central portion and electrode mounting portions. The electrodes are mounted in the electrode mounting portions and have a substantially uniform three-dimensional distribution with respect to the central portion. The discharge lamp can be used in a lamp assembly including a switch apparatus for coupling electrical energy to a pair of the electrodes that is closest to a horizontal plane. An automatic switch apparatus includes orientation-sensitive switches, one having the same direction as each of the electrodes. The switches are interconnected such that electrical energy is coupled to a pair of electrodes in response to the orientation of the switch apparatus relative to a gravity field. The switch apparatus can be mounted in the base or within the lamp envelope of the lamp assembly.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 22, 1989
    Date of Patent: January 29, 1991
    Assignee: GTE Products Corporation
    Inventor: Oscar Biblarz
  • Patent number: 4792732
    Abstract: A plasma generator for exciting electrons in the plasma to a uniform energy evel. In a perferred embodiment, two sets of mutually perpendicular electrodes surround a container of gas, with one set being driven through a ninety degree phase shifter to establish a circularly polarized field in the space within the container. Alternative means are disclosed for launching circularly polarized RF waves into the container of gas. A desired level of uniform electron energy is achieved by establishing the proper relationship between the frequency and magnitude of the applied circularly polarized field and the mean free path of the electrons in the plasma.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 12, 1987
    Date of Patent: December 20, 1988
    Assignee: United States of America as represented by the Secretary of the Air Force
    Inventor: James P. O'Loughlin
  • Patent number: 4739227
    Abstract: A fluorescent lamp has an envelope tube forming a gas-tight enclosure about a pair of externally-energizable filaments which generate a plasma discharge for conversion to visible light; a keep-alive electrode is located adjacent to at least one filament. A dimming control circuit individually externally energizes each keep-alive electrode to generate an auxiliary discharge, between that keep-alive electrode and the adjacent filament, at a magnitude sufficient to maintain the adjacent filament in the spot mode of operation even if the main plasma discharge current is varied over a range sufficient to change the visible light output of the lamp over at least a 10:1 range.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 26, 1986
    Date of Patent: April 19, 1988
    Assignee: General Electric Company
    Inventor: John M. Anderson
  • Patent number: 4668896
    Abstract: The low pressure gas-filled thyratron is scalable in the long dimension. Internally the tube is formed as a tetrode, with an auxiliary grid placed between the cathode and the control grid. A DC or pulsed power source drives the auxiliary grid both to insure uniform cathode emission and to provide a grid-cathode plasma prior to commutation. The high voltage holdoff structure consists of the anode, the control grid and its electrostatic shielding baffles, and a main quartz insulator. A small gas flow supply and exhaust system is used that eliminates the need for a hydrogen reservoir and permits other gases, such as helium, to be used. The thyratron provides a low inductance, high current, long lifetime switch configuration; useful for switch-on applications involving large scale lasers and other similar loads that are distributed in a linear geometry.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 6, 1985
    Date of Patent: May 26, 1987
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the Secretary of the Air Force
    Inventors: Stanley R. Byron, Thomas Burkes, Rodney A. Petr, Israel Smilanski
  • Patent number: 4631452
    Abstract: An electric discharge apparatus, for example a gas laser or discharge lamp, includes first and second electrodes defining a first discharge path and third and fourth electrodes defining a second discharge path alongside the first. A respective impedance is associated with any electrical connection between electrodes. The electrodes are electrically arranged such that either the current flow of a discharge along the first path is so different from the current flow of a discharge along the second path that, overall, the discharges repel one another, or stable electric discharges which coalesce are generated between respective electrodes of the first and second sets.A multi-electrode plasma torch is also provided comprising an electrode holder from which a plurality of electrodes project and a pilot electrode common to more than one of the electrodes.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 28, 1982
    Date of Patent: December 23, 1986
    Assignee: Loughborough Consultants Limited
    Inventor: John E. Harry
  • Patent number: 4587462
    Abstract: A fluorescent light source and power supply adapted therefore in which a set of three D.C. mercury discharge paths are provided adjacent each other in a single tubular envelope. A cathode is provided at the base end of each path and a single anode at the other end. The three discharge paths are isolated longitudially extended semi-circular glass insulator partitions. The power supply provides D.C. voltage across the anode and cathodes and a switching circuit which transfers energy from a transformer during portions of the switching cycle to efficiently power the tube.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 10, 1984
    Date of Patent: May 6, 1986
    Assignee: GTE Laboratories Incorporated
    Inventor: Carl F. Buhrer
  • Patent number: 4494046
    Abstract: The lamp shown herein is a beam mode fluorescent lamp for general lighting applications. The lamp comprises a light transmitting envelope, having a phosphor coating on its inner surface, enclosing a single electrode including a thermionic cathode for emitting electrons and an integral anode for accelerating the electrons and forming an electron beam, and a fill material, such as mercury, which emits ultraviolet radiation upon excitation. The electrode configuration provides for use of a single power source and minimal number of power leads. In addition, a separate cathode heater filament is not required.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 20, 1984
    Date of Patent: January 15, 1985
    Assignee: GTE Laboratories Incorporated
    Inventors: A. Bowman Budinger, Wojciech W. Byszewski, Joseph M. Proud
  • Patent number: 4473777
    Abstract: Disclosed herein is an electron emitter assembly for an electron gun which includes a first emitter ring, a second emitter ring, a power supply, connectors for connecting the power supply to the two electron emitter rings so that heating current flows from the power supply through the rings, and said rings being mounted so that a magnetic field formed by the second ring counteracts the magnetic field formed by the first ring.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 29, 1982
    Date of Patent: September 25, 1984
    Assignee: The Perkin-Elmer Corporation
    Inventors: George N. Steinberg, W. Derek Buckley
  • Patent number: 4438373
    Abstract: A low pressure metal vapor discharge lamp has a double-tube type discharge vessel consisting of a fully closed outer glass bulb and an inner glass tube substantially coaxially disposed in the outer glass bulb, the inner glass tube being closed at its fixed end and opened at its free end. The space within the discharge vessel is filled with a small amount of a metal and a rare gas of a low pressure. A single cathode is disposed within the space inside the inner glass tube, while a plurality of anodes are disposed in the annular space between the inner glass tube and the outer glass bulb. According to the invention, a number of discharge channels corresponding to that of the anodes are formed between the single cathode and respective anodes, via the opening end brim of the inner glass tube. In operation, anode oscillations take place alternately in respective anodes to cause a self-excitation switching operation, so that a plurality of plasmas are formed.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 1, 1982
    Date of Patent: March 20, 1984
    Assignee: Hitachi, Ltd.
    Inventors: Yoshio Watanabe, Mikiya Yamane, Teruichi Tomura
  • Patent number: 4415840
    Abstract: Discharge apparatus comprises a xenon-filled glass envelope with a common cathode that divides the envelope into two separate gas-containing chambers. Respective anodes are provided in each chamber to cooperate with the common cathode. By placement of the cathode a closer distance to one of the anodes, the impedance of the discharge path between the more closely spaced electrodes is made lower than the impedance of the discharge path in the other chamber. To make the impedance even lower, the pressure of the gas between the closely spaced electrodes is made lower than the gas pressure between the other pair of electrodes. The discharge apparatus is particularly useful in quenchable electronic flash apparatus employing both a flash tube and a low-impedance quench tube.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 15, 1982
    Date of Patent: November 15, 1983
    Assignee: Eastman Kodak Company
    Inventor: Hans P. A. Baumeister
  • Patent number: 4413204
    Abstract: The lamp shown herein is a beam mode fluorescent lamp for general lighting applications. The lamp comprises a light transmitting envelope, having a phosphor coating on its inner surface, enclosing a thermionic cathode for emitting electrons and an anode for accelerating the electrons and forming an electron beam, and a fill material, such as mercury, which emits ultraviolet radiation upon excitation. The cathode configuration provides for the elimination of "hot spots" due to ion bombardment at the low potential end of the cathode and for higher overall cathode emission of electrons. Various methods are employed to accomplish these ends, such as: segmenting the cathode, pitch variation of the cathode winding; ion probes and a non-uniform primary coil wound around a larger mandrel wire.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 4, 1982
    Date of Patent: November 1, 1983
    Assignee: GTE Laboratories Incorporated
    Inventors: Wojciech W. Byszewski, A. Bowman Budinger, Joseph M. Proud, Leslie A. Riseberg
  • Patent number: 4335331
    Abstract: A low pressure metal vapor discharge lamp has a double-tube type discharge vessel consisting of a fully closed outer glass bulb and an inner glass tube substantially coaxially disposed in the outer glass bulb, the inner glass tube being closed at its fixed end and opened at its free end. The space within the discharge vessel is filled with a small amount of a metal and a rare gas of a low pressure. A single cathode is disposed within the space inside the inner glass tube, while a plurality of anodes are disposed in the annular space between the inner glass tube and the outer glass bulb. According to the invention, a number of discharge channels corresponding to that of the anodes are formed between the single cathode and respective anodes, via the opening end brim of the inner glass tube. In operation, anode oscillations take place alternately in respective anodes to cause a self-excitation switching operation, so that a plurality of plasmas are formed.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 10, 1980
    Date of Patent: June 15, 1982
    Assignee: Hitachi, Ltd.
    Inventors: Yoshio Watanabe, Mikiya Yamane, Teruichi Tomura
  • Patent number: 4259617
    Abstract: A device for producing an electric discharge in a flat-plate transmission line.The device includes at least a first electrode (8), a second electrode (9) opposite the first electrode and passing through a hole (5) in the transmission line (1). With this arrangement it is possible to avoid deposits of metal particles building up on the edges of the hole and eventually shorting together opposite sides of the transmission line.Such flat-plate transmission lines are used in particular in nitrogen laser generators.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 6, 1979
    Date of Patent: March 31, 1981
    Assignee: Societe Anonyme dite: Compagnie Generale d'Electricite
    Inventor: Bruno Godard
  • Patent number: 4128788
    Abstract: The light producing efficiency of gas filled electrical discharge tubes is improved by applying a high voltage narrow pulsed ionizing potential across the electrodes of the tube and eliminating, through removal and/or neutralization, gas ions between the electrodes.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 22, 1977
    Date of Patent: December 5, 1978
    Assignee: W. R. Grace & Co.
    Inventor: Frank E. Lowther
  • Patent number: 4081715
    Abstract: In an electronic device such as a fluorescent display tube which comprises an evacuated envelope, a plurality of cathode electrodes and an anode electrode, auxiliary electrodes are arranged between the cathode electrodes and the anode electrode. Each auxiliary electrode is impressed with AC potential superposed on DC potential and acts to disperse the electron flux emitted by the cathode electrodes in the lateral direction thus uniformly distributing the electron flux on the anode electrode.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 28, 1977
    Date of Patent: March 28, 1978
    Assignee: Ise Electronics Corporation
    Inventor: Sashiro Uemura
  • Patent number: 4079328
    Abstract: An area beam of electrons capable of delivering large doses of electron irradiation at small dose rates and having a predetermined distribution pattern is provided by an electron accelerator comprising plural discrete cathodes positioned as required to achieve the desired pattern. An individual emission control is provided for the filament of each cathode. In a preferred embodiment plural cathodes are movably mounted in a row extending transversely of the transport path of material to be irradiated, a plurality of such rows being positioned along the direction of transport.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 21, 1976
    Date of Patent: March 14, 1978
    Assignee: Radiation Dynamics, Inc.
    Inventors: Marshall Robert Cleland, Kennard Harold Morganstern, Peter Ronald Hanley
  • Patent number: 4051407
    Abstract: A device for operating a low-pressure sodium vapor discharge lamp without a ballast. The electrode voltage drop near a main electrode of the sodium lamp is influenced by a change in the pre-heating current of that electrode and/or a change in the effective area of the electrode. The changed electrode voltage drop thus obtained provides a mechanism whereby any changes in the lamp current are opposed so as to produce ballast-free lamp operation.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 19, 1976
    Date of Patent: September 27, 1977
    Assignee: U.S. Philips Corporation
    Inventors: Jan Evert van der Werf, Jean Johan Heuvelmans, Hendricus Franciscus Johannes Jacobus VAN Tongeren
  • Patent number: 4009416
    Abstract: A method for improving the light producing efficiency of gas filled electrical discharge tubes wherein a high voltage narrow pulsed ionizing potential is applied across the electrodes of the tube along with a relatively low bias potential.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 10, 1975
    Date of Patent: February 22, 1977
    Assignee: W. R. Grace & Co.
    Inventor: Frank Eugene Lowther