With Magnetically Influenced Discharge Device (e.g., Magnetrons) Patents (Class 330/47)
  • Publication number: 20030038633
    Abstract: A uniform-field resonator includes a central cavity section having a cross-section which is set to the cutoff frequency for a particular microwave propagation mode and a pair of end sections which enclose the cavity to form a resonator in which the field is substantially uniform along the entire length of the central cavity—regardless of its length. A number of end section design strategies and resulting structures are described for supporting the uniform-field mode of operation in the central cavity section.
    Type: Application
    Filed: July 23, 2002
    Publication date: February 27, 2003
    Inventors: James S. Hyde, Richard R. Mett, Wojciech Froncisz, James R. Anderson
  • Patent number: 6236161
    Abstract: A crossed-field device such as a crossed-field amplifier or magnetron has a generally peripheral cathode body portion and an anode which cooperates with a crossed magnetic field to maintain emitted electrons on cycloidal and amplify an rf input signal as it travels to an rf outlet. A control electrode positioned generally at a drift region away from the crossed-field amplification region interrupts the sustained electron emission to shut down the device between working cycles, and an auxiliary electrode positioned internally of the cathode diverts electrons into a gap proximally of the control electrode to reduce the control electrode energy requirements. The cathode is carried by a support structure, and the auxiliary electrode may be a rod axially extending in a counter-bore in the support structure. The auxiliary electrode is dc biased and may advantageously operate at anode potential, thereby obviating the need for any additional power source for the auxiliary electrode.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 26, 1999
    Date of Patent: May 22, 2001
    Assignee: Communications & Power Industries, Inc.
    Inventors: Michael L. Tracy, Carl D. Morrill, Hunter L. McDowell
  • Patent number: 6132565
    Abstract: A magnetron assembly for sputter deposition and a method for using such assembly are described. The novel magnetron assembly is equipped with traversing magnets that are capable of moving in a radial direction toward and away from a center axis of the magnetron simultaneously with the rotational motion of the assembly. The traversing magnets enables a substantially uniform magnetic flux distribution to be formed which leads to not only a more uniform film deposition on a wafer surface, but also a more uniformly consumed metal target surface leading to a longer target life. The non-uniformity of a film deposited in a metal sputtering process frequently seen when using a conventional magnetron assembly is substantially eliminated.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 1, 1999
    Date of Patent: October 17, 2000
    Assignee: Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company, Ltd
    Inventor: Chih-Lung Lin
  • Patent number: 5825140
    Abstract: A radio-frequency type charged particle accelerator includes a RFQ accelerator and a rear stage RF accelerator both of which are contained in a single evacuated chamber. The RFQ accelerator has quadrupole electrodes positioned along a traveling path of the charged particle and bunches and accelerates a charged particle beam by receiving a radio-frequency power from a radio-frequency power source and resonating. The rear stage RF accelerator is disposed in a rear stage of the RFQ accelerator and accelerates or decelerates the energy of the charged particle beam accelerated by the RFQ accelerator by receiving the radio-frequency power from the radio-frequency power source and resonating. A separating plate is disposed in the single evacuated chamber to separate the RFQ accelerator from the rear stage RF accelerator so that the RFQ accelerator and the rear stage RF accelerator work independently of each other.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 29, 1996
    Date of Patent: October 20, 1998
    Assignee: Nissin Electric Co., Ltd.
    Inventor: Hiroshi Fujisawa
  • Patent number: 5412281
    Abstract: A crossed-field amplifier (CFA) includes a cylindrical cathode having an emitting surface coaxially disposed within an annular anode structure. The cathode has at least one circumferential groove disposed in the emitting surface. The grooves are relatively deep in comparison with their width. The grooves provide a phase smoothing of the rotating electron cloud spokes operative during crossed-field interaction. CFA noise is reduced by removal of the out-of-phase electrons. Due to their deeply cycloiding paths, these out-of-phase electrons become trapped in the grooves within a region generally shielded from the electric field of the CFA.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 31, 1993
    Date of Patent: May 2, 1995
    Assignee: Litton Systems, Inc.
    Inventors: George K. Farney, Chris L. Wheeland, Kenneth F. Ramacher, Edward M. Doyle, Michael S. Worthington
  • Patent number: 5363054
    Abstract: A double beam cyclotron maser comprising two electron guns for introducing two electron beams traveling parallel to each other at different speeds into an electron drift tube/waveguide. The beams have respectively different electron cyclotron space-charge harmonics. A solenoid maintains a magnetic field parallel to the direction of propagation of the electron beams while a magnetic wiggler field initially imparts a transverse force to the electrons such that they propagate down the drift tube with a helical gyration. The magnetic fields, electron beam velocities, and beam space charge harmonics are adjustable to set the interaction frequency at which amplification of electromagnetic radiation can occur. The waveguide is a slow wave structure so configured as to slow the signal from the magnetron to match the phase velocity of the double stream cyclotron space-charge wave.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 27, 1992
    Date of Patent: November 8, 1994
    Assignee: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
    Inventor: George Bekefi
  • Patent number: 5327094
    Abstract: A crossed-field amplifier is provided which has an anode and a cathode creating an electric field across a magnetic field formed in an interaction area. A field emitter is disposed within a slot formed on an outer surface of the cathode. The field emitter emits an electron current in response to the electric field to provide priming electrons for improving the start up time of the amplifier. The electron current produced by the field emitter has been shown to initiate secondary emissions of electrons from the cathode to reduce irregular start-up or "jitter" typically experienced with the amplifier at low pulse repetition frequencies. In an alternative embodiment of the invention, a thermionic emitting filament is disposed in a space between adjacent anode vanes of the amplifier. The filament emits electrons in response to an external power source. A portion of the emitted electrons tend to impact the anode vanes, creating x-rays which impact the cathode surface to initiate secondary emissions of electrons.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 11, 1992
    Date of Patent: July 5, 1994
    Assignee: Litton Systems, Inc.
    Inventors: J. Rodney M. Vaughan, Kenneth F. Ramacher, Edward M. Doyle
  • Patent number: 5280218
    Abstract: A cathode of a crossed field device includes a first electrode and a second electrode disposed about and dielectrically spaced from the first electrode. In a preferred embodiment the electrode comprises a pair of electrodes, a first one of the pair being a masking electrode disposed about and dielectrically spaced from the first electrode and a second one of the pair being an emitter electrode disposed about and dielectrically spaced from the masking electrode.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 24, 1991
    Date of Patent: January 18, 1994
    Assignee: Raytheon Company
    Inventor: Burton H. Smith
  • Patent number: 4975656
    Abstract: The present invention discloses an enhanced secondary electron emitter cathode suitable for use in a typical crossed-field amplifiers. The emitter surfaces of the cathode are formed into protuberances or knurls. The cathode's secondary emission characteristics are enhanced by providing protuberances with more surface area for electrons to bombard and for electrons to be emitted from. The protuberances increase the variety of angles of incidence of bombarding electrons thereby increasing the probability that bombarded electrons can escape the cathode's surfaces.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 31, 1989
    Date of Patent: December 4, 1990
    Assignee: Litton Systems, Inc.
    Inventors: Gregory T. Schaeffer, John C. Cipolla, Guilford R. MacPhail
  • Patent number: 4894586
    Abstract: The present invention discloses a cross-field amplifier having an anode and cathode with a pair of permanent magnets which create a magnetic field perpendicular to an electric field created between the anode and cathode. An electric bias circuit is connected between the cathode and a power supply that normally supplies energy to an oxygen source within the amplifier. This bias circuit supplies a negative DC voltage to the cathode. After the amplifier is turned off, the DC bias holds electrons within the interaction area between the cathode and anode for supplying the electrons needed to quickly restart the amplifier.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 18, 1988
    Date of Patent: January 16, 1990
    Assignee: Litton Systems, Inc.
    Inventors: Carl R. Crager, Kenneth F. Ramacher, Frank A. Zawada
  • Patent number: 4831335
    Abstract: There is provided a miniature high gain forward wave crossed-field amplifier wherein the anode slow wave structure includes double helix coupled vanes having a predetermined pitch such that the distance between the plane of symmetry of each vane is substantially narrow as compared with the thickness of each vane. The vanes also having a predetermined length and height, the height being greater than one half of the length. The wires of the double helical coils has a cross-sectional thickness which is at least one order of magnitude less than the plane of symmetry diameter of each turn of the coils. The distance between the outer diameter of each coil along the transverse face of each vane is quite large. The pitch ratio of the vanes is less than one half of the thickness thereof. Samarium cobalt magnets are used having annular end pieces which form the walls of the vacuum chamber. A high gain of 18 to 22 dB in a volume of approximately 50 cubic inches and a weight of less than 10 pounds is achieved.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 17, 1988
    Date of Patent: May 16, 1989
    Assignee: Litton Systems, Inc.
    Inventors: Chris L. Wheeland, Guilford R. MacPhail
  • Patent number: 4814720
    Abstract: In a forward wave low noise cross-field amplifier a slow wave structure is disposed about a predetermined portion of the cathode. The slow wave structure of the cathode is accurately proportioned and spaced to have a dispersion curve near to the dispersion of the slow wave structure of the anode to permit cross-coupling of the RF input from the slow wave structure of the anode to the slow wave structure of the cathode.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 17, 1988
    Date of Patent: March 21, 1989
    Assignee: Guilford R. MacPhail
    Inventors: Guilford R. MacPhail, Chris L. Wheeland, Edward M. Doyle
  • Patent number: 4801847
    Abstract: A charged particle accelerator is provided with quadrupole electrodes with surfaces that are opposed to each other and are undulated, and with an external resonance circuit. The external resonance circuit consists of a capacitor formed by the opposing electrodes, a variable capacitor provided in parallel with said capacitor, and a coil. The resonance frequency is variable. A direct current and an alternating current may be applied in a superposed manner to the quadrupole electrodes. The thus constructed accelerator can be employed for an ion implanter to implant a heavy-current ion beam of several hundred KeV to several MeV.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 29, 1985
    Date of Patent: January 31, 1989
    Assignee: Hitachi, Ltd.
    Inventors: Noriyuki Sakudo, Katsumi Tokiguchi, Hidemi Koike, Osami Okada, Norio Saito, Susumu Ozasa
  • Patent number: 4757269
    Abstract: An RF amplifier wherein an IREB interacts with RF energy from an RF energy source coupled via an RF cavity to a tube drift region where the IREB is modulated at the frequency of the RF energy source, to provide high gain amplification at high power and high efficiency.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 18, 1986
    Date of Patent: July 12, 1988
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the Secretary of the Navy
    Inventors: Moshe Friedman, Victor Serlin
  • Patent number: 4634992
    Abstract: A microwave circuit for combining the high output power of two phase and amplitude controllable amplifiers (e.g. magnetron amplifiers) is described. The circuit uses a "Magic T" circuit to reduce the magnitude of the amplified power which must be dissipated by a low-power ferrite circulator connected between the input signal source and the Magic T. Phase and amplitude comparators are used to control the amplifiers so that they may be combined in the Magic T.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 26, 1985
    Date of Patent: January 6, 1987
    Assignee: Raytheon Company
    Inventor: William C. Brown
  • Patent number: 4571552
    Abstract: Phase locking of the output signal of a magnetron with a frequency source signal is obtained by a phase comparison of the output signal and source signal to obtain an error signal which energizes a winding of the magnetron magnet to thereby change the flux experienced by the magnetron tube operating in conjunction with frequency pulling of the magnetron output signal by the source signal coupled to the magnetron by a three-port circulator.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 2, 1985
    Date of Patent: February 18, 1986
    Assignee: Raytheon Company
    Inventor: William C. Brown
  • Patent number: 4533875
    Abstract: A high power amplifier for amplifying millimeter-wave radiation comprising: a length of metallic waveguide tapered from a small cross-sectional end to a larger cross-sectional end; a magnetron-type electron injection gun for injecting a spiral beam of relativistic electrons at the small end of the waveguide for propagation axially therein so that the wall radius of the tapered waveguide increases in the downstream direction of the electron beam; an input coupler for launching electromagnetic waves to be amplified into the waveguide at the large waveguide end thereof such that the individual frequencies in the input waves are reflected at various points along the constriction of the waveguide taper so that they copropagate with and are amplified by the electron beam; and a magnetic circuit for generating an axial magnetic field within the tapered waveguide with a unique profile approximately in accordance with the following equation to maintain synchronism: ##EQU1## where the z subscript is the waveguide axial
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 16, 1982
    Date of Patent: August 6, 1985
    Inventors: Yue-Ying Lau, Kwo R. Chu, Victor L. Granatstein, Larry R. Barnett
  • Patent number: 4370621
    Abstract: An electron cyclotron maser high-frequency generator/amplifier having a cavity resonator positioned in an axial magnetic field. A spiralling beam of relativistic electrons is injected into the cavity and stimulated emission of radiation by the electrons takes place at the frequency of a wave mode supported by the cavity resonator. The transverse efficiency, defined as the average electron energy loss divided by its initial transverse energy, is maximized by disposing a shaped iron collar about the cavity resonator to provide an axial magnetic field in the cavity resonator whose amplitude increases in the beam direction-of-travel. In an alternative embodiment, the transverse efficiency is maximized by tapering the inner wall of the cavity in the axial direction to provide a wave-mode in the cavity resonator whose electric-field amplitude increases in the beam direction-of-travel.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 11, 1980
    Date of Patent: January 25, 1983
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the Secretary of the Navy
    Inventors: Phillip A. Sprangle, Robert A. Smith, Kwo R. Chu
  • Patent number: 4350927
    Abstract: Apparatus for focusing beams of charged particles comprising planar arrays of electrostatic quadrupoles. The array may be assembled from a single component which comprises a support plate containing uniform rows of poles. Each pole is separated by a hole through the plate designed to pass a beam. Two such plates may be positioned with their poles intermeshed to form a plurality of quadrupoles.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 23, 1980
    Date of Patent: September 21, 1982
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the United States Department of Energy
    Inventor: Alfred W. Maschke
  • Patent number: 4224576
    Abstract: An apparatus for amplifying coherent radiation at millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths includes the combination of a travelling-wave-tube cyclotron-maser-amplifier structure and a magnetron-injection electron gun. The amplifier structure includes a fast-wave drift tube and an electromagnetic wave launcher within the bore of a superconducting magnet. The magnetron-injection electron gun is also within the bore of the magnet and is coupled to the drift tube. As a travelling wave is launched in a preferred mode in the drift tube, the electron gun injects an annular beam of relativistic electrons having both large energy transverse to the axis of the device and small energy spread into the drift tube so that the electrons gyrate at their cyclotron frequency in orbits about the lines of the axial magnetic field produced by the magnet. The travelling wave is amplified by extracting energy from the relativistic electron beam.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 19, 1978
    Date of Patent: September 23, 1980
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the Secretary of the Navy
    Inventors: Victor L. Granatstein, Phillip Sprangle, Adam T. Drobot, Kwo R. Chu, J. Laurence Safter
  • Patent number: 4105890
    Abstract: A device for electron-beam heating of materials comprises an electron gun and an electromagnetic electron beam control system with a rectangular magnetic circuit. The opposite rods of the magnetic circuit accommodate beam deflection windings as well as beam correction and spreading windings. An additional winding is also provided on each magnetic circuit rod. The magnetic fields created by the current flowing through said additional windings form a magnetic quadrupole lens. The device permits manipulating the electron beam so as to obtain a sufficiently long and narrow focal spot on the surface being heated, and also the beam deflection angles range from 0.degree. to 45.degree..
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 2, 1977
    Date of Patent: August 8, 1978
    Inventors: Boris A. Movchan, Viktor A. Timashov, Konstantin N. Kljuev