Container Patents (Class 33/522)
  • Patent number: 9424483
    Abstract: A method of measuring lean on a container driven in rotation comprises: taking at least one image of the container to obtain images of the left and right edges of the ring, the matrix images of the left and right edges of the heel, of the shoulder, and/or of the base of the neck; analyzing the images of the left and right edges of the ring to determine the real position of the ring; and the matrix images of the left and right edges to determine a left positioning point Tg and right positioning point Td; and determining the theoretical position of the ring on a perpendicular to the straight line segment passing through the left and right positioning points; and based on variations in the differences between the real position and the theoretical position of the ring, deducing a measurement of the lean of the container.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 17, 2013
    Date of Patent: August 23, 2016
    Assignee: MSC & SGCC
    Inventors: Benjamin Cocquelin, Ghislain Mace, Alexandre Eggenspieler
  • Patent number: 9046336
    Abstract: A device for inspecting rings and necks of containers includes a movable element with an outer gauge for checking the outside of the ring of the containers, and an inner gauge for checking the inside of the ring and neck of the containers. The movable element includes a system for measuring the position of the movable element relative to the frame, a system for detecting contact between the inner gauge and the container, a system for detecting contact between the outer gauge and the container, and a processing unit for determining, on the basis of the measurements of the position of the movable element and of the instances of contact between the gauges and the container, whether or not the size of the rings and/or necks of the containers are acceptable, and the types of defects for the containers whereof the sizes of the rings and/or necks are not acceptable.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 28, 2011
    Date of Patent: June 2, 2015
    Assignee: MSC & SGCC
    Inventors: Jean-Fran├žois Garin, Dominique Pitaval
  • Publication number: 20150132065
    Abstract: An arrangement for providing a variable volume size is described. The arrangement includes an outer bellow having an outer end wall closing the outer bellow at one end. The arrangement further includes an inner bellow having an inner end wall closing the inner bellow at one end, the inner bellow being arranged at least partly inside the outer bellow. The arrangement further includes a base at which another end of the outer bellow and another end of the inner bellow are attached. The arrangement further includes a position measuring apparatus for measuring at least one position indicative of a distance between the outer end wall and the inner end wall.
    Type: Application
    Filed: April 25, 2013
    Publication date: May 14, 2015
    Inventor: Espen Haugan
  • Publication number: 20130247404
    Abstract: A device for inspecting rings and necks of containers includes a movable element with an outer gauge for checking the outside of the ring of the containers, and an inner gauge for checking the inside of the ring and neck of the containers. The movable element includes a system for measuring the position of the movable element relative to the frame, a system for detecting contact between the inner gauge and the container, a system for detecting contact between the outer gauge and the container, and a processing unit for determining, on the basis of the measurements of the position of the movable element and of the instances of contact between the gauges and the container, whether or not the size of the rings and/or necks of the containers are acceptable, and the types of defects for the containers whereof the sizes of the rings and/or necks are not acceptable.
    Type: Application
    Filed: September 28, 2011
    Publication date: September 26, 2013
    Applicant: MSC & SGCC
    Inventors: Jean-Francois Garin, Dominique Pitaval
  • Patent number: 7010863
    Abstract: Apparatus for inspecting lean of a container includes a light source positioned beneath a container for directing light energy onto the container bottom as the container is held in position and rotated around an axis. A light sensor positioned beneath the container receives portions of the light energy from the source reflected from the container bottom. An information processor is coupled to the light sensor for determining, as a combined function of the reflected light energy and container rotation, departure of the container bottom from a plane perpendicular to the axis. The container preferably is held in position and rotated around an axis by a drive roller that urges the container against axially spaced backup rollers so as to define an average axis of rotation as a function of the geometry of the container and spacing between the backup rollers.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 26, 2004
    Date of Patent: March 14, 2006
    Assignee: Owens-Brockway Glass Container Inc.
    Inventors: John W. Juvinall, James A. Ringlien, Stephen M. Graff, Jie Chen, William H. Anderson
  • Patent number: 6966121
    Abstract: A plurality of two-dimensional template-shaped gauges to quickly determine the amount of liquor poured from a corresponding bottle. Since each style of gauge fits a complementary bottle style, the ounce, shot or metric vertical markings on the gauge can be spaced to reflect the change in bottle cross-section. A bartender or server can quickly, literally at a glance, determine the amount remaining in the bottle. The result is a more accurate pour and better control over the sales of expensive liquor and similar beverages. The new gauges are reusable an indefinite number of times depending on the plastic or other material from which they are constructed. Moreover, the new gauges are ideal for displaying brand names and logos. The template shapes may be formed on both side edges of each gauge, therefore each gauge can be used with two bottles of differing shape.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 26, 2001
    Date of Patent: November 22, 2005
    Inventor: Barbara J. Bolle
  • Patent number: 6871415
    Abstract: A plug gauge for testing the mouth of a container includes a spring carried by a support, a rod having one end coupled to the spring, and a gauge plug coupled to the other end of the rod. A control mechanism supports the rod and is coupled to an electric motor. Motion of the control mechanism by the motor lowers the rod and plug into the container mouth under force of the spring, and thereafter lifts the rod and plug out of the container mouth. In the preferred embodiment of the invention, the spring takes the form of an air spring. A stripper is operatively coupled to the control mechanism in the preferred embodiment of the invention for lowering against the container mouth, as the rod and plug are lowered by the spring and the motor, for holding the container mouth as the rod and plug are lifted from the container mouth.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 31, 2003
    Date of Patent: March 29, 2005
    Assignee: Owens-Brockway Glass Container Inc.
    Inventors: Noel D. Wendt, Gregory A. Ritz, William R. Martin, James S. Barnes
  • Patent number: 6860025
    Abstract: Apparatus for measuring wall thickness of a container having an open mouth includes a gauge indicator mounted on a support base, and having a first tip and a readout that provides an indication of position of the first tip. A probe arm includes a rod mounted on the base, a second tip pivotally mounted on the rod, a sleeve slidable on the rod, and a link connecting the sleeve to the second tip such that pivotal position of the second tip on the rod is controlled by position of the sleeve along the rod. The second tip is movable between a first position at which a container mouth is receivable over the second tip, and a second position at which the second tip internally engages the wall of the container in opposition to the first tip such that the readout provides a measure of container wall thickness between the first and second tips.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 30, 2002
    Date of Patent: March 1, 2005
    Assignee: Owens-Brockway Glass Container Inc.
    Inventors: Shaun P McMackin, James H. Jaquillard
  • Publication number: 20030154612
    Abstract: The invention relates to a method for indicating the watering quantity suitable for a pot, particularly a flower pot, via the determination of the pot volume V from the pot height H and pot diameter D, as well as to a volume measuring tape or tape measure usable in this method.
    Type: Application
    Filed: February 25, 2003
    Publication date: August 21, 2003
    Inventors: Richard Petri, Dietmar Lange, Peter Schlimm
  • Patent number: 6502320
    Abstract: An apparatus for measuring the alignment of a valve sealed onto a canister comprises hollow lower and upper sections, a mounting platform, and a transducer. The upper and lower interior regions cooperatively define an inner chamber in which the mounting platform is disposed. The transducer is mounted to the upper section and includes a probe extending through the upper section and into the inner chamber. The apparatus is adapted for relative rotational movement between the mounting platform and the upper section. The transducer is responsive to linear translation of the probe and displays a human-readable indication of the alignment of a valve sealed in a canister as the probe moves around the circumference of the top surface of the valve.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 1, 2002
    Date of Patent: January 7, 2003
    Assignee: SmithKline Beecham Corporation
    Inventors: Charles Amick Buckner, III, John Anderson Mascho, Jr.
  • Publication number: 20020095806
    Abstract: A plurality of two-dimensional template-shaped gauges to quickly determine the amount of liquor poured from a corresponding bottle. Since each style of gauge fits a complementary bottle style, the ounce, shot or metric vertical markings on the gauge can be spaced to reflect the change in bottle cross-section. A bartender or server can quickly, literally at a glance, determine the amount remaining in the bottle. The result is a more accurate pour and better control over the sales of expensive liquor and similar beverages. The new gauges are reusable an indefinite number of times depending on the plastic or other material from which they are constructed. Moreover, the new gauges are ideal for displaying brand names and logos. The template shapes may be formed on both side edges of each gauge, therefore each gauge can be used with two bottles of differing shape.
    Type: Application
    Filed: October 26, 2001
    Publication date: July 25, 2002
    Inventor: Barbara J. Bolle
  • Patent number: 6415526
    Abstract: An apparatus for measuring the alignment of a valve sealed onto a canister comprises hollow lower and upper sections, a mounting platform, and a transducer. The upper and lower interior regions cooperatively define an inner chamber in which the mounting platform is disposed. The transducer is mounted to the upper section and includes a probe extending through the upper section and into the inner chamber. The apparatus is adapted for relative rotational movement between the mounting platform and the upper section. The transducer is responsive to linear translation of the probe and displays a human-readable indication of the alignment of a valve sealed in a canister as the probe moves around the circumference of the top surface of the valve.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 28, 2000
    Date of Patent: July 9, 2002
    Assignee: SmithKline Beecham Corporation
    Inventors: Charles Amick Buckner, III, John Anderson Mascho, Jr.
  • Patent number: 6412186
    Abstract: A gauge system for measuring internal diameters of tubular openings is provided. The gauge includes a support shaft, a planar surface coupled to the support shaft, and an elongate holder to movably hold a pair of measuring rods having tapered gauge ends with reference measurement markings. The planar surface supports a container in an upright position. The container includes a finish having an opening with a first predetermined inner diameter and a second predetermined inner diameter wherein the second diameter is smaller than the first diameter. The holder includes collars at both ends which are adapted to receive the measuring rods and allow the rods to move parallel to the vertical axis of the system and from an initial position into an extended position. The holder is pivotally mounted on the support shaft so as to allow a user to move the holder about the support shaft and relative to the planar surface and position one of the measuring rods above the finish opening.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 1, 2000
    Date of Patent: July 2, 2002
    Assignee: The Clorox Company
    Inventor: James R. Keys
  • Patent number: 6408532
    Abstract: A measuring device for measuring the thread start distance of a thread formed on an outer surface of a container finish is provided. The measuring device includes a base having a first surface for receiving a rim of a container finish, a support member, a gauge, and a counterweight to balance the measuring device on the finish. The support member is movably attached to the base and adjacent the first surface. A side surface of the support element is in contact with the container finish. The gauge is attached to the base and a gauge actuator having a roller contact member is operatively associated with the gauge. The gauge actuator measures the distance between the rim of the container finish and a thread start point of the thread of the container finish, S-dimension, as the gauge actuator moves along an upper base line of the thread.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 1, 2000
    Date of Patent: June 25, 2002
    Assignee: The Clorox Company
    Inventors: James R. Keys, David L. Shockley
  • Patent number: 6397486
    Abstract: A measuring device for measuring the finish height of a container is provided. The measuring device includes a base having a first surface for receiving a rim of a container finish, a support member, a gauge, and a counterweight to balance the measuring device on the finish. The support member is movably attached to the base and adjacent the first surface. A side surface of the support element is in engagement with the container finish. The gauge is attached to the base and a gauge actuator of the gauge is operatively associated with the gauge. The gauge actuator measures a vertical distance between the rim of the finish and a bottom end of the container finish as the gauge actuator moves along the bottom end of the container finish.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 1, 2000
    Date of Patent: June 4, 2002
    Assignee: The Colrox Company
    Inventors: James R. Keys, David L. Shockley
  • Patent number: 6238907
    Abstract: A container for examination and storage of a placenta includes a bottom wall, at least one substantially upright side wall joined to the bottom wall to define an interior and an open top. The side walls and/or the bottom wall have indicia thereon adapted to measure the size of the placenta in three dimensions. Indicia are also provided to measure the umbilical cord. The container is stackable for storage, and labeling areas are provided. A basic method of examining a placenta is disclosed, along with further steps and variations.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 26, 1999
    Date of Patent: May 29, 2001
    Inventors: Doris Schuler-Maloney, Harrison W. Pratt, II
  • Patent number: 6088925
    Abstract: An apparatus for measuring seal defects on a seal surface of a rocket motor case field joint is provided. The apparatus includes a base mountable onto the rocket motor case field joint. The base is sweepable circumferentially along the field joint. An axial sweeping mechanism is disposed on the base and is sweepable axially along the case field joint. A measurement probe for measuring the depth of the seal defect is disposed on the axial sweeping mechanism.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 29, 1998
    Date of Patent: July 18, 2000
    Assignee: Cordant Technologies Inc.
    Inventors: Ronald B. Montgomery, M. Bryan Ream
  • Patent number: 6041512
    Abstract: An apparatus for measuring sidewall thickness of a container includes a support coupled to a first motor for holding the container in stationary position while rotating the container about its axis. A gauge mechanism engages opposed interior and exterior points on the sidewall of the container, and provides an electrical signal as a function of sidewall thickness between such points. A second motor is coupled to the gauge mechanism for moving the gauge mechanism in the direction of the container axis. A controller is coupled to the first and second motors, and is responsive to the electrical signal from the gauge mechanism for obtaining and storing a three-dimensional data map of sidewall thickness at increments of motion of both the first and second motors. Thus, there is provided thickness data related to angular orientation and axial position, which can then be analyzed to identify specific problems associated with container manufacture.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 9, 1998
    Date of Patent: March 28, 2000
    Assignee: Owens-Brockway Glass Container Inc.
    Inventor: Robert S. Wacke
  • Patent number: 5929349
    Abstract: The invention comprises a tool which can be inserted through the fill nozzle of an underground fuel storage tank to measure the tank wall thickness. The invention, in a preferred embodiment, uses ultrasonic thickness measurement technology, a well known inspection technique. A special type of ultrasonic probe known as a ZIP (Zero Interface Probe) is required to measure the thickness of fiberglass. A thickness measurement is accomplished by pressing the tool transducers firmly against the inside surface of the fiberglass tank after applying a couplant gel to the surface of the transducers. The tool is connected to an ultrasonic flaw detector, which generates a transmitted pulse and displays the transmitted and reflected pulses on a display screen. The thickness is determined by measuring the time-of-flight (on the display screen) between appropriate pulses.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 22, 1997
    Date of Patent: July 27, 1999
    Assignee: Shell Oil Company
    Inventors: Ronald Marshall Bass, James Donald Haupt, Timothy Caywood Hurley, Richard Allen Littlefield, Paul Alfred Westbrook
  • Patent number: 5774997
    Abstract: An out-of-round indicator for golf balls utilizes an indicator module inserted into a golf ball sleeve or carton, with the module including a cup at its base into which the golf ball is dropped. The indicator includes a cantilevered arm extending from the base and spring loaded towards the surface of the golf ball, such that a surface of the arm contacts the surface of the golf ball, with the distal portion of the arm having a laterally extending tab or flag with differently colored spaced vertical markings. In one embodiment, a stationary vertically-extending support rises from a side of the base and has a vertical slot at its distal end overlying the tab, such that when the golf ball is rotated in the cup, the marking which appears through the slot indicates the out-of-roundness of the ball as the ball is rotated. The golf ball sleeve or box is provided with an aperture to permit rotation of the golf ball in the cup when the module is in the sleeve and when the golf ball is dropped into the cup.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 2, 1997
    Date of Patent: July 7, 1998
    Assignee: Performance Dynamics LLC
    Inventor: Paul J. Gruen, Jr.
  • Patent number: 5761820
    Abstract: A machine for gaging the inner diameter and outer diameter of a bottle opening comprising a telescoping gage including an inner plug gage and an outer ring gage. The plug gage includes a plug gage tube with a plug gage at one end. The ring gage includes a ring gage tube with a ring gage at one end, a support set-up for supporting the plug gage tube for axial displacement within the ring gage tube including a first annular collar secured to the inner diameter of the ring gage tube, a second annular collar secured to the outer diameter of the plug gage tube. A first spring compressively located between the collars urges the plug gage tube to a fully advanced position.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 3, 1996
    Date of Patent: June 9, 1998
    Assignee: Emhart Glass Machinery Investments Inc.
    Inventor: Monti D. Emery
  • Patent number: 5485759
    Abstract: A test fixture for a boat having a plurality of slots for holding wafers includes a base for fixedly holding a boat to be tested; a wafer simulator, which wafer simulator includes a plurality of wafers sized to properly seat in the plurality of slots in the boat; structure for moving the plurality of wafers of the wafer simulator wholly into and out of the plurality of slots in the boat; and structure determining whether the plurality of wafers is properly seated in the plurality of slots in the boat when the wafer simulator is moved wholly into the plurality of slots in the boat.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 28, 1994
    Date of Patent: January 23, 1996
    Assignee: Advanced Micro Devices, Inc.
    Inventors: Gerald L. Goff, Michael D. Smith, Michael R. Conboy
  • Patent number: 5465496
    Abstract: A measuring system for measuring dimensions of an article such as a bottle has two opposed measuring heads each having a measuring probe, a contact identifying trigger operated by the probe, a base upon which the article to be measured stands, and first and second stepper motor assemblies. The stepper motor assemblies move the measuring heads horizontally and vertically. The base is angularly movable about an axis normal to the plane of the base so as to rotate an article standing on the base so that the different parts of the article are brought into a measuring plane defined as the plane in which the measuring heads move. The measuring probes then measure that part of the article lying in the measuring plane.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 10, 1994
    Date of Patent: November 14, 1995
    Assignee: System E. Controls Limited
    Inventor: Allan Axon
  • Patent number: 5424837
    Abstract: A container of sample tubes is described with a mechanism for detecting the diameter of variously sized tubes that are placed therein. A method of detection is also described. Both the mechanism and the method rely on pairs of tube holders that are biased together with detectable ends that are spaced farther apart, the larger the tube that is held by the holders. A sensor is provided externally of the container to sense how far apart the ends are spaced.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 25, 1993
    Date of Patent: June 13, 1995
    Inventors: Johannes J. Porte, William D. Van Arsdale, Christopher E. Thomas, James D. Riall, Thomas A. Wertman
  • Patent number: 5414939
    Abstract: A system and method for contact measurement of dimensional parameters of a container in which rollers coupled to LVDT sensors are placed in contact with a container as the container is rotated about its central axis so that the sensors develop analog signals that vary as a function of variations in geometry of the container. The sensor output signals are fed through multiple input channels to an a/d convertor/multiplexer, which is controlled by a central microcontroller for selecting in turn among the plurality of sensor signals. Within the microcontroller, each sensor signal is compared to a threshold indicative of maximum acceptable deviation of the corresponding dimensional parameter, and the container under test is rejected if the parameter exceeds such threshold. The microcontroller includes facility for real-time display of measured parameters in English or metric units at the selection of an operator, and for communication of measurement data to a remote computer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 28, 1993
    Date of Patent: May 16, 1995
    Assignee: Owens-Brockway Glass Container Inc.
    Inventor: John L. Waugaman
  • Patent number: 5388707
    Abstract: Apparatus and method are provided for inspecting finish dimensions of and detecting finish defects on containers moving sequentially in a predetermined path. More than one container can be inspected simultaneously. The apparatus includes one or more inspection gauges suspended above the container path. A transport system is provided for aiding in moving containers through the gauges and simultaneously axially rotating the containers about a vertical axis. Rotation of the containers allows the inspection gauges to inspect the entire circumference of the containers at one or more levels on the container simultaneously. Defective containers are detected when the relative separation distance between the gauge plates of the inspection gauge falls outside predetermined limits. If a defective container is detected, a rejection assembly may be activated to physically remove the defective container from the container path.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 30, 1992
    Date of Patent: February 14, 1995
    Assignee: AGR International, Inc.
    Inventors: Lloyd Stivison, Henry Dimmick, Sr.
  • Patent number: 5345309
    Abstract: A system for generating a solid model of the sidewall of the container. A mandrel selectively holds the container in first and second locations. In the first location, a non-contact measurement apparatus utilizing a digital camera produces digital information for generating a three dimensional sidewall surface profile of the container based upon shadow edge detection. In the second position, a contact measurement apparatus produces information for generating a three dimensional sidewall thickness map of the container. A computer collects the information from the contact and non-contact measurement apparatuses and produces an overall solid model of the sidewall of the container based upon sidewall surface profile and sidewall thickness. The computer generates can tilt, diameter, can ovality, and can squarity information.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 10, 1991
    Date of Patent: September 6, 1994
    Assignee: Ball Corporation
    Inventors: Ronald D. Wertz, H. Kent Minet, Stephen M. Horacek, Brett A. Nickerson
  • Patent number: 5313714
    Abstract: An instrument for measuring dimensions of a can seam portion including a criterion measuring pin, a linear gauge provided with a measuring spindle which is so supported as to be movable along a straight line L in the direction of approaching said criterion measuring pin and in the direction of leaving said criterion measuring pin, a can cap supporting block, and a can body supporting block. The can cap supporting block holds the can such that the direction of measuring can seaming thickness T coincides with the straight line L so that the inner face of the can seam portion contacts the criterion measuring pin. The can body supporting block holds the can such that the direction for measuring the can seaming width W is identical with the straight line L and the lower face so that the can seam portion contacts the criterion measuring pin.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 8, 1992
    Date of Patent: May 24, 1994
    Assignee: The Coca-Cola Company
    Inventor: Saburo Nakao
  • Patent number: 5231767
    Abstract: A warp sensing apparatus for measuring the displacement or warp in disk-shaped objects such as drum lids and the like. A drum lid or other disk-shaped object is centered on the apparatus and clamped at the axis of rotation of the disk-shaped object. After the disk-shaped object is clamped, a contact probe of a transducer is positioned on the surface of the disk-shaped object to measure bidirectional displacement of the contact probe perpendicular to the surface of the disk-shaped object caused by undulations in the surface of the disk-shaped object. A manual rotating wheel permits the disk-shaped object to be rotated. A meter readout on the transducer displays the magnitude and direction of the contact probe displacement caused by undulations in the disk-shaped object as the disk-shaped object is rotated.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 22, 1991
    Date of Patent: August 3, 1993
    Assignee: Anthony Industries, Inc.
    Inventor: Charles E. Brinley
  • Patent number: 4936018
    Abstract: Apparatus and method of gauging the "saddle" of a container finish in which a test rig supports a bottle or container at an elevated position so the container can be rotated about the axis of its finish. The container is threaded into a finish ring. The finish ring is accurately supported for rotation in a horizontal plane with the feeler of an indicator engaging the top rim of the container during rotation. 360.degree. rotation in both directions gives maximum and minimum readings that are registered and used to determine the differential or saddle of the container.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 7, 1989
    Date of Patent: June 26, 1990
    Assignee: Owens-Illinois Plastic Products, Inc.
    Inventors: Gerald R. Robinson, Gary L. Moore, Thomas A. Lucius
  • Patent number: 4862596
    Abstract: An apparatus for simultaneously measuring at least the width and thickness of a seamed portion of a can at the same point on the seamed portion. The apparatus comprises a measurement base for receiving the seamed portion of the can thereon, and a reference block secured to the measurement base the reference block including a reference contact portion to contact the outer surface of the seamed portion. A device for measuring the width of the seamed portion is mounted on the reference block and includes a measurement pin cooperating with the measurement base to clamp the seamed portion in the vertical direction. A device for measuring the thickness of the seamed portion is mounted on the reference block and includes a measurement block cooperating with the reference contact portion to clamp the seamed portion laterally. The apparatus may further comprise a device for measuring the can height and/or a device for measuring the countersink depth.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 19, 1988
    Date of Patent: September 5, 1989
    Assignee: Daiwa Can Company, Limited
    Inventors: Toshio Iino, Takayuki Kai
  • Patent number: 4641437
    Abstract: A gauge having a substantially circular band capable of being deformed out-of-round from the application of a predetermined force and having a specified inner circumferential length to be compared with the length of a circumference around an object. The gauge further includes a support body adapted to connect with the band so as not to enable positioning the band in coaxial alignment with the object circumference and allow the band to flex and deform in circumscribing the circumference when the band is moved axially to accomplish such circumscribing.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 1, 1984
    Date of Patent: February 10, 1987
    Assignee: Aluminum Company of America
    Inventor: W. Coy Willis