With Vacuum Tube Having Distributed Parameter Impedance Characteristics Patents (Class 330/49)
  • Patent number: 9026064
    Abstract: A wireless communication node (10) dynamically estimates passive intermodulation (PIM) interference coupled into the node's receive path from the transmission of a composite signal through the node's transmit path. The node (10) then cancels the estimated PIM interference in the receive path. In some embodiments, the node dynamically estimates the PIM interference as a function of the composite signal that models PIM interference generation and coupling in the node (10) according to one or more coefficients (30). The coefficients (30) may be determined by transmitting a test signal (34) during a test stage, when the node (10) is not scheduled to receive any signal. Later, when the composite signal (18) is transmitted, the node (10) uses the coefficients (10) to dynamically estimate and cancel the resulting PIM interference.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 9, 2011
    Date of Patent: May 5, 2015
    Assignee: Telefonaktiebolaget L M Ericsson (publ)
    Inventors: Meng Wang, Shaohua Li, Robert Baldemair, Jung-Fu Cheng, Farshid Ghasemzadeh, Magnus Larsson, Johan Sk├Âld
  • Patent number: 8335326
    Abstract: Methods are provided for solid-state implementation of a vacuum tube replacement device (VTRD) that includes a communication interface. The communication interface enables the VTRD to command or retrieve information regarding VTRD performance, function, and status. A VTRD may communicate with other VTRDs in a target amplifier retrofitted with compatible VTRDs and to an external user interface for programming or query/response. The methods presented for the vacuum tube replacement device system(s) are equally useful for non-vacuum tube systems such as audio amplifier circuits.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 22, 2007
    Date of Patent: December 18, 2012
    Inventors: Brett A. Hertzberg, Douglas H. Roberts
  • Publication number: 20090074205
    Abstract: An amplifier is provided using digital potentiometer integrated circuits to control the tone of a vacuum tube preamplifier allowing digital control of the analog signal path of the amplifier. Using digital potentiometer integrated circuits to control the tone of a vacuum tube preamplifier results in an amplifier that preserves the unique tone quality of a vacuum tube amplifier that offers the flexibility, versatility, and user-friendly features of a digitally controlled amplifier, such as the ability to save and recall amplifier settings. The amplifier of the present invention is especially applicable for use with musical instruments such as for example, electric guitars.
    Type: Application
    Filed: August 4, 2008
    Publication date: March 19, 2009
    Inventor: Donelson Arthur Shannon
  • Patent number: 7482863
    Abstract: Methods are provided for solid-state implementation of a vacuum tube replacement device that supplements the functional performance of the target replacement device, i.e., a traditional glass vacuum tube. Example functions may include OEM or user adjustable parameters such as gain and/or frequency response (e.g. transfer function), current and/or voltage saturation thresholds, bias condition, input and/or output impedance, linear-to-non-linear transfer function(s) (e.g. soft clipping parameters), power dissipation, communication protocols, and audio/visual indication parameters such as signal limiting detection, safety, stress, or wear-out conditions, and tube emulation model type to name a few. The methods presented for the vacuum tube replacement device system(s) are equally useful for non-vacuum tube systems such as audio amplifier circuits.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 9, 2007
    Date of Patent: January 27, 2009
    Assignee: Roberts Retrovalve, Inc.
    Inventors: Douglas H. Roberts, Brett A. Hertzberg
  • Patent number: 7408401
    Abstract: A system is provided for a solid-state implementation of a vacuum tube replacement device. The system may derive power from a target amplifier filament supply. The system may include active or passive functions for noise reduction, voltage isolation, servo biasing, and other functions. The vacuum tube replacement device is pin-for-pin compatible with standard vacuum tube circuit pin configurations. The vacuum tube replacement device system architecture is equally useful for non-vacuum tube systems such as audio amplifier circuits.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 23, 2007
    Date of Patent: August 5, 2008
    Assignee: Roberts Retrovalve, Inc.
    Inventor: Douglas H. Roberts
  • Patent number: 7355475
    Abstract: An output circuit of a vacuum-tube amplifier is disclosed. An output circuit of a conventional vacuum-tube amplifier has shortcomings that a front end amplification unit uses a coupling condenser or a transformer to output an AC signal to an output node, a bias voltage of a cathode of a vacuum tube is varied in response to an input signal in an output buffer and, when the bias voltage is higher than a voltage set by a bias resistor, signal attenuation by the difference between the bias voltage and the set voltage is generated. To solve these shortcomings, the output circuit of the vacuum-tube amplifier includes a front end amplification unit for amplifying an input signal using a vacuum tube and an output amplification unit for power-amplifying the output signal of the front end amplification unit using a vacuum tube.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 15, 2006
    Date of Patent: April 8, 2008
    Assignee: AVERD Labs Co., Ltd.
    Inventor: Soung Whan Chung
  • Patent number: 6895096
    Abstract: A audio amplifier employs microchannel plate for multiplying input electrons to produce output electrons at a rate corresponding to an audio input signal. The MCP may have a segment input source, segmented input and output electrodes or a segmented anode for allowing independent amplification of multiple input channels.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 21, 2000
    Date of Patent: May 17, 2005
    Inventor: John P. DeLuca
  • Patent number: 6111472
    Abstract: A launch quasi-optical amplifier including a photonic bandgap crystal, designed to operate within a specific frequency range. The photonic bandgap crystal is populated with active devices that are coupled to the alternate layers, or defects, in the crystal to compensate for the absorption in the alternate layers thereby creating a negative absorption coefficient. The photonic bandgap crystal is operable as an amplifier when the active devices are amplifiers, and as a wave source when the active devices are oscillators.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 19, 1998
    Date of Patent: August 29, 2000
    Assignee: Hughes Electronics Corporation
    Inventor: Hector J. De Los Santos
  • Patent number: 5341114
    Abstract: Integrated circuit structure and processing is provided for a high power limiter including at least a first anti-parallel array of monolithically integrated Schottky diodes. In a further embodiment, integrated circuit structure and processing is provided for an MMIC, microwave and millimeter wave monolithic integrated circuit, including an amplifier and a high power limiter monolithically integrated on the same substrate.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 2, 1990
    Date of Patent: August 23, 1994
    Assignee: AIL Systems, Inc.
    Inventors: Joseph A. Calviello, John A. Pierro
  • Patent number: 5089787
    Abstract: An optically-coupled high frequency amplifier is disclosed herein. The ampliifer of the present invention includes a laser and a receiver coupled by an optical beam. The amplifier further includes a modulator responsive to an input signal for modulating the optical beam generated by the laser. The receiver produces an output signal in response to the modulated optical beam. A specific embodiment of the present invention further includes impedance matching means for increasing the maximum operating frequency of the laser and the receiver.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 1, 1991
    Date of Patent: February 18, 1992
    Assignee: California Institute of Technology
    Inventors: Haila Wang, Amnon Yariv
  • Patent number: 5075573
    Abstract: The invention relates to a low-noise amplification device of an optical wave. Signal wave (F.sub.s) to be amplified interferes with a pump wave (F.sub.p) in such a nonlinear medium (1) as a photorefractive crystal. To reduce the noise considerably, even to eliminate it, the establishing of noise-generating interferences therefore is prevented by moving, by rotation around an axis O, the nonlinear medium.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 16, 1990
    Date of Patent: December 24, 1991
    Assignee: Thomson-CSF
    Inventors: Jean-Pierre Huignard, Henri Rajbenbach
  • Patent number: 4967162
    Abstract: A traveling-wave device for amplification of RF signals at microwave frequencies, primarily from UHF to submillimeter wavelengths, comprised primarily of broad-coupled parallel striplines of which one is a cathode stripline and the other a non-intercepting gate stripline disposed between conducting plates. Electrons are emitted from the cathode stripline and accelerated by DC electric fields through the non-intercepting gate stripline on which the microwave signal is propagating in a transmission mode which has reversed directions of the microwave electric field on each side of the gate stripline. The odd mode component of the microwave electric field, between the gate stripline and cathode stripline, serves to modulate and/or stimulate electron emission from the cathode stripline and the reversed direction of the microwave electric field between the gate stripline and the conducting plate decelerates the electrons to add their energy to the propagating wave for amplification.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 28, 1988
    Date of Patent: October 30, 1990
    Assignee: Star Microwave
    Inventors: Larry R. Barnett, Robert M. Phillips
  • Patent number: 4610031
    Abstract: A receiver includes a surface acoustic wave amplifier provided in a high frequency amplification stage and generating two outputs corresponding to acoustic waves which propagate through said amplifier in the opposite directions. One of the outputs is demodulated by a phase locked loop demodulator or by a frequency discriminator and is applied to and controls a voltage control oscillator. Frequency modulated components of an output from the voltage control oscillator is used to produce frequency modulated components of a pumping power for the surface acoustic wave amplifier.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 22, 1984
    Date of Patent: September 2, 1986
    Assignee: Clarion Co., Ltd.
    Inventor: Masaharu Mori
  • Patent number: 4484144
    Abstract: A semiconductor light amplifier having an active layer performing a light amplification function, in which the light amplification is performed intermittently by a stable clock timing synchronized with the clock timing of an input light pulse train to the active layer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 1, 1981
    Date of Patent: November 20, 1984
    Assignee: Kokusai Denshin Denwq Kabushiki Kaisha
    Inventors: Yukio Nakagome, Kitsutaro Amano, Takaya Yamamoto
  • Patent number: 4461039
    Abstract: A biconical antenna, the halves of which are connected together at the apex by a pair anti-parallel diodes through a pair of parallel conductive whiskers or wires. A pair of quasi-optical lenses focuses energy from a local oscillator and from a submillimeter radio source, respectively, onto the diode pair in the end-fire and broadside direction, respectively. The diode pair spacing is equal to the half wavelength of the local oscillator energy. The local oscillator energy is common mode rejected and causes the incoming radio energy to be sampled by forward biasing the anti-parallel diode pair in synchronism with each zero crossing of the local oscillator energy. Accordingly, the local oscillator energy and noise virtually do not affect the current flow between the halves of the biconical antenna. The current flow represents an intermediate frequency signal corresponding to the difference in frequency between the incoming radio signal frequency and the local oscillator frequency.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 20, 1982
    Date of Patent: July 17, 1984
    Assignee: Hughes Aircraft Company
    Inventor: Michael S. Hersman
  • Patent number: 4426737
    Abstract: A receiver is provided with a surface elastic wave amplifier of a parametric amplification type within an HF amplifier unit, and with a circuit for providing pumping power for said surface elastic wave amplifier from oscillating outputs of an IF converting local oscillator of the receiver.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 3, 1982
    Date of Patent: January 17, 1984
    Assignee: Clarion Co., Ltd.
    Inventor: Masaharu Mori
  • Patent number: 4410833
    Abstract: A magnetron in which the space between the anode and cathode contains a h mobility semiconductor. The structure is non-cylindrically symmetric because the anode and cathode are placed on top of the semiconductor. The electrons are injected into the substrate and then accelerated toward the anode members where they are extracted. Alternate anode members are strapped together to favor excitation of the .pi.-mode.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 2, 1981
    Date of Patent: October 18, 1983
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the Secretary of the Navy
    Inventors: Achintya K. Ganguly, Denis C. Webb
  • Patent number: 4361814
    Abstract: A parametric amplifier including a semiconductor body portion (10) comprising a plurality of zones (11,13,15, . . . ) of a first conductivity type, each of the zones having a thickness less than or equal to the Debye length in the semiconductor body portion (11,13,15, . . . ), each of the zones being separated from one another by corresponding insulating layers (12,14, . . . ). The body portion has a first edge portion abutting a first edge of the plurality of zones, and a second edge portion abutting a second edge of the plurality of zones spaced apart from said first edge.A first interface (20) is provided adjacent the first edge portion for transmitting an electromagnetic wave into the semiconductor body portion for propagation therein; and a second interface (21) is provided adjacent the second edge portion for receiving an electromagnetic wave propagating in the body portion.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 29, 1980
    Date of Patent: November 30, 1982
    Assignee: Rockwell International Corporation
    Inventors: Sidney I. Soclof, Michael T. Elliott
  • Patent number: 4348650
    Abstract: A surface-acoustic-wave parametric device characterized in that a width of a parametric interaction region in a direction perpendicular to the propagation direction of surface acoustic wave is varied so as to correspond to a desired frequency characteristic.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 29, 1980
    Date of Patent: September 7, 1982
    Assignee: Clarion Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Shoichi Minagawa, Takeshi Okamoto
  • Patent number: 4317231
    Abstract: In a microwave circuit for a parametric upper sideband down converter with real image frequency termination conductance, including a pump circuit supplying a pump signal, a parallel circuit at its input, an intermediate frequency circuit at its output, and a reactance diode coupling the parallel circuit and intermediate frequency circuit together, the parallel circuit is tuned approximately to the frequency of the pump signal; the intermediate frequency circuit is composed of a .pi.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 18, 1980
    Date of Patent: February 23, 1982
    Assignee: Licentia Patent-Verwaltungs-G.m.b.H.
    Inventors: Robert Maurer, Walter Schau
  • Patent number: 4287605
    Abstract: First and second directional couplers each having a primary arm, a through arm and two secondary arms with a resonant circuit constructed to include the two secondary arms of each directional coupler. The directional filter forms a four port device with signals of a first frequency being applied to the first port and coupled to the fourth port by the resonant circuit, and signals applied to the third port being conveyed directly to the first port. Signals other than those at the first frequency are not coupled between the first and fourth ports.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 16, 1979
    Date of Patent: September 1, 1981
    Assignee: Motorola Inc.
    Inventor: Michael Dydyk
  • Patent number: 4254388
    Abstract: A frequency selector apparatus wherein unidirectional input and output surface-acoustic-wave transducers are provided in an acoustic wave propagation path formed on a piezoelectric device and reflecting electrodes, to which a.c. signals are applied respectively, are disposed in the acoustic wave propagation path on opposite sides of the transducers and adjacent thereto.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 12, 1979
    Date of Patent: March 3, 1981
    Assignee: Clarion Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Nobuo Mikoshiba, Shoichi Minagawa, Takeshi Okamoto
  • Patent number: 4232277
    Abstract: Disclosed is a means for obtaining a high Q oscillator which is compact and s adapted to be readily incorporated into known forms of microwave integrated circuits, e.g. a parametric amplifier. The oscillator which for example may comprise a pump oscillator for a parametric amplifier includes efficient means for coupling to microstrip without destroying the high Q of the oscillator circuit. The negative resistance elements which may be, for example, a Gunn diode, IMPATT diode or the like is located in a resonator cavity which is a combination of radial transmission line cavity and a rectangular waveguide cavity.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 9, 1979
    Date of Patent: November 4, 1980
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the Secretary of the Army
    Inventors: Lawrence E. Dickens, Douglas W. Maki
  • Patent number: 4160215
    Abstract: A single varactor diode parametric amplifier is described which has a broadband termination at the upper sideband frequency in the pump waveguide. This termination presents an open circuit condition at the upper sideband frequency, which, in combination with an upper sideband fequency choke on the input signal circuit transmission line achieves low noise, high gain characteristics with minimum interaction with the input signal, pump, and idler circuitry. Theoretical noise figures can be obtained at low power consumption, high gain, and broadband performance.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 28, 1978
    Date of Patent: July 3, 1979
    Assignee: Westinghouse Electric Corp.
    Inventor: Edward C. Niehenke
  • Patent number: 4158817
    Abstract: A microwave input circuit including a parametric upper sideband down converter for receiving an input signal whose frequency is not much different from the intermediate frequency produced at the output of the down converter. The down converter may be either of the series type or of the parallel type and has its signal input directly connected to a microwave antenna and terminated by the real antenna resistance (R.sub.g) or the real antenna conductance (G.sub.g), respectively, at the input signal frequency (f.sub.s1). The parametric down converter comprises a cascade connection of a parametric down converter stage and a parametric up converter stage with both of said stages being of the series type or of the parallel type. The down converter stage is terminated at its image frequency (f.sub.sp) with a real resistance (R.sub.sp) or a real conductance (G.sub.sp), respectively, and satisfies the following relationship for a series type down converter: ##EQU1## WHERE R.sub.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 22, 1977
    Date of Patent: June 19, 1979
    Assignee: Licentia Patent-Verwaltungs G.m.b.H.
    Inventor: Karl-Heinz Locherer
  • Patent number: 4138648
    Abstract: A wideband synchronously pumped parametric amplifier is described that features minimum time delay along with wide bandwidth, a low noise figure and cost for advantageous use in receivers designed to receive television signals from a satellite through a relatively small antenna, the amplifier obtaining maximum bandwidth by the use of two diodes in parallel and two double-tuned circuits, where the diode capacities are large enough to swamp parasitic and coupling capacitances.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 3, 1978
    Date of Patent: February 6, 1979
    Assignee: Hughes Aircraft Company
    Inventors: Thomas Hudspeth, Harmon H. Keeling
  • Patent number: 4131858
    Abstract: A parametric amplifier having a beam lead dual Schottky barrier diode fabricated on a single semiconductor chip across a waveguide cavity. Two anode leads are bonded to the adjacent waveguide walls for coupling to a pump source; and a common cathode lead is bonded to a signal circuit. Parasitic reactances are reduced by minimizing stray capacitance and beam lead series inductance.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 30, 1977
    Date of Patent: December 26, 1978
    Assignee: Westinghouse Electric Corp.
    Inventors: Edward C. Niehenke, Gerald I. Klein
  • Patent number: 4119921
    Abstract: Amplifier device for the UHF-TV band, assembled from cylindrical conductors which are coaxially arranged with respect to one another and connected to a tetrode. The screen grid is grounded and the control grid is provided with dc voltage connecting terminals required for setting the tetrode.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 29, 1977
    Date of Patent: October 10, 1978
    Assignee: U.S. Philips Corporation
    Inventors: Jozef Johannus Maria Warringa, Harry Piepers
  • Patent number: 4099228
    Abstract: A harmonic mixer utilizing an anti-parallel configuration of two diodes which, when excited by a voltage waveform V.sub.LO sin .omega..sub.LO t + V.sub.s sin .omega..sub.s t where V.sub.LO is much greater than V.sub.s, yields a terminal current having angular frequency components m .omega..sub.LO .+-. n .omega..sub.s with the restriction that m + n is an odd integer. The diode configuration results in low conversion loss mixing when the local oscillator frequency is a subharmonic of the usually required local oscillator frequency, suppression of local oscillator noise sideband effects without the use of filters or hybrid junctions, and suppression of direct video detection.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 30, 1976
    Date of Patent: July 4, 1978
    Assignee: Westinghouse Electric Corp.
    Inventor: Marvin Cohn
  • Patent number: 4061990
    Abstract: A frequency combining circuit in the form of a planar transmission circuit has a four-port directional coupler, two transmission lines respectively coupled to the forward and backward coupling ports of the directional coupler, and two filters respectively coupled to the two transmission lines, one of the two filters being further coupled to a load. By applying a first frequency signal to the coupler input port and applying a second frequency signal to the other one of the filters, the first and second frequency signals are combined in an excellent manner at the coupler output port of the coupler due to the provision of the two filters both of which reject the first frequency signal and pass therethrough the second frequency signal.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 26, 1976
    Date of Patent: December 6, 1977
    Assignee: Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd.
    Inventor: Tomoki Ueno
  • Patent number: 4051364
    Abstract: A photoparamp array multiplexer to provide photoparametric amplification in n array of photodiode diodes connected in parallel which essentially eliminates the need for an array of preamplifiers.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 6, 1976
    Date of Patent: September 27, 1977
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the Secretary of the Navy
    Inventors: Michael K. Giles, Myren L. Iverson
  • Patent number: 4030049
    Abstract: The specification discloses a low noise parametric amplifier for use with a radar receiver. A Gunn diode oscillator is provided to generate a pump frequency. A bandpass filter filters the pump frequency and applies the pump power through a waveguide having a reduced height portion employing a multisection Chebycheff transformer. A coaxial signal input line connects through the waveguide to a coaxial idler section which is provided to terminate the signal input line and to match the signal and idler frequencies. A varactor diode assembly is mounted on the center conductor of the signal input line and the idler section. A cup member is attached to the diode assembly for matching the parallel resonance of the diode assembly to the pump frequency.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 5, 1974
    Date of Patent: June 14, 1977
    Assignee: Texas Instruments Incorporated
    Inventors: David N. McQuiddy, Jr., Truman G. Blocker, III
  • Patent number: 4020341
    Abstract: Optical radiation generation and detection using metal-to-metal diode junctions. Coherent optical radiation is generated by using an antenna connected to a metal-to-metal diode junction with non-linear current-voltage characteristics and by coupling to the junction electromagnetic radiation energy to interact with the junction, causing emission from the antenna at optical frequency absent from the input. Optical diodes are shown in the forms of a mechanically contacted cat whisker system and as single and multiple microscopic solid portions in an integrated solid mass, defining both the antenna and the junction, preferably as a deposit of solid layers upon a substrate, preferably as overlapping printed circuit line structures. Arrays of such junctions provide enhanced effects; useful arrays include Franklin-Marconi geometries, fish-bone antennas and row and column arrays.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 11, 1975
    Date of Patent: April 26, 1977
    Assignee: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
    Inventor: Ali Javan
  • Patent number: 3992675
    Abstract: A parametric amplifier which includes series coupled diodes contained in a resonating wave guide for providing a low noise figure by limiting the impedance to the idler circuit and inhibiting current flow in the upper sideband circuit. The mechanism for inhibiting current flow of the upper sideband circuit is independent of the characteristic impedance of the resonating wave guide to provide a constant, low power requirement, with high gain and broadband performance.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 31, 1975
    Date of Patent: November 16, 1976
    Assignee: Westinghouse Electric Corporation
    Inventors: Edward C. Niehenke, Aldo E. Linsenbardt
  • Patent number: 3991373
    Abstract: An input circuit for use in a microwave receiving system. The input circuit includes an antenna for receiving the microwave signals and a parametric down converter, which operates in a lower side-band frequency position. The parametric down converter includes a mixing diode, a pump circuit, an input signal circuit and an output circuit. The input signal circuit of the parametric down converter is directly connected to the antenna so that the input signal circuit of the parametric down converter is terminated by the real portion of the antenna impedance. The impedance of the antenna is selected so that for p >> z (where p is the pump frequency and z is the intermediate frequency) the impedances of the antenna at the signal frequency p + z and at the reflective frequency p - z approach the same value.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 22, 1973
    Date of Patent: November 9, 1976
    Assignee: Licentia Patent-Verwaltungs-G.m.b.H.
    Inventors: Robert Maurer, Karl-Heinz Locherer
  • Patent number: 3950710
    Abstract: A wide band, in-line, microwave amplifier having a large gain bandwidth product includes a coaxial tetrode located within a cavity. High gain in a relatively short active section of the amplifier results from close placement of the tetrode control grid to the centrally located cathode. Wide bandwidth is afforded by constant dimensional relationships along the transmission section of the device and by matching the impedance of the device to the load fed by the device.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 17, 1970
    Date of Patent: April 13, 1976
    Assignee: The Bendix Corporation
    Inventor: Martin B. Covington, Jr.
  • Patent number: 3934208
    Abstract: The low noise parametric amplifier disclosed is a non-cryogenic non-redundant plural stage unit with excess gain such that failure of any one stage results in only minor degradation of signal-to-noise ratio. While the amplifier is of general application, it is specifically intended for use in the receiver of an unattended earth terminal of a satellite communication system. In this environment, reliability is achieved by employing a plurality of cascaded, modular parametric amplifier stages. Each stage includes a varactor diode, a pump circuit with its oscillator, a bias circuit, and temperature stabilizing circuitry employing a Peltier junction. The stages are connected to a multi-port circulator by quick disconnect couplings which permit the modular amplifier stages to be removed and replaced without any interruption in the operation of the amplifier.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 31, 1974
    Date of Patent: January 20, 1976
    Assignee: Communications Satellite Corporation (Comsat)
    Inventors: William J. Getsinger, Paul Koskos, Su Min Chou