Ratio Patents (Class 324/140D)
  • Patent number: 5737730
    Abstract: A process for measuring electricity consumption, especially suitable for small consumers, comprises the steps of continuously measuring consumer current, integrating the current with time to obtain a value (A.h) relating to consumption; adjusting the integration in function of the voltage of the network to obtain an adjusted value (A.sub.v.h) proportional to a preestablished unit of electricity consumption; and computing the number of preestablished units obtained to provide a value proportional to chargeable electricity consumption. The adjustment to the integration is carried out in accordance with four bands of network voltage, in the form of a nominal band on either side of the nominal network voltage, an overvoltage band, an extended voltage band below the nominal band, and an undervoltage band.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 3, 1996
    Date of Patent: April 7, 1998
    Assignee: Centro De Pesquisas De Energia Eletrica--Cepel
    Inventors: Landulfo Mosqueira Alvarenga, Roberto Pereira Caldas, Milton Lippincott
  • Patent number: 5663933
    Abstract: The present invention relates to an electronic meter circuit for a time comparison measurement between two successive periodic events with which the signal time ratios between two times two successive events can be recognized by a simple method.The electronic meter circuits comprises a reference meter to be loaded with a reset value when a first event occurs and for reference meter to start to count at a clock frequency and when a second event occurs, reference meter starts to count in the opposite direction at a clock frequency until a third event occurs, and when the third event occurs, meter reading forms a reference value for the ratio of the signal times between the occurrence of the first and second events and between the second and third events.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 8, 1996
    Date of Patent: September 2, 1997
    Assignee: Robert Bosch GmbH
    Inventor: Frank-Thomas Eitrich
  • Patent number: 5309093
    Abstract: A ratio measuring apparatus which allows continuous monitoring of two or more digital signals so as to yield an indication of the ratio of frequencies between such signals for use in process control. The apparatus includes a channel transfer circuit adapted to rotate inputs or outputs in the apparatus for logical orientation thereof. The apparatus further includes primary and secondary counters, each of which is coupled to an input signal for processing thereof. These counters operate relative to one another for logical processing of the input signals to yield ratio information. The primary counter is coupled to a data latch system, acting as a temporary memory storage for the measured ratio information. The data latch may also be coupled to a display means.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 16, 1992
    Date of Patent: May 3, 1994
    Inventor: Daniel O. Aderhold
  • Patent number: 5289166
    Abstract: A voltage detector to sense deviations of instantaneous value of a monitored voltage from a desired value is provided. The system includes a reference voltage source for providing a reference voltage. A divider responsive to the monitored voltage and the reference voltage divides the reference voltage by the monitored voltage. Thereafter a window comparator responsive to an output of the divider produces an indication when the output of the divider is either higher than some predetermined high value or lower than some predetermined low value.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 4, 1991
    Date of Patent: February 22, 1994
    Assignee: Lambda Electronics Inc.
    Inventor: Isaac Cohen
  • Patent number: 5220276
    Abstract: The crest value and RMS value of a signal are measured. The ratio of the two values, the crest factor, is calculated to provide a measure of the signal wave shape. The frequency range and accuracy of a commercially available RMS converter is improved by providing an improved rectifier ahead of the converter's internal rectifier. This improved rectifier is also used to form the absolute value of the input signal. A peak detector then provides the crest value (absolute peak value). The crest value and RMS value are multiplexed to a computer having an A/D converter. The RMS value, crest value and crest factor can be calculated and displayed and/or stored by the computer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 26, 1991
    Date of Patent: June 15, 1993
    Assignee: Keithley Corporation
    Inventor: Meindert Kleefstra
  • Patent number: 5119073
    Abstract: An apparatus and method are disclosed for measuring and displaying the percentage of ac voltage ripple present on a direct current input voltage. In addition, the apparatus can be set to activate alarms and trip relays when the percentage of ac voltage ripple meets or exceeds a preset value.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 5, 1990
    Date of Patent: June 2, 1992
    Inventors: Glenn M. Nelson, Bradley C. Holmberg
  • Patent number: 5058146
    Abstract: Digital ratiometer and amplitude analyzer using such a ratiometer.It is possible to solve the problems of the calculation and display of the ratio of two or more quantities, provided that the latter are converted into frequencies. Counting registers are used for evaluating these quantities. The filling of these counting registers (6,13) is prevented by bringing about a shift to the right (10,19) of all the registers as soon as (15) one of them is filled.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 24, 1989
    Date of Patent: October 15, 1991
    Assignee: Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique
    Inventor: Marc Dupoy
  • Patent number: 5038099
    Abstract: A radial type air-core gauge includes orthogonally positioned pairs of stator coils wound on independent coil forms spaced radially 90 degrees apart about a central cup of a gauge case. The cup houses a permanent magnet rotor which rotates about a shaft extending from a support bearing in a bottom surface of the cup to a hub of a dial pointer. Movement of the shaft causes a dial pointer to move over a dial face in response to changes of a balanced resultant field caused by variations of excitation signals applied to the stator coils.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 3, 1989
    Date of Patent: August 6, 1991
    Assignee: Acustar, Inc.
    Inventors: Paul A. Markow, William Nolle, Hugo A. Jenrath, John L. Evans, Alfred H. Glover, Joseph T. Betterton
  • Patent number: 5034905
    Abstract: A circuit arrangement for dividing an input signal A by a signal B, for eple for use in localizing radiation detection, has a dividing analog-to-digital converter receiving an addition signal A+q.times.B as well as the divisor signal B to form the quotient (A+q.times.B)/B from which a digital random value r is subtracted, where r corresponds to q. The ADC can be a Flash ADC and the resulting circuit has good differential linearity and is fast.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 17, 1989
    Date of Patent: July 23, 1991
    Assignee: Kernforschungungsanlage Julich Gesellschaft mit Beschrankter Haftung
    Inventors: Stefan Widdau, Rainer Kurz, Jakob Schelten, Andreas Scholz
  • Patent number: 4988943
    Abstract: A VSWR meter arrangement with a linear scale. The VSWR display is made linear by inputting the V.sub.forward and V.sub.reverse signals to a first op amp-based circuit to provide a first output=K(V.sub.f -V.sub.r). The signals are also input to a second op amp-based circuit to provide a second output=V.sub.f +V.sub.r. The first output is then coupled to the V.sub.reference input of a conventional voltmeter. The second output is then coupled to the V.sub.signal input of the voltmeter. The voltmeter's display output will then indicate the VSWR as a linear percentage of scale.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 25, 1989
    Date of Patent: January 29, 1991
    Assignee: Motorola, Inc.
    Inventor: Harry D. Bush
  • Patent number: 4937520
    Abstract: An instrument to determine, under actual field conditions, which type of VA demand meters are most appropriate for a particular consumer. The type of electrical load that the consumer places on an electrical supply system can introduce harmonics and phase distortion in the system resulting in VA meters producing incorrect readings. These VA meters are intended to measure the true apparent power S which is defined as S=V.sub.rms XI.sub.rms but, are generally designed to operate according to one of the following approximate formula:(1) S'=V.sub.rect XI.sub.rect X(1.11).sup.2 and(2) S"=.sqroot.P.sup.2 +Q.sup.2 where P is the active power and Q the reactive power.The instrument contains circuit to measure the rms values of the voltage and current waveforms from which the true apparent power S can be obtained as well as circuits to determine the value S' and S" according to the two approximate formula from which error signals e.sub.1 and e.sub.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 20, 1989
    Date of Patent: June 26, 1990
    Assignee: Canadian Patents and Development Ltd.
    Inventors: Rejean J. Arseneau, Piotr S. Filipski, John J. Zelle
  • Patent number: 4890057
    Abstract: An instrument with cross-coil type movable magnet which performs desired indication by A-D converting in accordance with the state of an object under measurement and applying to the crossed coils the current corresponding to a digital value after A-D conversion, comprising an A-D converter to which an input signal corresponding to the state of the object under measurement is sent after overlapping with a dithering ripple, thereby enabling improvement in the resolution of pointer indication.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 28, 1988
    Date of Patent: December 26, 1989
    Assignee: Nippon Seiki Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Hisataka Kobayashi, Fujio Araki, Yoshihiro Ohtani
  • Patent number: 4774458
    Abstract: A first magnet is mounted for rotation near a cavity of a magnetizable body such that the first magnet has a null position influenced by magnetic interaction between said first magnet and at least two pole pieces of the magnetizable body. The magnetizable body has a core associated with a source of magnetic energy to induce magnetism within the core and the pole pieces and thereby alter the null position of the first magnet. Various embodiments of the invention include: analog meter mechanisms; actuators; transducers; proximity and position indicators; and other devices.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 10, 1986
    Date of Patent: September 27, 1988
    Inventor: Leonard S. Aronoff
  • Patent number: 4758784
    Abstract: An air core gauge having orthogonally related coils that react with a rotor magnet to angularly position an indicating pointer, suitable for use as either a pressure,temperature, or fuel gauge. All-attitude pointer zero return is achieved with a stationary magnet, and voltage regulation is eliminated with a zener diode in series with one of the coils.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 27, 1987
    Date of Patent: July 19, 1988
    Assignee: Stewart Warner Corporation
    Inventors: John D. Baker, Ray J. Gallagher
  • Patent number: 4758774
    Abstract: A portable tester for determining the primary winding to secondary winding current ratio of a current transformer while that transformer is in service, including a current probe having a split core positionable around an active power line supplying current to the transformer, an AC to DC converter to convert the AC output of that probe to a first DC signal, another AC to DC converter for converting the secondary output of the current transformer under test to a second DC signal, and a ratio meter for converting the first and second DC signal into a visual display of the ratio of those signals. A mechanism is provided for assuring proper location of the decimal point on the ratio meter. Polarity and burden testing is also provided.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 29, 1985
    Date of Patent: July 19, 1988
    Assignee: Special Instruments Laboratory, Incorporated
    Inventors: Tullus E. Crawford, Claude R. Riley, Jr.
  • Patent number: 4724393
    Abstract: A surface potential detector of a non-contact type which comprises first and second detecting electrodes arranged in a separated manner from a measured surface so that charge variations are induced on the first and second detecting electrodes on the basis of the potential of the measured surface. The surface potential detector further comprises apparatus for making the amounts of charge variations induced on the first and second detecting electrodes different from each other, first and second detecting devices respectively detecting the amounts of charge variations induced on the first and second detecting electrodes and correction apparatus for performing arithmetic on the ratio between the outputs from the first and second detecting devices to correct the output of the first or second detecting devices on the basis of the ratio.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 10, 1986
    Date of Patent: February 9, 1988
    Assignee: Murata Manufacturing Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Akira Kumada, Michihiro Murata
  • Patent number: 4658211
    Abstract: In order to maintain the torque of the ratio meter and the drive of amplifiers feeding it independently of the amplitudes of a sine signal voltage and a cosine signal voltage, a regulation is provided. The regulation makes use of two-quadrant voltage-controlled sources of current each of which is connected to a coil branch. Control voltage amplifiers, one connected in front of each source of current, are furthermore used. A sum-current resistor is provided to form the sum of the supply currents of two voltage-controlled sources of current. The supply currents represent the amounts of the sine signal voltage and cosine signal voltage which act on the voltage amplifiers. From the resistor for the formation of the sum of the supply currents a signal is derived which switches the amplification of the voltage amplifiers automatically in the direction of compensation.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 28, 1984
    Date of Patent: April 14, 1987
    Assignee: VDO Adolf Schindling AG
    Inventor: Werner Wallrafen
  • Patent number: 4635043
    Abstract: A level indication has a ratio-measurement mechanism whose measurement coil can be connected to a source of current (6) via a switch element (12). This switch element (12) is controlled by the output of a comparator (10) to the input side of which a voltage signal from a transmitter (5) monitoring the level and the output of a frequency transmitter (11) are fed. Between the transmitter (5) and the comparator (10) there is arranged a damping device (8) so that the signal coming from the transmitter (5) is made stable before it arrives at the comparator (10).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 21, 1985
    Date of Patent: January 6, 1987
    Assignee: VDO Adolf Schindling AG
    Inventors: Harmut Kronenberg, Bernhard v. Pentz
  • Patent number: 4479087
    Abstract: An apparatus for measuring the Standing Wave Ratio and the RF transmitted power is in a transmission line. The ratio of the reflected component over the incident component of the transmitted signal is indicated on a logarithmic dot bar readout driven by the outputs of a stack of comparators. The comparators are separately referenced to a voltage divider ladder to which is applied a first DC voltage proportional to the incident component. The inputs of the comparator receive a second DC voltage signal proportional to the reflected component. The readout is provided with a scale directly indicating the Standard Wave Ratio. A similar circuit with linear readout referenced to a full scale voltage received the first DC voltage signal on its joint comparator inputs in order to display the power transmitted on the line.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 22, 1982
    Date of Patent: October 23, 1984
    Inventor: John E. Althouse
  • Patent number: 4424491
    Abstract: A device for indicating and preventing damage to voltage cells such as galvanic cells and fuel cells connected in series by detecting sequential voltages and comparing these voltages to adjacent voltage cells. The device is implemented by using operational amplifiers and switching circuitry is provided by transistors. The device can be utilized in battery powered electric vehicles to prevent galvanic cell damage and also in series connected fuel cells to prevent fuel cell damage.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 20, 1981
    Date of Patent: January 3, 1984
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the United States Department of Energy
    Inventors: Ronald E. Bobbett, J. Byron McCormick, William J. Kerwin
  • Patent number: 4405990
    Abstract: A measurement circuit which is rendered insensitive to temperature and other environmental quantities comprising first and second electrically identical sensor elements (10, 12) which are alternately connected through multiplexed gates (G1, G2) into the tank circuit of an oscillator (14) to generate first and second signal frequencies f.sub.1 and f.sub.2. The first frequency f.sub.1 varies in the same sense with both temperature and the measured signal quantity but the second signal f.sub.2 varies in one sense with temperature and in the opposite sense with the measured signal quantity. A logic circuit (18) is provided for generating an output signal proportional to the ratio of f.sub.1 and f.sub.2. The ratio of the two signals is achieved by frequency dividing f.sub.1 and using the result as a variable length gating signal for f.sub.2. A non-multiplexed system using matched oscillators is also disclosed.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 26, 1981
    Date of Patent: September 20, 1983
    Assignee: Caterpillar Tractor Co.
    Inventors: William Pickering, David J. Urbanc
  • Patent number: 4350441
    Abstract: A photometric system for determining the absorbance ratio, in a sample, of two different wavelength lights. First and second lights, each having a different wavelength, are passed through the sample in alternation with each other. The radiation intensity from each light that has passed through the sample is detected. A comparator, up/down counter and digital to analog converter are coupled so that a scaling factor is derived which, when multiplied with an analog signal proportional to the intensity of the first light after it has passed through the sample, is equal to an analog signal proportional to the intensity of the second light after it has passed through the sample. The output of the counter comprises a digital word corresponding to the ratio of the absorbance ratio of the first light and the second light.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 30, 1980
    Date of Patent: September 21, 1982
    Assignee: Baxter Travenol Laboratories, Inc.
    Inventor: Michael F. Wicnienski
  • Patent number: 4320381
    Abstract: For use in combination with "crash type" non-synchronous gear boxes, a gear ratio indicator which not only calculates actual ratio of transmission input shaft speed to output shaft speed, but also compares this determined ratio to the various available gear ratios within the transmission. The actual or determined ratio of input to output speed is then displayed in terms of the available gear ratios so that the operator is provided information as to the precise moment for engaging the transmission and also information as to which gear to engage.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 3, 1979
    Date of Patent: March 16, 1982
    Assignee: The Garrett Corporation
    Inventor: Paul D. Olivier
  • Patent number: 4211971
    Abstract: A ratio meter adapted to determine the ratio of a first input signal representing the difference between two input voltages and a second signal representing the sum of both input voltages.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 29, 1978
    Date of Patent: July 8, 1980
    Assignee: Hokushin Electric Works, Ltd.
    Inventors: Tamotsu Kobayashi, Sadaki Igarashi
  • Patent number: 4176314
    Abstract: In a method of measuring electrical analog quantities, a first analog signal representing a first electrical analog quantity which is to be a reference is subtracted from a second analog signal representing a second electrical analog quantity which is to be compared with the first analog quantity, so that a difference signal is produced. Then, the difference signal thus produced is integrated for a predetermined time to obtain a third analog signal. Simultaneously therewith, the first analog signal is also integrated for the predetermined time to obtain a fourth and a fifth analog signal representing the positive and the negative value of the aforementioned integration. And the third analog signal is integrated between it and the fifth or the fourth analog signal in accordance with the positive or the negative sign of the third analog signal to obtain a sixth analog signal.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 31, 1977
    Date of Patent: November 27, 1979
    Assignee: Shin-Shirasuna Electric Corp.
    Inventor: Toyohiko Yamada
  • Patent number: 4155038
    Abstract: Apparatus for comparing an unknown signal with a reference signal is adapted to determine their ratio and, where a variation exists, to compensate the unknown signal to achieve unity ratio. The apparatus includes circuit means connectable to the signals for obtaining sum and difference signals. Means responsive to the sum and difference signals produce a control signal representing the product of these signals and feedback means responsive to the control signal generate a time-averaged feedback signal that is a measure of the ratio of the mean squares of the unknown and reference signals. Control means are disposed in the path of the unknown signal and are responsive to the feedback signal for varying the amplitude of the unknown signal to equilibrate and stabilize the apparatus when the mean squares of the reference signal and the compensated unknown signal are equal.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 10, 1977
    Date of Patent: May 15, 1979
    Assignee: Her Majesty the Queen in right of Canada
    Inventors: Harold M. Merklinger, Robert C. Trider
  • Patent number: 4085362
    Abstract: A check synchroniser for checking the synchronism between two alternating voltages comprises means for forming pulses corresponding to the frequency and phase of the two voltages to be synchronized, the width of the pulses depending upon the allowable frequency and phase error between the two voltages, the pulses representing the frequencies of the two voltages being wider than the pulses representing the phases of the two voltages, means for comparing the time coincidence between the pulses of both sets and means for indicating when the pulses of both sets partially or completely overlap.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 19, 1976
    Date of Patent: April 18, 1978
    Assignee: Stone-Platt Crawley Limited
    Inventor: Robert Evans
  • Patent number: 4076424
    Abstract: A multi-channel electrical signal ratioing circuit for a source delivering an electric analog pulse signal sequence having a broadened choice of ratio denominator terms provided by parallel-connected DC-coupled individual signal ratioing circuits each incorporating its own associated gated integrator, variable gain amplifier and at least one sampling circuit to form the several ratios needed. The basic ratioing circuit includes means for compensating against the effects of background influences, such as amplifier signal offsets, line voltage variations and changes in electrical system gains or other anomalies affecting ratio determination accuracy.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 24, 1976
    Date of Patent: February 28, 1978
    Assignee: E. I. Du Pont de Nemours and Company
    Inventor: Edward Stanley Ida
  • Patent number: 4054836
    Abstract: A bridge circuit of the transformer ratio-arm type includes a feedback circuit that is responsive to the output winding of the transformer and that is connected to produce in the transformer a compensating magnetomotive force in such direction as to reduce the unbalance between the magnetomotive forces produced by the two ratio windings. The compensating magnetomotive force may be produced in various ways, as for example, an output current from the feedback circuit may be applied to either one of the ratio windings of the transformer or to a further auxiliary winding of the transformer to generate the compensating magnetomotive force.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 19, 1976
    Date of Patent: October 18, 1977
    Assignee: Doble Engineering Company
    Inventor: Edmund H. Povey
  • Patent number: 4045732
    Abstract: The operative status of an electrical apparatus unit such as a television receiver, incorporating an AC-DC converter, and drawing a substantial amount of current is sensed while differentiating from the usage of a lower amount of current, as when operating in a standby mode. The sensor distinguishes between the standby current waveform and a distinctly different current waveform generated when the AC-DC converter draws current in the mode in which full power is on. The sensor incorporates a reference current detector responsive to the mean of the absolute value of alternating current flowing through a power line to the electrical unit, and a peak value current detector responsive to the peak value of the periodic signal on the power line. A comparator circuit receives outputs from both detectors, and provides an output signal when the ratio therebetween is in excess of a predetermined value, this condition only applying when the AC-DC converter is operative.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 4, 1976
    Date of Patent: August 30, 1977
    Assignee: Pioneer Electronic Corporation
    Inventors: Kenji Yashiro, Yoshifumi Saeki
  • Patent number: 4041395
    Abstract: A system for detecting, indicating, and adjusting the degree of mismatch between a transmitter and an electrical transmission line, with additional measurement of transmitter performance parameters. This system uses a three-wire transmission line sensor to generate signals proportional to the forward and reflected waves on the main transmission line. These signals are applied to a special-purpose computer which automatically calculates the standing wave ratio (SWR) on the transmission line. An adjustable matching network is included to allow adjustment of the standing wave ratio to whatever value is required for proper transmitter operation. Additional sensors generate signals which are applied to the same computer, which automatically calculates the modulation percentage of the transmitter.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 2, 1976
    Date of Patent: August 9, 1977
    Assignee: Integral Engineering & Manufacturing Corporation
    Inventor: John Carroll Hill
  • Patent number: 4035720
    Abstract: In the ion gauge system disclosed herein, the ion current obtained from an ion gauge tube is directly converted to a signal having a frequency proportional to the ion current so that a digital measurement of vacuum may be obtained. The ion current charges an integrating capacitor which is periodically discharged after reaching a preselected threshold. Preferably, the threshold is adjusted in proportion to the ion gauge emission current so that automatic compensation for variation in the emission current is obtained, the output frequency being proportional to the ratio of the ion current to the emission current. The variable frequency output signal generated by the integration and discharge process is counted by a scaling circuit which automatically changes the timing interval to provide the desired number of significant figures while incrementing the exponent value in a scientific notation display in keeping with the active time base.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 31, 1975
    Date of Patent: July 12, 1977
    Inventor: Philip C. Harvey
  • Patent number: 4000463
    Abstract: A digital display electronic meter apparatus is disclosed which is capable of displaying amplitude ratio measurements directly in decibels over its entire amplitude operating range.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 1, 1975
    Date of Patent: December 28, 1976
    Assignee: Ballantine Laboratories, Inc.
    Inventors: Fred L. Katzmann, Archie J. Harrison, Jr.
  • Patent number: 3981586
    Abstract: An analytically significant ratio between timevarying magnitudes of signals is periodically monitored in recurring cycles which are each synchronized with a frequency generator. During every monitoring cycle, each signal relating to the numerator and denominator of the ratio, is integrated separately for a fixed number of generator cycles. Thereafter in each monitoring cycle, the output from the integrator of the denominator signal is applied at the input to the integrator of the numerator signal and the time taken by the latter to integrate back to its starting level is measured in proportion to the ratio of the signals. Either digital or analog time measurements may be utilized and the number of generator cycles over which the ratio is determined may include transition periods between each stage of integration.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 19, 1975
    Date of Patent: September 21, 1976
    Assignee: The Perkin-Elmer Corporation
    Inventor: Larkin B. Scott
  • Patent number: 3955096
    Abstract: An electrical signal ratioing circuit for a source delivering an electric analog pulse signal sequence having compensating means for removing the effects of background influences, such as amplifier signal offsets and extraneous illumination, and integrating means eliminating the effect of line voltage variations and changes in optical and electrical system gains on the ratios so produced.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 19, 1975
    Date of Patent: May 4, 1976
    Assignee: E. I. Du Pont de Nemours and Company
    Inventor: Mark Edwin Faulhaber
  • Patent number: 3953793
    Abstract: The invention relates to a method and an arrangement for determining signals affected by disturbance or interference. The affected signals are continuously integrated, either directly or subsequent to suitable transformation thereof, from the very start of a measuring operation. The actual integration value is divided at determined time intervals with the actual measuring time which has elapsed at that moment from the start of said measuring operation. The quotient thus obtained is presented to an observer or a device which is arranged to interrupt the measuring operation when the value presented is substantially constant.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 4, 1974
    Date of Patent: April 27, 1976
    Assignee: Boliden Aktiebolag
    Inventor: Bruno Yngve Nilsson
  • Patent number: 3952248
    Abstract: A circuit sensitive to the ratio of the values of two voltages of fixed polarities and possibly variable magnitudes, including two identical voltage dividers respectively fed from one and the other of said voltages and a third divider fed from a constant amplitude alternative voltage source. Each divider consists of a constant resistance and of a variable voltage sensitive resistance. The relative positions of the constant and variable resistances are the same in the two first dividers and are reversed in the third one; the latter is biassed by a voltage derived from at least one of the voltages to be compared. From the voltages received at the mid-points of the two first dividers, a resulting voltage is derived, the value of which has a simple relation to the ratio of the compared voltages.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 27, 1974
    Date of Patent: April 20, 1976
    Assignee: Lignes Telegraphiques et Telephoniques
    Inventor: Claude Hannigsberg