With Maser-type Amplifying Device Patents (Class 330/4)
  • Patent number: 9608396
    Abstract: A maser assembly includes a pump light source; a maser material including molecules that are excited through the absorption of light (1) from the pump light source, and which subsequently transfer via intersystem crossing (9) into the sublevels of their triplet ground states, so causing a population inversion between two sublevels (16,18); an electromagnetic structure in which the masing material is disposed, and which supports a microwave mode that is both resonant in frequency with and magnetically coupled to the transition between these two sublevels; and where energy is supplied to the microwave mode through stimulated emission (25) across the transition at such a rate as to exceed the mode's electromagnetic losses, the microwave mode being a maser mode. The assembly includes provisions for effecting substantially continuous maser activity during operation of the assembly.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 15, 2013
    Date of Patent: March 28, 2017
    Assignee: THE SECRETARY OF STATE FOR BUSINESS, INNOVATION AND SKILLS OF HER MAGESTY'S BRITANNIC GOVERNMENT
    Inventor: Mark Oxborrow
  • Patent number: 9581143
    Abstract: The invention relates to heat power engineering, in particular, to methods that use a working medium for producing useful work from heat of an external source. The method comprises interaction of the working medium with an energy source and interaction of the working medium with an additional low-temperature energy source in the form of the positron state of the Dirac's matter by means of bringing the working medium into quantum-mechanical resonance with said state. The quantum-mechanical resonance is initiated by changing at least one of the thermodynamic parameters of the working medium, while the value of spontaneous fluctuations of the variable parameter in the vicinity of the line of absolute instability in the state diagram of the working medium is predetermined, and the change step for the thermodynamic parameter is set to be lower than the predetermined value of said fluctuations.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 28, 2012
    Date of Patent: February 28, 2017
    Assignee: SOLARIS HOLDINGS LIMITED
    Inventors: Georgy Ramasanovich Umarov, Sergey Ivanovich Boychenko, Shiv Vikram FKhemka
  • Patent number: 6515539
    Abstract: Optically pumped masers are described. The devices are useful for microwave amplification, microwave phase shifting and microwave limiting function. The devices are based on electron spin polarization of a stable free radical species induced by an intermolecular energy transfer process acting via a photo induced radical-triplet pair mechanism. A paramagnetic triplet precursor chromophore in a matrix with the stable free radical species is irradiated, preferably using a pulsed laser to initiate the process with concomitant increase in matrix magnetic susceptibility. Microwave radiation incident on the photo activated matrix is reflected as amplified, phase shifted or limited microwave fields dependent on relevant device parameters and on the power of the incident microwave radiation.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 12, 2000
    Date of Patent: February 4, 2003
    Assignee: Yissum Research Development Company of The Hebrew University of Jerusalem
    Inventors: Haim Levanon, Aharon Blank
  • Publication number: 20010048343
    Abstract: An amplified broadband optical signal is produced in a transmission system. An optical signal is divided into a first beam and a second beam. The first beam has a wavelength less than a predetermined wavelength. The second beam has a wavelength greater than the predetermined wavelength. The first beam is directed to a transmission link in the transmission system. The transmission system includes a distributed Raman amplifier. The distributed Raman amplifier operates in the wavelength range less than 1480 nm. The second beam is directed to a second amplifier. The first and second beams are combined. An amplified broadband optical signal is produced.
    Type: Application
    Filed: January 19, 2001
    Publication date: December 6, 2001
    Applicant: Xtera Communications, Inc.
    Inventor: Mohammed N. Islam
  • Patent number: 5422596
    Abstract: A folded waveguide gyrotron-traveling-wave-amplifier comprises: an electron gun for transmitting an axis-encircling beam of electrons with large transverse energy along a first path having an axis; an RF source for producing and applying in a second path an RF input millimeter wave signal having a bandwidth in a preselected frequency domain and having a transverse electric field; a source for generating a solenoid magnetic field parallel to the axis along the first path; a beam collector; and an interaction circuit such as an H-plane bend serpentine waveguide positioned within the solenoid magnetic field and having a narrow wall containing a beam tunnel hole for passing the axis-encircling beam of electrons therethrough to the beam collector, an output end, and an input end for receiving and passing the RF input millimeter wave signal through the H-plane bend serpentine waveguide to the output end to modulate the axis-encircling electron beam, the modulated axis-encircling electron beam amplifying the RF inpu
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 30, 1994
    Date of Patent: June 6, 1995
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the Secretary of the Navy
    Inventors: Carter M. Armstrong, Jin J. Choi, Achintya K. Ganguly
  • Patent number: 5365186
    Abstract: A method of generating microwave power by producing a charged-particle beam that is charge-neutralized by electrons. The charged particles are heavier than electrons. The charge-neutralized beam is passed through at least one conductive cavity which is resonant at a desired microwave frequency and in a desired fundamental mode. A microwave beam is extracted from said resonant cavity.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 16, 1993
    Date of Patent: November 15, 1994
    Inventor: Donald L. Ensley
  • Patent number: 5363054
    Abstract: A double beam cyclotron maser comprising two electron guns for introducing two electron beams traveling parallel to each other at different speeds into an electron drift tube/waveguide. The beams have respectively different electron cyclotron space-charge harmonics. A solenoid maintains a magnetic field parallel to the direction of propagation of the electron beams while a magnetic wiggler field initially imparts a transverse force to the electrons such that they propagate down the drift tube with a helical gyration. The magnetic fields, electron beam velocities, and beam space charge harmonics are adjustable to set the interaction frequency at which amplification of electromagnetic radiation can occur. The waveguide is a slow wave structure so configured as to slow the signal from the magnetron to match the phase velocity of the double stream cyclotron space-charge wave.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 27, 1992
    Date of Patent: November 8, 1994
    Assignee: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
    Inventor: George Bekefi
  • Patent number: 5291145
    Abstract: Novel microwave processing equipment includes a silicon single crystal containing neutral {110} planar four vacancies, a cooling mechanism for holding the silicon single crystal to a low temperature, a light pumping mechanism for irradiating light to the silicon single crystal, a magnetic field applying device for applying a static magnetic field to the silicon single crystal, an orientation holding mechanism for holding the silicon single crystal to a specific orientation with respect to the static magnetic field, an electromagnetic wave inputting mechanism for supplying an input electromagnetic wave to the silicon single crystal, and an electromagnetic wave outputting mechanism for extracting an output electromagnetic wave from the silicon single crystal.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 16, 1992
    Date of Patent: March 1, 1994
    Assignee: Hitachi, Ltd.
    Inventors: Yusuke Yajima, Ken'etsu Yokogawa
  • Patent number: 4863231
    Abstract: An active optical fibre star coupler having a length of amplifying optical fibre (1) optically connected at one end to a wavelength combining coupler (2) and at the other end to via a beam expanding element (3) to a set of output optical fibres.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 27, 1989
    Date of Patent: September 5, 1989
    Assignee: STC PLC
    Inventors: Kevin C. Byron, Terry Bricheno, Alan Fielding, Nicholas J. Pitt, Robert A. Baker
  • Patent number: 4829261
    Abstract: A traveling wave type amplifier. The device features a pair of short helical input and output couplers through which an electron beam is projected. Application of an RF signal to the couplers serves to modulate the electron beam. A drift tube to be positioned between the couplers is dimensioned to attenuate the RF signal while permitting the modulated electron beam to pass through. An amplified output signal is extracted from the output helix. Gain of the tube is enhanced by a linearly decreasing magnetic focussing field.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 8, 1987
    Date of Patent: May 9, 1989
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the Secretary of the Army
    Inventors: Charles M. DeSantis, Louis J. Jasper, Jr.
  • Patent number: 4814728
    Abstract: An ultra-stable superconducting triple cavity ruby maser oscillator (10) is obtained by providing the oscillator with a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) (50), which measures the magnetic field at the ruby (14) and compensates for changes by adjusting the RF pump signal amplitude (42), thereby attaining stabilities of about four orders of magnitude greater than presently attainable.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 19, 1987
    Date of Patent: March 21, 1989
    Assignee: California Institute of Technology
    Inventors: Donald M. Strayer, Dick: G. John
  • Patent number: 4758795
    Abstract: A plasma-filled waveguide acts as a dispersive element for pulse compression or power multiplication of a frequency chirped microwave signal. In one embodiment, the frequency of the source is chirped near a plasma resonance while the plasma waveguide is held contant in time. In a second embodiment, the source frequency is held fixed while the plasma filled waveguide parameters are varied in time in the vicinity of a plasma resonance.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 1, 1986
    Date of Patent: July 19, 1988
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the Secretary of the Navy
    Inventors: Barrett H. Ripin, Wallace Manheimer
  • Patent number: 4554510
    Abstract: A fiber optic amplifier utilizes a crystal fiber of laser material to bidirectionally amplify light signals. This amplifier permits the application of both pumping illumination and the signal to be amplified to the end of the crystal fiber to avoid the disadvantages inherent in side pumping this fiber. End pumping is accomplished by taking advantage of the slow spontaneous fluorescence of the laser crystal to sequentially apply the pumping illumination and then the signal to be amplified to the crystal. This sequential application of signals is made possible through the use of a switchable coupler which allows light to be selectively coupled from either of a pair of input optical fibers to a single output optical fiber which is coupled to the crystal fiber. The pumping illumination is initially supplied to the crystal fiber to invert the ions within the crystal.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 12, 1983
    Date of Patent: November 19, 1985
    Assignee: The Board of Trustees of Leland Stanford Junior University
    Inventors: Herbert J. Shaw, Michel J. F. Digonnet
  • Patent number: 4533875
    Abstract: A high power amplifier for amplifying millimeter-wave radiation comprising: a length of metallic waveguide tapered from a small cross-sectional end to a larger cross-sectional end; a magnetron-type electron injection gun for injecting a spiral beam of relativistic electrons at the small end of the waveguide for propagation axially therein so that the wall radius of the tapered waveguide increases in the downstream direction of the electron beam; an input coupler for launching electromagnetic waves to be amplified into the waveguide at the large waveguide end thereof such that the individual frequencies in the input waves are reflected at various points along the constriction of the waveguide taper so that they copropagate with and are amplified by the electron beam; and a magnetic circuit for generating an axial magnetic field within the tapered waveguide with a unique profile approximately in accordance with the following equation to maintain synchronism: ##EQU1## where the z subscript is the waveguide axial
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 16, 1982
    Date of Patent: August 6, 1985
    Inventors: Yue-Ying Lau, Kwo R. Chu, Victor L. Granatstein, Larry R. Barnett
  • Patent number: 4480234
    Abstract: A gyrotron backward wave oscillator device is described which can be operated in a controlled and predictable manner. The device includes an evacuated waveguide section, an electron source at one end providing a spiral electron beam, a collector at the opposite end, means for producing a magnetic field parallel to the longitudinal axis of the waveguide section, and an output window, the parameters of the device being such as to support backward wave oscillation therein and to output same through the window.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 18, 1981
    Date of Patent: October 30, 1984
    Assignee: Elta Electronics Industries Ltd.
    Inventor: Jonathan M. Wachtel
  • Patent number: 4456912
    Abstract: A defense system wherein a radar intercepts and follows a target and includes an antenna array and a low level source of microwave energy for exciting the elements of the array to produce radar returns and define the path. A microwave storage reservoir is supplied upon demand with high energy microwave energy and is coupled to microwave feed channels leading to the elements of the antenna array. Microwave dump switches at the juncture of the channels and the reservoir control flow of energy from the reservoir. Control means responsive at least in part to the presence of returns periodically actuate the dump switches for flow of microwave energy from the reservoir to the target via the antenna array.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 3, 1972
    Date of Patent: June 26, 1984
    Assignee: Harvest Queen Mill & Elevator Company
    Inventor: Donald L. Ensley
  • Patent number: 4422045
    Abstract: A cyclotron maser microwave amplifier and oscillator which utilizes non-relativistic electrons in cyclotron motion and a spatially nonlinear electrostatic field which is produced by the space charge of the electrons. The term "spatially nonlinear electrostatic field" encompasses static electric fields whose magnitude can be described mathematically as varying in a nonlinear manner as a function of position in one or more directions. As taught by U.S. Pat. No. 4,253,068 of Feb. 24, 1981, "Cyclotron Maser Using a Spatially Nonlinear Electrostatic Field", completely non-relativistic electrons may be used in principle for which phase bunching will occur due to the nonlinear motions induced by the electrostatic field, resulting in stimulated emission of cyclotron radiation for use in a microwave amplifier or oscillator. U.S. Pat. No. 4,253,068 teaches that appropriate nonlinear electrostatic fields can be established by suitably shaped electrodes and a low charge density electron beam.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 20, 1981
    Date of Patent: December 20, 1983
    Inventor: Larry R. Barnett
  • Patent number: 4399415
    Abstract: An isolator is described for use in a low-noise maser amplifier, which provides low loss across a wide bandwidth and which can be constructed at moderate cost. The isolator (40) includes a train of garnet or ferrite elements (50, 52) extending along the length of a microwave channel (14) parallel to the slow-wave structure (24), with the elements being of staggered height, so that the thin elements (50) which are resonant to the microwaves are separated by much thicker elements (52). The thick garnet or ferrite elements reduce the magnetic flux passing through the thin elements (50), to permit altering of the shape of the thin elements so as to facilitate their fabrication and to provide better isolation with reduced loss, by increasing the thickness (T) of the thin elements and decreasing their length (L) and width (W).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 23, 1981
    Date of Patent: August 16, 1983
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration
    Inventors: Robert C. Clauss, Rex B. Quinn
  • Patent number: 4370621
    Abstract: An electron cyclotron maser high-frequency generator/amplifier having a cavity resonator positioned in an axial magnetic field. A spiralling beam of relativistic electrons is injected into the cavity and stimulated emission of radiation by the electrons takes place at the frequency of a wave mode supported by the cavity resonator. The transverse efficiency, defined as the average electron energy loss divided by its initial transverse energy, is maximized by disposing a shaped iron collar about the cavity resonator to provide an axial magnetic field in the cavity resonator whose amplitude increases in the beam direction-of-travel. In an alternative embodiment, the transverse efficiency is maximized by tapering the inner wall of the cavity in the axial direction to provide a wave-mode in the cavity resonator whose electric-field amplitude increases in the beam direction-of-travel.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 11, 1980
    Date of Patent: January 25, 1983
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the Secretary of the Navy
    Inventors: Phillip A. Sprangle, Robert A. Smith, Kwo R. Chu
  • Patent number: 4253068
    Abstract: A cyclotron maser microwave amplifier or oscillator which utilizes non-relativistic electrons (or other charged particles) in cyclotron motion and a spatially nonlinear electrostatic field. The term "spatially nonlinear electrostatic field" encompasses static electric fields whose magnitude can be described mathematically as varying in a nonlinear manner as a function of position in one or more directions. Completely non-relativistic electrons of very low energy may be used in principle for which phase bunching will occur due to the nonlinear motions (induced by the electrostatic field) resulting in stimulated emission of cyclotron radiation for use in the amplifier or oscillator. This is in complete contrast to the relativistic cyclotron maser (Hirschfield, U.S. Pat. No. 3,398,376) which required the electrons to be acting under the relativistic effect of the electron mass (and hence cyclotron frequency) being a function of its energy to produce the necessary phase bunching and resulting stimulated emission.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 21, 1979
    Date of Patent: February 24, 1981
    Inventor: Larry R. Barnett
  • Patent number: 4224576
    Abstract: An apparatus for amplifying coherent radiation at millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths includes the combination of a travelling-wave-tube cyclotron-maser-amplifier structure and a magnetron-injection electron gun. The amplifier structure includes a fast-wave drift tube and an electromagnetic wave launcher within the bore of a superconducting magnet. The magnetron-injection electron gun is also within the bore of the magnet and is coupled to the drift tube. As a travelling wave is launched in a preferred mode in the drift tube, the electron gun injects an annular beam of relativistic electrons having both large energy transverse to the axis of the device and small energy spread into the drift tube so that the electrons gyrate at their cyclotron frequency in orbits about the lines of the axial magnetic field produced by the magnet. The travelling wave is amplified by extracting energy from the relativistic electron beam.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 19, 1978
    Date of Patent: September 23, 1980
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the Secretary of the Navy
    Inventors: Victor L. Granatstein, Phillip Sprangle, Adam T. Drobot, Kwo R. Chu, J. Laurence Safter
  • Patent number: 4209752
    Abstract: An improved getter for a hydrogen maser comprised of screened particles of zirconium-aluminum alloy. One or more pump bodies are connected with a hydrogen maser and each pump body contains a quantity of Zr-Al alloy particles. One or more screens are provided in a passageway connecting a pump body with a maser to allow passage of hydrogen into the pump body but preventing, in a zero-g environment, the alloy particles from leaving the pump body. The Zr-Al alloy particles are activated by heating.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 10, 1978
    Date of Patent: June 24, 1980
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the Secretary of the Navy
    Inventor: William B. Bridges
  • Patent number: 4187470
    Abstract: A dielectrically loaded four-port waveguide circulator is used with a reflected-wave maser connected to a second port between first and third ports to form one of a plurality of cascaded maser waveguide structures. The fourth port is connected to a waveguide loaded with microwave energy absorbing material. The third (output signal) port of one maser waveguide structure is connected by a waveguide loaded with dielectric material to the first (input) port of an adjacent maser waveguide structure, and the second port is connected to a reflected-wave maser by a matching transformer which passes the signal to be amplified into and out of the reflected-wavemaser and blocks pumping energy in the reflected-wave maser from entering the circulator. A number of cascaded maser waveguide structures may thus be housed in a relatively small volume of conductive material placed within a cryogenically cooled magnet assembly.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 9, 1978
    Date of Patent: February 5, 1980
    Inventors: Robert A. Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, with respect to an invention of Frosch, Robert C. Clauss, Rex B. Quinn
  • Patent number: 4055810
    Abstract: An X-band traveling wave maser of the folded-comb type is provided with two figure-eight coils for gain and bandwidth control. One figure-eight coil covers the full length of the comb structure for bandwidth adjustment of an external magnetic field. The other figure-eight coil covers a central half of the comb structure for independent gain adjustment of the external magnetic field. The half of each figure-eight coil at the turn around end of the comb structure is oriented to aid the external magnetic field, and the half of each figure-eight coil at the input-output end of the comb structure is oriented to buck the external magnetic field. The maser is pumped in the push-push mode with two different frequencies.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 26, 1976
    Date of Patent: October 25, 1977
    Inventors: James C. Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, with respect to an invention of Fletcher, David L. Trowbridge
  • Patent number: 3978417
    Abstract: A number of traveling-wave, slow-wave maser structures, containing active maser material but absent the typical ferrite isolators, are immersed in a nonuniform magnetic field. The microwave signal to be amplified is inserted at a circulator which directs the signal to a slow-wave structure. The signal travels through the slow-wave structure, being amplified according to the distance traveled. The end of the slow-wave structure farthest from the circulator is arranged to be a point of maximum reflection of the signal traveling through the slow-wave structure. As a consequence, the signal to be amplified traverses the slow-wave structure again, in the opposite direction (towards the circulator) experiencing amplification equivalent to that achieved by a conventional traveling-wave maser having twice the length. The circulator directs the amplified signal to following like stages of amplification. Isolators are used in between stages to prevent signals from traveling in the wrong direction, between the stages.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 12, 1975
    Date of Patent: August 31, 1976
    Inventors: James C. Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, with respect to an invention of Fletcher, Robert C. Clauss
  • Patent number: H2010
    Abstract: A gyrotron gun that generates gyrating electron beams in a controllable manner suitable for use in a wide range of gyro-amplifiers and gyro-oscillators is disclosed. The gyrotron comprises first and second means for abruptly changing a magnetic field and which means are positioned between first, second and third field coils. The field coils are operated so as to provide for a desired magnetic field profile that allows for the control of the parameters desired to provide for small-orbit, large-orbit, and linear modes of operation of the gyrotron gun. The gyrotron gun further comprises of a pair of bucking coils arranging near the cathode to independently control the axial velocity spread of the gyrating electron beam.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 2, 1995
    Date of Patent: January 1, 2002
    Assignee: United States of America
    Inventors: Khanh T. Nguyen, David N. Smithe
  • Patent number: H450
    Abstract: An improved method and structure is disclosed for adjusting the magnetic field generated by a group of electromagnet poles spaced along the path of a charged particle beam to compensate for energy losses in the charged particles which comprises providing more than one winding on at least some of the electromagnet poles; connecting one respective winding on each of several consecutive adjacent electromagnet poles to a first power supply, and the other respective winding on the electromagnet pole to a different power supply in staggered order; and independently adjusting one power supply to independently vary the current in one winding on each electromagnet pole in a group whereby the magnetic field strength of each of a group of electromagnet poles may be changed in smaller increments.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 27, 1987
    Date of Patent: March 1, 1988
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the United States Department of Energy
    Inventor: Klaus Halbach