Series Connected Discharge Devices Patents (Class 315/36)
  • Patent number: 10784027
    Abstract: A voltage dependent resistor includes a ceramic body and an electrically conductive structure for external connection. The ceramic body has two opposite surfaces and a side surface connecting the two opposite surfaces, and at least one of the two opposite surfaces is formed with at least one protrusion at a position adjacent to the side surface. As the protrusion makes the opposite surfaces of the ceramic body non-planar, the voltage dependent resistor is capable of suppressing the occurrence of flashover firelight during surge impact, so that its capability of withstanding surge impact is enhanced and its lifespan is prolonged. In addition, such structural arrangement is capable of preventing ceramic plates from adhering with each other when they are stacked with each other during the sintering stage of a green compact, thereby simplifying the post-processing procedures and minimizing the defect rate.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 8, 2019
    Date of Patent: September 22, 2020
    Assignee: Joyin Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Te-Hua Kuan, Teng-Hsi Yu
  • Patent number: 10749316
    Abstract: A multiple spark-gap arrester is disclosed. In an embodiment the arrester includes a series connection of a plurality of spark gaps between a first potential node and a reference-ground potential node and a trigger circuit having an input and an output, the input being coupled to a second potential node between two adjacent spark gaps of the plurality of spark gaps, and the output being coupled to at least one of the spark gaps between the second potential node and the reference-ground potential node, wherein the trigger circuit is configured, when at least one spark gap between the first potential node and the second potential node is ignited, to supply a trigger signal for the at least one of the spark gaps between the second potential node and the reference-ground potential node.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 17, 2016
    Date of Patent: August 18, 2020
    Assignee: EPCOS AG
    Inventors: Peter Bobert, Eduard Dorsch, Frank Werner
  • Patent number: 10411439
    Abstract: A surge arrester for the power supply of low-voltage systems, having a housing, two electrodes which are situated axially opposite one another, an arc combustion chamber formed in the interior of the housing, and a trigger aid. A spark gap is formed between the two electrodes so that an arc is produced when the spark gap between the two electrodes is triggered, the axial distance between end faces of the two electrodes being so large that the arc voltage is greater than the expected line voltage. Conversion of energy within the surge arrester is reduced by the arc combustion chamber having an inner region and at least one expansion region into which the arc can propagate after triggering. The inner region is arranged between the two electrodes and is delimited axially by the end faces of the electrodes and is delimited longitudinally by the at least one expansion region.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 26, 2015
    Date of Patent: September 10, 2019
    Assignee: PHOENIX CONTACT GMBH & CO. KG
    Inventors: Rainer Durth, Jan-Erik Schmutz
  • Patent number: 9184569
    Abstract: The invention relates to a spark gap having a plurality of individual spark gaps connected in series and present in a stacked arrangement, spaced apart from each other by insulating spacers (5) and nearly free of secondary current under typical operating conditions, wherein the individual spark gaps comprise electrodes (4) and outer connection electrodes are provided, and further having control elements for influencing the voltage distribution across the stacked arrangement and/or designed as an ignition aid. According to the invention, a mechanically pretensioned insulating element (8) can be inserted or pivoted between two adjacent electrodes (4) of the individual spark gaps, in order to interrupt the main current path of the spark gap in case of fault or overload.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 6, 2012
    Date of Patent: November 10, 2015
    Assignee: DEHN + SÖHNE GmbH + Co. KG
    Inventors: Arnd Ehrhardt, Stefanie Schreiter, Steffen Beier
  • Patent number: 9053844
    Abstract: An electrical device that includes a first electrode and a second electrode that are separated from one another so as to form a gap structure. A layer of protective material spans the gap structure to contact the first electrode and the second electrode. A dimension of the gap structure, corresponding to a separation distance between the first electrode and the second electrode, is varied and includes a minimum separation distance that coincides with a critical path of the layer of protective material between the first electrode and the second electrode.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 9, 2010
    Date of Patent: June 9, 2015
    Assignee: Littelfuse, Inc.
    Inventors: Lex Kosowsky, Robert Fleming
  • Patent number: 8890427
    Abstract: An apparatus and method of operation of a low-current LED lighting circuit are disclosed. The invention utilizes high AC voltage input and unreduced voltage ripple component of the rectified DC power signal, which provides the ability to drive an LED load at high power factor at low current. The invention discloses both active and passive circuits to limit the peak current flowing to the LED and create a current source for the LED load. The proposed circuit increases reliability by optionally eliminating capacitor, inductor, and heatsink components while minimizing luminous flux fluctuations.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 8, 2013
    Date of Patent: November 18, 2014
    Inventors: Todd W Hodrinsky, Donald T Wesson, Jr.
  • Patent number: 8545045
    Abstract: Modular LED lighting systems can provide under-cabinet lighting. According to some embodiments, an LED lighting system may be provided with at least one LED light strip, a switch unit, and a removable electrical connector electrically connecting the at least one LED light strip to the switch unit in an end-to-end configuration. According to other embodiments, a modular under-cabinet LED lighting system may be provided having a plurality of LED light strip units having a female power receptacle at each end thereof, and at least one removable electrical connector received within respective female power receptacles at respective ends of an adjacent pair of the LED light strip units to electrically connect the pair of LED light strip units in series one to another in an end-to-end configuration. Because of the modular nature of the various components, a lighting system tailored to a specific under-cabinet lighting need can be provided.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 12, 2011
    Date of Patent: October 1, 2013
    Assignee: Rev-A-Shelf Company, LLC
    Inventor: Christopher Tress
  • Patent number: 8115393
    Abstract: A tubular LED lighting fixture comprises: a heat sink shell; a printed circuit board supported on the shell and having an upper surface and a bottom surface, longitudinally extending laterally spaced wiring on the upper and bottom surfaces, and, transverse heat pipes running through the printed circuit board; a plurality of LEDs connected in series across the laterally spaced upper surface wiring and spacedly mounted along the printed circuit board; a high frequency electronic driver mounted in the shell and connected in series with the LEDs; voltage limiting devices mounted across the laterally spaced bottom surface wiring of the printed circuit board and in parallel with the LEDs; a lens bonded to the shell covering the printed circuit board for directing and delivering light from the LEDs, the shell and lens forming a tube for enclosing the LED bearing printed circuit board; the tube so formed having sealed ends to form a watertight fixture; and, input wires extending from the high frequency electronic dri
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 9, 2009
    Date of Patent: February 14, 2012
    Inventors: Andrew T. Neal, Timothy John Porter
  • Publication number: 20100176724
    Abstract: A tubular LED lighting fixture comprises: a heat sink shell; a printed circuit board supported on the shell and having an upper surface and a bottom surface, longitudinally extending laterally spaced wiring on the upper and bottom surfaces, and, transverse heat pipes running through the printed circuit board; a plurality of LEDs connected in series across the laterally spaced upper surface wiring and spacedly mounted along the printed circuit board; a high frequency electronic driver mounted in the shell and connected in series with the LEDs; voltage limiting devices mounted across the laterally spaced bottom surface wiring of the printed circuit board and in parallel with the LEDs; a lens bonded to the shell covering the printed circuit board for directing and delivering light from the LEDs, the shell and lens forming a tube for enclosing the LED bearing printed circuit board; the tube so formed having sealed ends to form a watertight fixture; and, input wires extending from the high frequency electronic dri
    Type: Application
    Filed: January 9, 2009
    Publication date: July 15, 2010
    Inventors: Andrew T. NEAL, Timothy John PORTER
  • Publication number: 20090200946
    Abstract: According to a method for supplying a plurality of cascade connected light sources including, a control signal (k) is sent to a supply apparatus (AA). The control signal corresponds to a desired value of light radiation intensity to be emitted by at least a part of said the light sources, An electric current (z) with variable frequency is supplied to the plurality of light sources (SL1, SL2 , . . . , SLn) so that the lamps (L) of each light source are crossed by the values of current (h) depending on the frequency values of the current (z) supplied to the plurality of light sources. A connection exists between the values assumed by the control signal (k) and the values of the current (h) circulating in the lamps (L) of the light sources (SL1, SL2, . . . , SLn).
    Type: Application
    Filed: June 12, 2007
    Publication date: August 13, 2009
    Applicant: O.C.E.M. S.P.A.
    Inventor: Gianni Facchini
  • Publication number: 20080030645
    Abstract: A light emitting unit includes a power supply line that supplies a power supply voltage to a light source part and a ground member that grounds the light source part, and the power supply line is disposed on a different layer from that of the ground member. The light emitting unit of the present invention may be included in a backlight assembly which may be included in a display assembly.
    Type: Application
    Filed: August 2, 2007
    Publication date: February 7, 2008
    Applicant: SAMSUNG ELECTRONICS CO., LTD.
    Inventors: Young-Joo NAM, Dong-Gyun RA
  • Patent number: 6049249
    Abstract: Apparatus compensating for gain variations versus frequency of a traveling wave tube (TWT) is disclosed. The apparatus provides an RF interaction circuit section designed with specified mismatches causing internal reflections of the RF waves, such that the overall gain response is flattened out or inverted.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 8, 1997
    Date of Patent: April 11, 2000
    Assignee: Hughes Electronics Corporation
    Inventors: Ivo Tammaru, James W. Hansen
  • Patent number: 5862462
    Abstract: A satellite is formed with a signal translation and amplification system which includes at least one communication path. Each communication path includes a plurality of radiation-cooled TWTs powered by a single EPC. Also included in the communication path is a high efficiency radiation panel capable of transmitting heat generated by said TWTs and EPC into space; as well as a radiating collector which is directly applied to each TWT, and is capable of transmitting heat generated by said TWT into space.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 12, 1996
    Date of Patent: January 19, 1999
    Assignee: Space Systems/Loral, Inc.
    Inventors: Randall D. Tyner, Donald C. Briggs, Daniel E. Collins, William R. Avellino
  • Patent number: 5834971
    Abstract: Multiple gain stages are provided in a single traveling wave tube amplifier (TWTA). Each gain stage comprises an interaction circuit, an associated RF input, and an associated RF output. The gain stages are separated by a drift length that is selected to achieve a desired interaction between gain stages. In one embodiment that uses only one TWT, couplers, and adjustment blocks external to the TWT, feed-forward and feedback connections remove intermodulation distortion introduced by the TWTA.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 8, 1995
    Date of Patent: November 10, 1998
    Assignee: Hughes Electronics
    Inventors: David B. Giguere, Paul A. Gianfortune
  • Patent number: 5742209
    Abstract: A four cavity, efficient magnetically insulated line oscillator (C4-E MILO) having seven vanes and six cavities formed within a tube-like structure surrounding a cathode. The C4-E MILO has a primary slow wave structure which is comprised of four vanes and the four cavities located near a microwave exit end of the tube-like structure. The primary slow wave structure is the four cavity (C4) portion of the magnetically insulated line oscillator (MILO). An RF choke is provided which is comprised of three of the vanes and two of the cavities. The RF choke is located near a pulsed power source portion of the tube-like structure surrounding the cathode. The RF choke increases feedback in the primary slow wave structure, prevents microwaves generated in the primary slow wave structure from propagating towards the pulsed power source and modifies downstream electron current so as to enhance microwave power generation.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 10, 1996
    Date of Patent: April 21, 1998
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the United States Department of Energy
    Inventors: Raymond W. Lemke, Miles C. Clark, Steve E. Calico
  • Patent number: 5723948
    Abstract: A helix travelling-wave tube of the present invention includes a helix wave delay circuit having velocity tapers for improving a beam efficiency and reducing backward wave oscillation. The tube allows a small signal and a large signal synchronous voltage to coincide or be extremely close to each other and thereby allows its circuit to have a minimum length. The tube is therefore small size and light weight and involves a minimum of gain variation against voltage variation.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 3, 1996
    Date of Patent: March 3, 1998
    Assignee: NEC Corporation
    Inventor: Mitsuru Yoshida
  • Patent number: 5649310
    Abstract: A satellite is formed with a signal translation and amplification system which includes at least one communication path. Each communication path includes a plurality of radiation-cooled TWTs powered by a single EPC. Also included in the communication path is a high efficiency radiation panel capable of transmitting heat generated by said TWTs and EPC into space; as well as a radiating collector which is directly applied to each TWT, and is capable of transmitting heat generated by said TWT into space.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 15, 1994
    Date of Patent: July 15, 1997
    Assignee: Space Systems/Loral, Inc.
    Inventors: Randall D. Tyner, Donald C. Briggs, Daniel E. Collins, William R. Avellino
  • Patent number: 5525864
    Abstract: Multiple radio frequency (RF) outlet ports are provided along the side of a slow wave tube to establish a distributed RF output in response to the transmission of an e.sup.- beam through the tube. The tube has a periodically rippled inner surface, and the outlet ports are spaced along the tube by substantially integral numbers of ripple periods. When implemented as a backward wave oscillator, RF power is extracted during a single pass through the tube; a travelling wave tube amplifier implementation is also possible. The separation of the RF extraction from the absorption of the e.sup.- beam at the end of the tube eliminates RF reflections and permits water cooling of the e.sup.- beam absorber. The RF extraction ports are also preferably configured as built-in mode converters from a TM.sub.01 cylindrical tube mode to a TE.sub.10 rectangular extraction mode, with four symmetrically arranged rectangular extraction waveguides at each extraction location combining their energies into a single TE.sub.10 output.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 7, 1994
    Date of Patent: June 11, 1996
    Assignee: Hughes Aircraft Company
    Inventors: Jennifer M. Butler, Robert L. Eisenhart
  • Patent number: 5341066
    Abstract: The present invention is an anisotropically loaded helix assembly for use in a traveling-wave tube, and the corresponding method for making the same. The present invention includes a helix circuit concentrically supported within a conductive cylindrical housing by a plurality of dielectric support members. The present invention effects an improved efficiency and bandwidth in the performance of TWT by the material used to form the dielectric support members, the shape of the dielectric support members and the manner by which the anisotropic load is affixed to the dielectric support members.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 2, 1992
    Date of Patent: August 23, 1994
    Assignee: ITT Corporation
    Inventors: Kenneth S. Karsten, Jr., Richard C. Wertman
  • Patent number: 5196765
    Abstract: A crossed-field amplifier tube is constructed in which there is substantially no direct RF coupling between the output of the slow-wave structure on the anode and the input of the slow-wave structure of the cathode to thereby obtain a cathode-driven tube which is capable of RF pulsed operation into a linear accelerator cavity which presents a mismatched load, a short circuit impedance, at initiation and termination of the RF pulse without breaking into oscillation. During the RF pulse, the tube operates into a substantially matched load and provides high peak and average power.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 5, 1988
    Date of Patent: March 23, 1993
    Assignee: Raytheon Company
    Inventors: George H. MacMaster, Lawrence J. Nichols
  • Patent number: 5162697
    Abstract: A traveling wave tube (10) includes a coupled cavity type slow wave structure (100) having a driver stage (52) and an output section (101) with a primary section (64) and a velocity taper section (82) which in combinattion produce maximum signal gain at a predetermined frequency. A gain flattening section (104) is preferably disposed between the driver stage (52) and the primary section (64) of the output section (101), and is designed to operate at a reduced phase velocity selected to produce minimum or negative signal gain at approximately the predetermined frequency. The gain characteristics of the driver stage (52), gain flattening section (104), primary section (64), and velocity taper section (82) combine to produce minimum signal gain variation over an operating frequency range which spans the predetermined frequency, and expand the bandwidth of the traveling wave tube (10).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 6, 1990
    Date of Patent: November 10, 1992
    Assignee: Hughes Aircraft Company
    Inventors: Jon A. Davis, Ivo Tammaru
  • Patent number: 5162747
    Abstract: Two or more signal interaction structures (16,18), which may be klystron or traveling wave structures (32,50), are axially disposed in series between an electron gun (12) and a collector (14) for selectively velocity modulating an electron beam (20) generated by the gun (12) with a microwave input signal (IN1,IN2) and extracting a resulting amplified microwave output signal (OUT1,OUT2) from the beam (20). The interaction structures (16,18) are designed to operate in different frequency bands, for example the X and Ku bands, with only one of the structures (16,18) having an input signal (IN1,IN2) applied thereto at any given time. The interaction structures (16,18) are further designed such that the structures (16,18) which are not being used do not affect the structure (16,18) which is being used.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 19, 1991
    Date of Patent: November 10, 1992
    Assignee: Hughes Aircraft Company
    Inventor: Ivo Tammaru
  • Patent number: 5068569
    Abstract: An element with periodic structure for guiding electromagnetic waves propagating along a longitudinal axis of the structure at a speed below the velocity of light is disclosed. The structure includes a series of metal polar expansions aligned with the mentioned axis and forming a plurality of resonant metal cavities. The polar expansions have respective apertures aligned with each other so as to form a freeway for electron flow. First and second conductors are provided for cooperating with the polar expansions. The polar expansions each further respectively have first and second apertures for receiving first and second conductors that are preferably positioned diametrically opposed to each other with respect to the mentioned longitudinal axis.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 8, 1990
    Date of Patent: November 26, 1991
    Assignee: Selenia Industrie Elettroniche Associate S.p.A.
    Inventors: Guido Busacca, Antonio Muratore
  • Patent number: 5038075
    Abstract: A traveling-wave deflection system comprising a pair of deflectors disposed opposite each other across the path of an electron beam from an electron gun to a screen in a cathode-ray tube. Each deflector has a helical conductor wound around a core structure generally extending along the beam path. If made solely of an insulating material as in the prior art, the core structures would be electrified in use of the CRT, with the consequent deflection defocusing and bright line displacement. Therefore, in order to avoid electrification, the core structures are each enveloped in an antielectrification layer of a conducting material having a higher resistivity than the helical conductor. An embodiment is also disclosed wherein the core structures are wholly of conductive material.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 26, 1989
    Date of Patent: August 6, 1991
    Assignee: Iwatsu Electric Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Tsutomu Tobari, Osamu Akitsuki, Koshi Takano
  • Patent number: 5023563
    Abstract: A method is disclosed of employing free electron lasing action at a first frequency to achieve gain in output power at a second frequency. In a broadest sense, an electron beam is driven with an electromagnetic wave at said first frequency in a first stage, having a first spatial period, to cause bunching of the electron beam. The electrons in the beam are oscillated with a second stage, having a second spatial period, to generate electromagnetic wave power from said beam at the second frequency.In a specific embodiment, the second frequency is near a harmonic of said first frequency. And in a particular implementation, the first stage is provided by a free electron laser having a first wiggler with a first spatial period, the second stage is a second wiggler having a second spatial period and a drift region is disposed between the first and second stages.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 24, 1990
    Date of Patent: June 11, 1991
    Assignee: Hughes Aircraft Company
    Inventors: Robin J. Harvey, A. Jay Palmer
  • Patent number: 4970432
    Abstract: A travelling-wave tube has a cylindrical sleeve containing a delay line and a coupling device between the delay line and an external microwave circuit for removal or injection of microwave energy. This external circuit comprises a transmission line possessing a conductive internal core. A conductive part is placed at one end of the delay line. It has a coupling pin that projects inwards into the sleeve and is brazed to an end of the delay line. The conductive part is brazed to the sleeve. The coupling between the delay line and the external circuit is made between the part and the internal conductive core of the transmission line. This coupling is without contact, a narrow gap being prepared between the external surface of the part located on the side of the coupling pin and the internal conductive core.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 18, 1989
    Date of Patent: November 13, 1990
    Assignee: Thomson-CSF
    Inventors: Jacques Tikes, Dominique Henry, Joel Le Fur
  • Patent number: 4912366
    Abstract: A coaxial TWT comprises a hollow beam gun which injects a thin annular beam between multifilar helices independently supported by thin-walled dielectric sleeves. The beam is focussed by a balanced, coaxial PPM focussing assembly, causing a stable hollow beam flow. The input and output coupling helixes, and the interaction helices which form the slow-wave structure on the exterior and the interior of the hollow beam, respectively, are preferably counterwound with respect to each other to provide greater frequency bandwidth than when similarly wound. Input and output helix coupling to either the inner or the outer helix is possible.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 7, 1987
    Date of Patent: March 27, 1990
    Assignee: Raytheon Company
    Inventor: Norman J. Dionne
  • Patent number: 4906896
    Abstract: A coupled-cavity linear accelerator for accelerating charged particles to velocities greater than about one-third the speed of light. The accelerator includes a first tank for accelerating charged particles at a first velocity to a second velocity and a second tank for accelerating the particles to a higher third velocity. A bridge coupler for focusing a beam formed by the charged particles joins the first and second tanks. Each tank is substantially symmetrical about an axis and includes a generally cylindrical tank outer wall having an inner surface and an outer surface. A series of axially spaced disks are positioned inside the tank and bear on the inside tank surface. Each disk has an outer diameter greater than the as-manufactured inside diameter of the tank wall so that each disk causes an annular indentation in the inner surface of the outer wall. At least one washer is supported by each of alternating disks.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 3, 1988
    Date of Patent: March 6, 1990
    Assignee: Science Applications International Corporation
    Inventor: Donald A. Swenson
  • Patent number: 4866343
    Abstract: A slow-wave circuit for a TWT has periodic transverse plates extending across the axial by extending vacuum envelope. An opposed pair of apertures 24, 26 in each plate 20 couple adjacent cavities 28 between plates 20. Coupling apertures 24 in alternate plates 20 are rotated transverse to apertures 26 in the other plates to provide coupling only between adjacent cavities 28. Each plate 20 has transverse ridges 30 enclosing its axial beam aperture 22. The ridges 30 are orthogonal to the coupling apertures 24, 26 to increase beam coupling and decrease capacitance for wider bandwidth and higher impedance.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 20, 1988
    Date of Patent: September 12, 1989
    Assignee: Varian Associates, Inc.
    Inventor: Bertram G. James
  • Patent number: 4859907
    Abstract: A traveling-wave tube has coupled cells in a periodic arrangement defined between apertured irises separated by respective spacers. The spacers have dielectric waveguides terminating in lossly loads to attenuate RF frequencies above the upper limit of the frequency to be amplified by the tube.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 17, 1987
    Date of Patent: August 22, 1989
    Assignee: Selenia Industrie Elettroniche Associate
    Inventors: Guido Busacca, Vincenzo Meli, Mario Spalla
  • Patent number: 4855644
    Abstract: A helix slow-wave circuit for use in a linear-beam microwave tube device, comprises a first helix formed by a first wire-like member wound in a first sense at a plurality of turns, and a second helix formed by a second wire-like member wound at a plurality of turns in a second sense opposite to the first sense so as to coaxially surround and superpose on the first helix so that the first and second helixes intersect each other at suitable intervals along an axial direction of the helixes. The first helix is fixed to the second helix in at least some of intersecting points between the first and second helixes.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 14, 1987
    Date of Patent: August 8, 1989
    Assignee: NEC Corporation
    Inventors: Ryuzo Orui, Yasuhiro Itagaki, Toshio Yamaguchi
  • Patent number: 4829261
    Abstract: A traveling wave type amplifier. The device features a pair of short helical input and output couplers through which an electron beam is projected. Application of an RF signal to the couplers serves to modulate the electron beam. A drift tube to be positioned between the couplers is dimensioned to attenuate the RF signal while permitting the modulated electron beam to pass through. An amplified output signal is extracted from the output helix. Gain of the tube is enhanced by a linearly decreasing magnetic focussing field.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 8, 1987
    Date of Patent: May 9, 1989
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the Secretary of the Army
    Inventors: Charles M. DeSantis, Louis J. Jasper, Jr.
  • Patent number: 4829527
    Abstract: An orotron for generating near millimeter wavelength radiation at a selectable output frequency within a wide frequency range, in which the orotron output power is automatically tuned electronically at the selected output frequency. A piezoelectric electromechanical positioning device is connected between the two mirrors forming the open resonator of the orotron to determine the mirror separation in accordance with a position control signal. The electron beam acceleration voltage, which determines the orotron output frequency, and the position control signal are adjusted simultaneously so as to tune the output power at a single oscillation mode of the orotron resonator over a wide frequency range. In the preferred embodiment, the actual output frequency is detected and compared with the selected output frequency, and the beam acceleration voltage and mirror separation simultaneously adjusted to continuously tune and maintain the orotron output at the selected frequency.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 23, 1984
    Date of Patent: May 9, 1989
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the Secretary of the Army
    Inventors: Donald E. Wortman, Herbert Dropkin, Richard P. Leavitt
  • Patent number: 4820688
    Abstract: Microwave oscillators and amplifiers which utilize a superconducting slow-wave circuit. The slow circuit is made from materials which exhibit superconductivity at relatively high critical temperatures. The slow wave circuit is integral with the device's vacuum housing. Coolant exterior to the vacuum housing maintains the circuit in the superconducting state. The slow-wave circuit, which protrudes into the vacuum housing provides modulation of an electron beam which traverses the interior of the vacuum housing. Output power is ultimately extracted from the slow wave circuit.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 27, 1987
    Date of Patent: April 11, 1989
    Inventor: Louis J. Jasper, Jr.
  • Patent number: 4785261
    Abstract: A magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator employs self-generated magnetic fields to generate microwave energy. An anode of the oscillator includes slow-wave structures which are formed of a plurality of thin conductive vanes defining cavities therebetween, and a gap is formed between the anode and a cathode of the oscillator. In response to a pulsed voltage applied to the anode and cathode, self-generated magnetic fields arfe produced in a cross-field orientation with respect to the orientation of the electric field between the anode and the cathode. The cross-field magnetic fields insulate the flow of electrons in the gap and confine the flow of electrons within the gap.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 19, 1987
    Date of Patent: November 15, 1988
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the United States Department of Energy
    Inventors: Larry D. Bacon, William P. Ballard, M. Collins Clark, Barry M. Marder
  • Patent number: 4763043
    Abstract: A crossed-field amplifier has a cathode in the form of a P-N junction semiconductor which is biased to the conductive state to cause the crossed-field amplifier to amplify. The P and N regions of the semiconductor are connected to an energy source which is pulsed to produce conduction in the P-N junction and thereby allow secondary emission from the cathode. A reverse bias voltage prevents secondary emission from the cathode. The tube requires only low voltages to be applied to the cathode P-N junction to completely deactivate the crossed-field amplifier tube without requiring the removal of the RF drive pulse applied to the cathode- or anode-slow-wave circuit and without requiring the removal of the DC high voltage power supply which therefore need not be pulsed.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 23, 1985
    Date of Patent: August 9, 1988
    Assignee: Raytheon Company
    Inventors: George H. MacMaster, Lawrence J. Nichols
  • Patent number: 4745324
    Abstract: A high-power switch tube is shown constructed from a plurality of electron guns each gun having a cathode and an anode. Between the cathode and anode is mounted a shadow grid closest to the cathode beyond which is mounted a control grid, a screen grid, and, in some applications, by a suppressor grid. Each anode is formed with an anode cavity having an opening that is smaller in dimension than the largest dimension of the cavity thus forming a Faraday cage collector which prevents secondary emission problems.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 12, 1986
    Date of Patent: May 17, 1988
    Assignee: Litton Systems, Inc.
    Inventor: Richard B. True
  • Patent number: 4733132
    Abstract: In an accelerator for accelerating charged particles by using electro-magnetic wave, in which a plurality of cells are disposed periodically, a washer-shaped electrode separated from the cylinder wall is located at the boundary of each of the cells, which electrode has a hole, through which accelerated charged particles pass, at its center portion and an approximately uniform thickness. The thickness and the diameter of said washer-shaped electrode and the gap between said washer-shaped electrode and the inner surface of said cylinder are so chosen that the average strength of the accelerating electric field is highest. The peak strengths of the electric field are approximately equal at the outer and inner peripheral portions of said washer-shaped electrode.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 28, 1986
    Date of Patent: March 22, 1988
    Assignee: Hitachi, Ltd.
    Inventors: Kenji Miyata, Masatsugu Nishi
  • Patent number: 4709186
    Abstract: A coupled cavity travelling wave tube of the space harmonic type is provided wherein the interaction gaps in successive cavities are alternately offset towards the input end of the slow wave structure and towards the output of the slow wave structure, whereby beam electrons which are synchronous at band edge frequencies tend to experience a phase reversal in the electro-magnetic wave propagating in the slow wave structure, at each successive interaction gap.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 10, 1986
    Date of Patent: November 24, 1987
    Assignee: English Electric Valve Company Limited
    Inventor: Richard G. Carter
  • Patent number: 4695766
    Abstract: A traveling wave tube made in accordance with this invention wherein the folded waveguide interaction circuit and the input/output transitions to standard waveguides are made of a single piece of metal such as oxygen-free, high conductivity copper. By manufacturing the folded waveguide circuit and the input/output circuit-to-standard waveguide transition out of one piece of material, VSWR on the order of 1.1:1 is expected for traveling wave tubes intended to operate at 94 GHz. Furthermore, this invention minimizes expensive tooling and labor while providing a higher yield of traveling wave tubes.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 1, 1986
    Date of Patent: September 22, 1987
    Assignee: Raytheon Company
    Inventor: John K. Waterman
  • Patent number: 4683400
    Abstract: A travelling wave tube comprising a tube and a helix mounted in the tube, the helix being made of diamond and being coated at least partially with an electrically conductive material.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 25, 1985
    Date of Patent: July 28, 1987
    Assignee: D. Drukker & Zn. N.V.
    Inventor: Michael Seal
  • Patent number: 4647816
    Abstract: A travelling-wave tube comprising a delay line in the form of a helix line which is disposed inside of a solid metal vacuum envelope. A high-performance travelling-wave tube whose delay line is distinguished by very good dissipation of the stray heat. A large bandwidth results by providing the delay line with a core of insulator material which has a metal layer at its inside and outside generated surfaces.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 16, 1984
    Date of Patent: March 3, 1987
    Assignee: Siemens Aktiengesellschaft
    Inventor: Hinrich Heynisch
  • Patent number: 4631447
    Abstract: A device for converting the kinetic energy of an intense relativistic electron beam (IREB) into trains of multi-gigawatt AC electrical pulses comprising a foilless diode for generating an IREB and injecting the IREB into one end of a drift tube. The device further includes a modulating circuit for modulating the IREB current while in the drift tube to obtain longitudinally spaced bunches of electrons, and a coaxial transmission line with the end of its center conductor disposed across the other end of the drift tube in the path of the IREB. A gap is disposed between the end of the drift tube and the end of the center conductor. The modulated IREB induces a voltage in the coaxial transmission line. This voltage appears across the gap to slow down the electrons and to convert the kinetic energy of the IREB into electrical energy that propagates along the coaxial transmission line.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 17, 1984
    Date of Patent: December 23, 1986
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the Secretary of the Navy
    Inventors: Moshe Friedman, Victor Serlin
  • Patent number: 4621218
    Abstract: A transverse field interaction multi-beam amplifier device comprising a structure having, for example, a plurality of discrete cathodes cylindrically located in succession along a central axis of RF propagation. In registration with the cathodes are a respective number of annular collectors located within an outer cylinder which also acts as the structure housing. Intermediate the cathodes and collectors are two additional coaxial cylinders, one having a relatively smaller diameter than the other, with the smaller diameter cylinder including respective number of discrete grids, while the larger cylinder comprises a structure preferably having a rippled or undulating slow wave wall surface and a respective number of annular slots formed therein.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 2, 1984
    Date of Patent: November 4, 1986
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the Secretary of the Army
    Inventors: Louis J. Jasper, Jr., Charles M. DeSantis, James F. Baxendale
  • Patent number: 4619041
    Abstract: A millimeter coupled cavity travelling wave tube has each of its slow wave structures formed of at least one longitudinally extending member having holes made therethrough by a hobbing process, which holes constitute at least in part the cavities of the slow wave structure. In a preferred embodiment a one and one only such longitudinally extending member is provided, the holes therein each a whole cavity. The hobbing is such that a buttress is left outstanding from each cavity facing surface of a cavity separating wall and the beam hole is bored axially through said member from end to end through said buttresses. After machining of the cavity coupling holes in the cavity separating walls (e.g. by spark erosion) the cavities are closed by plates brazed to opposite faces of the member.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 5, 1983
    Date of Patent: October 28, 1986
    Assignee: English Electric Valve Company Limited
    Inventors: Peter R. Davis, Brian F. Cooper, David H. Cottey
  • Patent number: 4612476
    Abstract: A broadband transverse field interaction continuous beam amplifier device mprised of an elongated continuous cathode modulating grid structure, an elongated continuous demodulating grid-collector structure, first or input waveguide transmission line means including the modulating grid for propagating an input RF wave transversely to an electron beam traveling from the cathode-grid structure to the output-collector structure where the electrons are bunched or modulated by the process of transverse wave interaction, and second or output waveguide transmission line means including the demodulating grid for propagating an induced amplified RF output wave resulting from prebunched electrons traversing the demodulator grid. Both input and output transmission line means include slow wave structures which are implemented in the grid structures.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 6, 1984
    Date of Patent: September 16, 1986
    Assignee: The United States of America as Represented by the Secretary of the Army
    Inventors: Louis J. Jasper, Jr., Charles M. De Santis, James F. Baxendale
  • Patent number: 4608520
    Abstract: In a crossed-field amplifier tube, an input section of slow-wave circuit is part of the cathode electrode. An output section of slow-wave circuit is part of the anode electrode. The anode circuit is axially displaced from the cathode circuit in the direction of drift of the electron stream so that a non-propagating section of the anode faces at least a part of the propagating cathode circuit.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 29, 1983
    Date of Patent: August 26, 1986
    Assignee: Varian Associates, Inc.
    Inventor: Hunter L. McDowell
  • Patent number: 4585965
    Abstract: A generator is provided based on an interaction of the cyclotronic type between an electron beam propagating between an electron gun and a collector and a high frequency electromagnetic field in a resonating structure. It is principally characterized in that the electron beam moves along a cycloidal path in a transverse magnetic field under the effect of a drift velocity created by a continuous electric field.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 2, 1984
    Date of Patent: April 29, 1986
    Assignee: Thomson-CSF
    Inventor: Georges Mourier
  • Patent number: 4572985
    Abstract: A helix-type delay line borne by a conical surface. The internal surface of a sleeve has grooves into which are inserted dielectric supports of constant height that are affixed to the helix-type delay line, and the depth of the grooves increases with the diameter of the line.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 28, 1984
    Date of Patent: February 25, 1986
    Assignee: Thomson-CSF
    Inventors: Jean-Claude Kuntzmann, Rene Nazet, Louis Tarreau
  • Patent number: 4571726
    Abstract: A method and apparatus for increasing the power output and efficiency of an orotron generating near millimeter wavelength radiation. In accordance with a theory of orotron operation described herein and confirmed experimentally, the ribbon-like electron beam utilized in the orotron has a very high current density to effect a large increase in orotron output power and efficiency due to space-charge effects in the beam. In the preferred embodiment, the high density electron beam is generated by a closely-packed rectangular array of field-emission cathodes.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 30, 1984
    Date of Patent: February 18, 1986
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the Secretary of the Army
    Inventors: Donald E. Wortman, Richard P. Leavitt