Miscellaneous Oscillator Structures Patents (Class 331/187)
  • Patent number: 9418720
    Abstract: According to an embodiment, a pattern matching device includes unit cells, a circuit, and a measuring unit. Each unit cell includes a first magnetization reversal element used to store input data and including a first magnetic layer in which a direction of magnetization is variable, a second magnetization reversal element used to store template data and including a second magnetic layer in which a direction of magnetization is variable, and a spin-torque oscillator provided therebetween. The circuit applies a current to a selected spin-torque oscillator to acquire a high frequency signal from the selected spin-torque oscillator. The measuring unit measures a degree of matching between the input data and the template data based on the high frequency signal.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 27, 2016
    Date of Patent: August 16, 2016
    Assignee: KABUSHIKI KAISHA TOSHIBA
    Inventor: Kiwamu Kudo
  • Patent number: 8878618
    Abstract: A spin transfer oscillator including a magnetic stack including at least two magnetic layers, at least one of the two magnetic layers is an oscillating layer that has variable direction magnetization and a current supply device configured to cause the flow of a current of electrons perpendicularly to the plane of the magnetic stack. The magnetic stack includes a device to generate inhomogeneities of current at the level of the surface of the oscillating layer and the intensity of the current supplied by the supply device is selected such that the magnetization of the oscillating layer has a consistent magnetic configuration, the magnetic configuration oscillating as a whole at the same fundamental frequency.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 9, 2011
    Date of Patent: November 4, 2014
    Assignees: Commissariat a l'energie atomique et aux energies alternatives, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique
    Inventors: Claire Baraduc, Bernard Dieny, Christophe Thirion, Nicolas De Mestier Du Bourg
  • Patent number: 8821009
    Abstract: Methods and apparatuses for Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) resonator to monitor the platform temperature. Fabricating the resonator on a relatively low cost flexible polymer substrate rather than silicon provides mechanical flexibility as well as design flexibility with respect to sensor placement. Sensor readout and control circuits can be on silicon if desired, for example, a positive feedback amplifier to form an oscillator in conjunction with the resonator and a counter to count oscillator frequency.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 23, 2009
    Date of Patent: September 2, 2014
    Assignee: Intel Corporation
    Inventors: Mohamed A. Abdelmoneum, David A. Kaysen
  • Patent number: 8819473
    Abstract: The clock circuit of an integrated circuit operates with variations such as temperature, ground noise, and power noise. Various aspects of an improved clock integrated circuit address one or more of the variations in temperature, ground noise, and power noise.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 1, 2013
    Date of Patent: August 26, 2014
    Assignee: Macronix International Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Chung-Kuang Chen, Chun-Hsiung Hung, Han-Sung Chen
  • Patent number: 8798198
    Abstract: A calibration system may be provided for calibrating wireless communications circuitry in an electronic device during manufacturing. The calibration system may include data acquisition equipment for receiving an amplitude-modulated calibration signal from the electronic device. The calibration system may include calibration computing equipment for extracting pre-distortion coefficients from the amplitude-modulated calibration signal. The calibration computing equipment may be configured to detect a bulk phase drift in the amplitude-modulated calibration signal. The calibration computing equipment may be configured to remove the bulk phase drift from the amplitude-modulated calibration signal. The wireless communications circuitry may include a power amplifier that distorts a signal generated by the wireless communications circuitry. The wireless communications circuitry may include a pre-distortion compensator for countering the distortion.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 31, 2011
    Date of Patent: August 5, 2014
    Assignee: Apple Inc.
    Inventor: Gary Lang Do
  • Patent number: 8754717
    Abstract: An oscillator and a method of operating the same are provided, the oscillator may include a free layer, a pinned layer on a first surface of the free layer, and a reference layer on a second surface of the free layer. The free layer may have a variable magnetization direction. The pinned layer may have a pinned magnetization direction. The reference layer may have a magnetization direction non-parallel to the magnetization direction of the pinned layer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 28, 2011
    Date of Patent: June 17, 2014
    Assignee: Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Sung-chul Lee, Sun-ae Seo, Un-hwan Pi, Kee-won Kim, Kwang-seok Kim
  • Publication number: 20140139952
    Abstract: According to one embodiment, there is provided a thin magnetic film having a negative anisotropy of ?6×106 erg/cm3 or less and including, on at least a nonmagnetic substrate, at least one seed layer made of a metal or metal compound, a ruthenium underlayer for controlling the orientation of an immediately overlying layer, and a magnetic layer having negative anisotropy in the normal line direction perpendicular to a surface of the magnetic layer and mainly containing Co and Ir, wherein the additive element concentration of Ir in the magnetic layer is 10 (inclusive) to 45 (inclusive) at %.
    Type: Application
    Filed: July 19, 2013
    Publication date: May 22, 2014
    Inventors: Akihiko Takeo, Akira Kikitsu, Tomoyuki Maeda, Migaku Takahashi, Shin Saito, Ken Inoue, Gohei Kurokawa
  • Patent number: 8604886
    Abstract: A spin torque oscillator and a method of making same. The spin torque oscillator is configured to generate microwave electrical oscillations without the use of a magnetic field external thereto, the spin torque oscillator having one of a plurality of input nanopillars and a nanopillar having a plurality of free FM layers.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 20, 2010
    Date of Patent: December 10, 2013
    Assignee: Intel Corporation
    Inventors: Dmitri E. Nikonov, George I. Bourianoff
  • Patent number: 8598957
    Abstract: Oscillators and methods of manufacturing and operating an oscillator are provided, the oscillators include a base free layer having a variable magnetization direction, and at least one oscillation unit on the base free layer. The oscillation unit may include a free layer element contacting the base free layer and having a width less than a width of the base free layer, a pinned layer element separated from the free layer element, and a separation layer element between the free layer element and the pinned layer element. A plurality of oscillation units may be arranged on the base free layer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 11, 2011
    Date of Patent: December 3, 2013
    Assignee: Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Sung-chul Lee, Ung-hwan Pi, Kee-won Kim, Kwang-seok Kim
  • Patent number: 8542072
    Abstract: A radio-frequency oscillator incorporates a magnetoresistive device within which an electron current is able to flow. The device includes a stack including: a magnetic trapped layer, the magnetization of which is of substantially fixed direction; a magnetic free layer; and a non-magnetic intermediate layer-interposed between the free layer and the trapped layer. The oscillator also includes a mechanism capable of making an electron current flow in the layers constituting the stack and in a direction perpendicular to the plane which contains the layers. At least the free layer is devoid of any material at its center. The electron current density flowing through the stack is capable of generating a magnetization in the free layer in a micromagnetic configuration in the shape of a skewed vortex flowing in the free layer around the center of the free layer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 26, 2011
    Date of Patent: September 24, 2013
    Assignee: Commissariat a l'Energie Automique et aux Energies Alternatives
    Inventors: Bernard Dieny, Marie-Claire Cyrille, Ursula Ebels, Liliana Prejbeanu
  • Patent number: 8421545
    Abstract: Oscillators and methods of operating the same, the oscillators include a pinned layer having a fixed magnetization direction, a first free layer over the pinned layer, and a second free layer over the first free layer. The oscillators are configured to generate a signal using precession of a magnetic moment of at least one of the first and second free layers.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 3, 2011
    Date of Patent: April 16, 2013
    Assignee: Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Kwang-seok Kim, Sung-chul Lee, Kee-won Kim, Sun-ae Seo, Ung-hwan Pi
  • Patent number: 8324975
    Abstract: A measurement system for capturing a transit time, phase, or frequency of energy waves propagating through a propagation medium (702) is disclosed. The measurement system comprises two different closed-loop feedback paths. The first path includes a transducer driver (726), a transducer (704), a propagation structure (702), a transducer (706), and a zero-crossing receiver (740). The series and parallel resonance of the transducer (704) does not overlap the series and parallel resonance of the transducer (706). A second path includes a transducer driver (1126), a transducer (1104), a propagation medium (1102), a reflecting surface (1106), and an edge-detect receiver (1140). Each positive closed-loop path maintains the emission, propagation, and detection of energy waves in the propagation medium (702, 1102). In either path, a propagation tuned oscillator maintains positive closed-loop feedback of the system that sustains detection, emission, and propagation of energy waves or pulses in a medium.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 29, 2010
    Date of Patent: December 4, 2012
    Inventor: Marc Stein
  • Patent number: 8261120
    Abstract: The clock circuit of an integrated circuit operates with variations such as temperature, ground noise, and power noise. Various aspects of an improved clock integrated circuit address one or more of the variations in temperature, ground noise, and power noise.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 4, 2009
    Date of Patent: September 4, 2012
    Assignee: Macronix International Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Chung-Kuang Chen, Chun-Hsiung Hung, Han-Sung Chen
  • Patent number: 8245074
    Abstract: The clock circuit of an integrated circuit operates with variations such as temperature, ground noise, and power noise. Various aspects of an improved clock integrated circuit address one or more of the variations in temperature, ground noise, and power noise.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 4, 2009
    Date of Patent: August 14, 2012
    Assignee: Macronix International Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Chung-Kuang Chen, Chun-Hsiung Hung, Han-Sung Chen
  • Publication number: 20120126904
    Abstract: Oscillators and methods of manufacturing and operating an oscillator are provided, the oscillators include a base free layer having a variable magnetization direction, and at least one oscillation unit on the base free layer. The oscillation unit may include a free layer element contacting the base free layer and having a width less than a width of the base free layer, a pinned layer element separated from the free layer element, and a separation layer element between the free layer element and the pinned layer element. A plurality of oscillation units may be arranged on the base free layer.
    Type: Application
    Filed: August 11, 2011
    Publication date: May 24, 2012
    Applicant: SAMSUNG ELECTRONICS CO., LTD.
    Inventors: Sung-chul Lee, Ung-hwan Pi, Kee-won Kim, Kwang-seok Kim
  • Patent number: 8081037
    Abstract: An apparatus including a ring oscillator and related methods are disclosed. The ring oscillator includes at least two ring loops. A first ring loop includes a plurality of series coupled delay cells. At least one additional ring loop includes a plurality of series coupled delay cells. The at least one additional ring loop is coupled to the first ring loop by one or more common delay cells shared between the first ring loop and the at least one additional ring loops.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 11, 2008
    Date of Patent: December 20, 2011
    Assignee: QUALCOMM Incorporated
    Inventors: Jonghae Kim, Lew G. Chua-Eoan, Matthew Nowak
  • Patent number: 8031022
    Abstract: Provided are an MIT device-based oscillation circuit including a power source, an MIT device and a variable resistor, in which a generation of an oscillation and an oscillation frequency are determined according to a voltage applied from the power source and a resistance of the variable resistor, and a method of adjusting the oscillation frequency of the oscillation circuit. The MIT device includes an MIT thin film and an electrode thin film connected to the MIT thin film, and generates a discontinuous MIT at an MIT generation voltage, the variable resistor is connected in series to the MIT device, and the power source applies a voltage or an electric current to the MIT device. The generation of an oscillation and an oscillation frequency are determined according to the voltage applied from the power source and the resistance of the variable resistor.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 5, 2008
    Date of Patent: October 4, 2011
    Assignee: Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute
    Inventors: Yong-Wook Lee, Bong-Jun Kim, Hyun-Tak Kim, Sung-Youl Choi, Byung-Gyu Chae, Jung-Wook Lim, Sun-Jin Yun
  • Patent number: 8031014
    Abstract: A nonlinear solid-state device useful for frequency conversion of electromagnetic radiation and in particular for harmonic generation, comprising a waveguiding electromagnetically distributed structure (WEDS) which includes monolithically a synthetic nonlinear material (SNM). Input radiation coupled into the WEDS is converted into a higher frequency output radiation through a constricted oscillatory motion of charge carriers and phase matched harmonic frequency generation of radiation which builds up coherently over an interaction length many time larger than the radiation wavelengths. In one embodiment, microwave radiation is converted into terahertz radiation. In other embodiments, SNM based WEDS devices are adapted for frequency mixing and parametric oscillation.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 23, 2009
    Date of Patent: October 4, 2011
    Inventors: Avraham Gover, Menachem Nathan, Yotam Schatzberg
  • Patent number: 8031021
    Abstract: Provided are an oscillatory circuit based on a metal-insulator transition (MIT) device that can generate a simple and very high oscillating frequency using the MIT device, and a method of driving the oscillatory circuit. The oscillatory circuit includes the MIT device that comprises an MIT thin film and an electrode thin film connected to the MIT thin film and in which an abrupt MIT is generated due to an MIT generating voltage, a resistor that is serially connected to the MIT device, an electric al power source limiting the maximum amount of an applied current and applying a direct current constant voltage to the MIT device, and a light source irradiating electromagnetic waves on the MIT device, wherein the oscillating properties are generated by irradiating the electromagnetic waves using the light source.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 31, 2007
    Date of Patent: October 4, 2011
    Assignee: Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute
    Inventors: Yong-Wook Lee, Bongjun Kim, Sungyoul Choi, Jungwook Lim, Sun-Jin Yun, Byung-Gyu Chae, Hyun-Tak Kim, Gyungock Kim
  • Patent number: 7983361
    Abstract: A clock data recovery circuit. The clock data recovery circuit comprises a transmission line, a phase locked loop, a voltage controlled oscillator, a phase selector, and a D flip-flop. The transmission line receives an input signal. The phase locked loop receives the input signal via the transmission line and a reference clock and generates a first clock signal. The voltage controlled oscillator receives the input signal via the transmission line and a control voltage from an internal node of the phase locked loop, and generates a clock signal. The phase selector receives the input signal via the transmission line and the clock signal from the voltage controlled oscillator, and generates a clock output signal. The D flip-flop receives the input signal via the transmission line and the clock output signal, and generates a data output signal.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 17, 2007
    Date of Patent: July 19, 2011
    Assignees: Mediatek Inc., National Taiwan University
    Inventors: Shen-Iuan Liu, Chih-Hung Lee, Lan-Chou Cho
  • Publication number: 20110133849
    Abstract: A voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO), specifically, a low phase noise VCO using metamaterial transmission lines including a signal plane on which transmission lines are etched in an interdigital fashion is provided. Though high quality resonators based on a metamaterial structure, improvement of the phase noise of the VCO and circuit miniaturization are achieved.
    Type: Application
    Filed: June 7, 2010
    Publication date: June 9, 2011
    Applicants: Soongsil University Research Consortium Techno-PARK, Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute
    Inventors: Jae-Won Choi, Chul-Hun Seo, Young-Jun Chong, Jae-Ick Choi
  • Publication number: 20110038198
    Abstract: The present invention generally relates to magnetic devices used in memory and information processing applications, such as giant magneto-resistance (GMR) devices and tunneling magneto-resistance devices. More specifically, the present invention is directed to a single ferromagnetic layer device in which an electrical current is used to control and change magnetic configurations as well as induce high frequency magnetization dynamics. The magnetic layer includes full spin-polarized magnetic material, which may also have non-uniform magnetization. The non-uniform magnetization is achieved by varying the shape or roughness of the magnetic material. The present invention may be used in memory cells, as well as high frequency electronics, such as compact microwave sources, detectors, mixers and phase shifters.
    Type: Application
    Filed: November 5, 2007
    Publication date: February 17, 2011
    Applicant: New York University
    Inventors: Andrew Kent, Barbaros Ozyilmaz
  • Patent number: 7884680
    Abstract: One embodiment relates to a circuit for active loss compensation. The circuit includes a parallel inductor-capacitive (LC) tank circuit having a first single-ended output. A first adjustable capacitor, which includes a first terminal and a second terminal, is coupled to the first single-ended output. The circuit also includes a first pair of transistors having sources coupled to a first common node. One transistor of the first pair of transistors has a drain coupled to the first single-ended output and the other transistor of the first pair of transistors has a gate coupled to the second terminal of the first adjustable capacitor. Other embodiments are also disclosed.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 30, 2008
    Date of Patent: February 8, 2011
    Assignee: Infineon Technologies AG
    Inventors: Alfred Raidl, Christoph Schmits, Wolfgang Thomann
  • Publication number: 20100331718
    Abstract: A measurement system for capturing a transit time, phase, or frequency of energy waves propagating through a propagation medium (702) is disclosed. The measurement system comprises two different closed-loop feedback paths. The first path includes a transducer driver (726), a transducer (704), a propagation structure (702), a transducer (706), and a zero-crossing receiver (740). The series and parallel resonance of the transducer (704) does not overlap the series and parallel resonance of the transducer (706). A second path includes a transducer driver (1126), a transducer (1104), a propagation medium (1102), a reflecting surface (1106), and an edge-detect receiver (1140). Each positive closed-loop path maintains the emission, propagation, and detection of energy waves in the propagation medium (702, 1102). In either path, a propagation tuned oscillator maintains positive closed-loop feedback of the system that sustains detection, emission, and propagation of energy waves or pulses in a medium.
    Type: Application
    Filed: June 29, 2010
    Publication date: December 30, 2010
    Applicant: OrthoSensor
    Inventor: Marc Stein
  • Patent number: 7859349
    Abstract: The present invention is related to a device and corresponding methods for generating an oscillating signal. The device comprises a means for providing a current of spin polarised charge carriers, a magnetic, e.g. ferromagnetic, excitable layer adapted for receiving the generated current of spin polarised charge carriers thus generating an oscillating signal with a frequency Vosc and an integrated means for interacting with said magnetic, e.g. ferromagnetic, excitable layer such that a selection of said oscillation frequency is achieved. No external field needs to be applied to select or tune the frequency. Different types of integrated means can be used, such as e.g. means inducing mechanical stress in the magnetic, e.g. ferromagnetic, excitable layer, means inducing exchange bias interactions and means inducing magnetostatic interactions.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 24, 2004
    Date of Patent: December 28, 2010
    Assignee: IMEC
    Inventors: Wouter Eyckmans, Liesbet Lagae
  • Patent number: 7839229
    Abstract: The present invention provides a voltage-controlled oscillator operating from microwave frequencies to millimeter wave frequencies, which is capable of outputting a large power with an output impedance thereof being set up to a predetermined level at low power consumption, and a communication device using the same.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 5, 2007
    Date of Patent: November 23, 2010
    Assignee: Hitachi, Ltd.
    Inventors: Takahiro Nakamura, Toru Masuda
  • Patent number: 7808330
    Abstract: A high-frequency oscillator includes a high-frequency oscillation element having a magnetization pinned layer whose magnetization direction is pinned substantially in one direction, an oscillation layer formed of a magnetic material which generates a high-frequency oscillation phenomenon when a current is supplied, an intermediate layer provided between the magnetization pinned layer and the oscillation layer, the intermediate layer having an insulation layer and current paths which pass through the insulation layer in a thickness direction, and a pair of electrodes which supply a current perpendicularly to a plane of a stacked film including the magnetization pinned layer, the intermediate layer and the oscillation layer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 7, 2008
    Date of Patent: October 5, 2010
    Assignee: Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba
    Inventors: Hideaki Fukuzawa, Hiromi Yuasa, Hitoshi Iwasaki
  • Patent number: 7804373
    Abstract: A method of fabricating a hermetic terminal includes: joining and firing wherein a bar-shaped member to be a lead is inserted into a ring, and they are fired to form a hermetic terminal intermediate having the bar-shaped member fixed in the ring; flattening wherein an end part of the bar-shaped member to be the inner lead portion of the lead is flattened to form a stair portion; and shaping wherein an end part of the stair portion is cut to shape the stair portion into a predetermined shape, wherein in the joining and firing step, a solid round bar longer than the lead is used as the bar-shaped member, and one end side of the bar-shaped member to be the inner lead portion is inserted into the ring so that the one end side is longer than the inner lead portion in the hermetic terminal as a completed product.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 8, 2008
    Date of Patent: September 28, 2010
    Assignee: Seiko Instruments Inc.
    Inventors: Masashi Numata, Yasuo Kawada
  • Patent number: 7795984
    Abstract: Apparatus to generate signals with multiple phases are described. The apparatus includes a fixed multilayer stack providing a varying magnetic field and at least two sensors adjacent the fixed multilayer stack to sense the varying magnetic field and generate at least two output signals. The frequency of the output signals can be tuned by an input current.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 4, 2008
    Date of Patent: September 14, 2010
    Assignee: Seagate Technology, LLC
    Inventors: Haiwen Xi, Dian Song, Song S. Xue
  • Patent number: 7541885
    Abstract: The present invention “Infinite Radio Frequency Spectrum Transceiver” (IRFS for short) relates to a circuit that emits and receives the complete radio frequency spectrum transmission as it exists from 0 hertz to the region where radio frequency ends to j the infrared. Such a circuit causes infinite bandwidth output gain evenly over the entire radio frequency spectrum, can be readily used as a noise source, where such output even gain across the spectrum. Such circuit in its simplest form can be used as a noise source, subsequent use of single circuits organized in series or parallel increase power where they can readily be used as a radio frequency jamming array. Additional insertion into specific points of the circuit can be used to transmit a signal across the bandwidth where such signal takes on the attributes of all frequencies and appears as higher and lower frequency as amplitude gain at such points across the bandwidth. Additional use of various filters can restrict the frequency of transmission.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 6, 2007
    Date of Patent: June 2, 2009
    Inventor: John Mecca
  • Patent number: 7515010
    Abstract: A nanoscale oscillation device is disclosed, wherein two nanoscale droplets are altered in size by mass transport, then contact each other and merge through surface tension. The device may also comprise a channel having an actuator responsive to mechanical oscillation caused by expansion and contraction of the droplets. It further has a structure for delivering atoms between droplets, wherein the droplets are nanoparticles. Provided are a first particle and a second particle on the channel member, both being made of a chargeable material, the second particle contacting the actuator portion; and electrodes connected to the channel member for delivering a potential gradient across the channel and traversing the first and second particles. The particles are spaced apart a specified distance so that atoms from one particle are delivered to the other particle by mass transport in response to the potential (e.g.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 6, 2005
    Date of Patent: April 7, 2009
    Assignee: The Regents of the University of California
    Inventors: Alexander K. Zettl, Brian C. Regan, Shaul Aloni
  • Patent number: 7504898
    Abstract: A high-frequency oscillator includes a high-frequency oscillation element having a magnetization pinned layer whose magnetization direction is pinned substantially in one direction, an oscillation layer formed of a magnetic material which generates a high-frequency oscillation phenomenon when a current is supplied, an intermediate layer provided between the magnetization pinned layer and the oscillation layer, the intermediate layer having an insulation layer and current paths which pass through the insulation layer in a thickness direction, and a pair of electrodes which supply a current perpendicularly to a plane of a stacked film including the magnetization pinned layer, the intermediate layer and the oscillation layer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 21, 2006
    Date of Patent: March 17, 2009
    Assignee: Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba
    Inventors: Hideaki Fukuzawa, Hiromi Yuasa, Hitoshi Iwasaki
  • Patent number: 7250822
    Abstract: An oscillator circuit and a method of generating an oscillating signal are disclosed. An oscillator comprises a first flip-flop and a second flip-flop coupled with the first flip-flop to provide an oscillating signal. A method of generating an oscillating signal comprises providing the oscillating signal as a first clock input to a first flip flop, inverting the oscillating signal and providing the inverted oscillating signal as a second clock input to a second flip flop, using the output of the first flip flop and the output of the second flip flop to generate a combined output that alternates between a logic low level and a logic high level, and using the combined output to sustain the oscillation of the oscillating signal.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 19, 2005
    Date of Patent: July 31, 2007
    Assignee: RadioFrame Networks, Inc.
    Inventor: Pierce Keating
  • Patent number: 7246022
    Abstract: A method includes detecting a change in temperature in an integrated circuit that is coupled to a differential communication link, and responding to the detected change in temperature by initiating a retraining process for the differential communication link.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 20, 2005
    Date of Patent: July 17, 2007
    Assignee: Intel Corporation
    Inventors: James A. McCall, Klaus Ruff, David Shykind
  • Patent number: 7135978
    Abstract: A miniature resonating marker assembly that includes, in one embodiment, a ferromagnetic core, a wire coil disposed around the core, and a capacitor connected to the wire coil adjacent to the magnetic core. The core, coil, and capacitor form a signal element that, when energized, generates a magnetic field at a selected resonant frequency. The magnetic field has a magnetic center point positioned along at least one axis of the signal element. An inert encapsulation member encapsulates the signal element therein and defines a geometric shape of the resonating marker assembly. The geometric shape has a geometric center point substantially coincident with the magnetic center point along at least a first axis of the signal element. The shape and configuration of the assembly also provides for a miniature signal element specifically tuned to resonate at a selected frequency with a high quality factor.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 14, 2001
    Date of Patent: November 14, 2006
    Assignee: Calypso Medical Technologies, Inc.
    Inventors: Margo Gisselberg, Eric Hadford, Steven C. Dimmer, Jack Goldberg, Jeff Pelton, Kurt Zublin
  • Patent number: 6975174
    Abstract: An oscillator circuit and a method of generating an oscillating signal are disclosed. An oscillator comprises a first flip-flop and a second flip-flop coupled with the first flip-flop to provide an oscillating signal. A method of generating an oscillating signal comprises providing the oscillating signal as a first clock input to a first flip flop, inverting the oscillating signal and providing the inverted oscillating signal as a second clock input to a second flip flop, using the output of the first flip flop and the output of the second flip flop to generate a combined output that alternates between a logic low level and a logic high level, and using the combined output to sustain the oscillation of the oscillating signal.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 30, 2003
    Date of Patent: December 13, 2005
    Assignee: RadioFrame Networks, Inc.
    Inventor: Pierce Keating
  • Patent number: 6967539
    Abstract: An oscillator to generate a low phase-noise reference signal at an oscillation frequency includes a frequency generator to generate the reference signal responsive to a control signal, and a delay element made of a high-temperature superconductor material. The delay element time-delays the reference signal and provides a low phase-noise time-delayed reference signal when cooled to a cryogenic temperature. The oscillator includes a phase detector to generate the control signal from a phase difference between the time-delayed reference signal and a phase-shifted reference signal. The delay element may comprise a coplanar waveguide having a length between 500 and 1000 meters arranged randomly on a substrate having a diameter of between five and thirteen centimeters. The delay element may provide a delay ranging from five to fifteen microseconds. The coplanar waveguide may be comprised of Yttrium-Barium-Copper Oxide disposed on either a Lanthanum-Aluminum Oxide or a Magnesium Oxide substrate.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 18, 2003
    Date of Patent: November 22, 2005
    Assignee: Raytheon Company
    Inventors: Michael R. Beylor, Wesley H. Dwelly, Vinh Adams, Dennis C. Braunreiter, Harry A. Schmitt
  • Patent number: 6946922
    Abstract: A crystal oscillation device includes a crystal oscillator including a package with first connecting electrodes provided on a flat bottom surface mounted on a flat, thin circuit board. Circuit components and second connecting electrodes provided in one-to-one correspondence with the first connecting electrodes are mounted on one principal surface of the circuit board. The crystal oscillator is supported by top surfaces of a transistor and a varicap diode that are the highest among the circuit components mounted on the circuit board. The crystal oscillator and the circuit board are electrically connected with solder provided between the first and second connecting electrodes. The solder also attracts the crystal oscillator toward the circuit board.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 26, 2003
    Date of Patent: September 20, 2005
    Assignee: Murata Manufacturing Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Tadaji Takemura, Yasushi Okumura
  • Patent number: 6943635
    Abstract: A voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO) formed upon a substrate with a first inductor being offset from a second inductor in one of three dimensions and forming a common area that may contain at least one of a varactor, capacitor, oscillator, or switch.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 30, 2003
    Date of Patent: September 13, 2005
    Assignee: Conexant Systems, Inc.
    Inventor: Robert S. Kaltenecker
  • Patent number: 6381291
    Abstract: A novel phase detector for use in a timing recovery circuit of pulse amplitude modulation communication system. A filter internal to the phase detector as preliminary stage for operating on a signal stream of pulse-shaped symbols to reduce pattern-dependent jitter of the output of the phase detector. The filter may have plural taps, delays, multipliers, and summers.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 28, 1998
    Date of Patent: April 30, 2002
    Assignee: Harris Corporation
    Inventor: Dong Hong Yom
  • Patent number: 6064947
    Abstract: A successive approximation system and method for calibrating an oscillator in a time base generator application. An oscillator output frequency is compared to a reference frequency. Control logic calibrates an input control current to the oscillator, one bit at a time, through a digital-to-analog converter. The calibrated input control current corrects central frequency errors in the oscillator. Successive approximation continues until all bits are tested.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 27, 1997
    Date of Patent: May 16, 2000
    Assignee: Texas Instruments Incorporated
    Inventors: Bo Sun, Kirby Lam, Rodney Masumoto
  • Patent number: 5966052
    Abstract: Four generally quadrant-like indentations are formed at the corners of a substrate. A conductive member is applied to the inner surfaces of the indentations to form input and output terminals, namely a power voltage terminal, a voltage control terminal, a modulation terminal, and an output terminal. By placing these terminals at the corners of the substrate, sufficient distances are provided between the input terminals and the output terminals so as to prevent interference between these terminals.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 9, 1998
    Date of Patent: October 12, 1999
    Assignee: Murata Manufacturing Co., Ltd.
    Inventor: Ken Sakai
  • Patent number: 5905759
    Abstract: A data decoding circuit of the present invention can regenerate a bit synchronization signal from a data received by using a code such as a split-phase code and Manchester code in which a binary value can be detected through a transition of voltage at a central area of a bit cell and transform the received data into a serial binary data. The data decoding circuit includes an edge detection section for detecting a transition point in the received data; a pulse generating section for generating a phase comparing timing signal having a pulse width of substantially 1/(4.times.fs) when fs is a data transfer frequency and a received data regenerating signal having a pulse width of substantially 1(2.times.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 7, 1996
    Date of Patent: May 18, 1999
    Assignee: Seiko Epson Corporation
    Inventors: Takuya Ishida, Kanji Aoki
  • Patent number: 5903601
    Abstract: A power reduction system for a UART system having a controllable oscillator for producing free-running clock signals. A controlled clock synchronizer having an output terminal is coupled to the oscillator and responsive to both a first control signal thereto and application of the free-running clock signals thereto to provide synchronized pulses and is responsive to both a second control signal different from the first control signal thereto and application of the free-running clock signals thereto to cease production of the synchronized pulses at the output terminal. A UART core controls the oscillator and the clock synchronizer and is operated under control of clock signals from the clock synchronizer. The controllable oscillator includes an inverter having a feedback circuit thereacross including a switch responsive to the third control signal to cause the oscillator to cease oscillation.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 17, 1996
    Date of Patent: May 11, 1999
    Assignee: Texas Instruments Incorporated
    Inventors: Khodor S. Elnashar, Mahmoud M. Yazdani, Clarence D. Lewis
  • Patent number: 5608358
    Abstract: To obtain a stable non-linear oscillator using polypyrrole, KCl liquid electrolyte is separated with a working electrode 14 provided with a polypyrrole film 14a. A counter electrode 16 is provided on one of the separated portions of the liquid electrolyte, and a reference electrode 12 is provided in the other separated liquid electrode portion. The counter electrode 16, working electrode 14 and reference electrode 12 are connected to a potentiostat 10. The potential on the working electrode 14 is set to be between the oxidizing and reducing potentials of polypyrrole. With oxidizing or reducing reaction of polypyrrole, an ion concentration gradient is produced in the liquid electrolyte across polypyrrole film to change the potentials on the reference and working electrodes 12 and 14, thus causing an oscillating current between the working and counter electrodes 14 and 16.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 27, 1995
    Date of Patent: March 4, 1997
    Assignee: Sanyo Electric Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Masahiro Iseki, Yukihiro Sugiyama
  • Patent number: 5546432
    Abstract: A method and apparatus for attenuating jitter in digital signals. A recovered clock is derived from the digital signal and the digital signal is stored in a buffer. The derived clock is input to an input counter which counts a predetermined number of degrees out of phase with an output counter. When the input counter is at a maximum counter value, the output counter value is latched to the address inputs of a ROM look-up table, which outputs a coefficient to a numerically controlled oscillator (NCO). The NCO includes a low frequency portion that adds the coefficient successively to itself and outputs a carry out (CO) signal. A high frequency portion of the NCO receives a high frequency clock and preferably divides down the high frequency clock to a clock frequency which is centered at the desired output frequency. The high frequency portion preferably includes an edge detect circuit that receives the CO signal and adjusts the frequency of the output clock to produce a compensation clock.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 7, 1995
    Date of Patent: August 13, 1996
    Assignee: VLSI Technology, Inc.
    Inventor: Michael R. Waters
  • Patent number: 5541557
    Abstract: A piezoelectric resonator is formed with a case and a stem for housing the piezoelectric vibrating portion thereof. The case and stem are coupled by press-fitting and the interface is coated with a high temperature solder containing at least 90% lead. An inner lead of the resonator is also coated with the solder and a portion of the vibrator is fixed to the lead by melting the solder. Alternative constructions employ a resin case or a metallic plate case and a configuration in which an integrated circuit and a piezoelectric vibrator are integrally molded to achieve a highly desirable mounting configuration.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 7, 1995
    Date of Patent: July 30, 1996
    Assignee: Seiko Epson Corporation
    Inventors: Tatsuo Ikeda, Hiroyuki Ogiso, Kazushige Ichinose
  • Patent number: 5504460
    Abstract: A piezoelectric resonator is formed with a case and a stem for housing the piezoelectric vibrating portion thereof. The case and stem are coupled by press-fitting and the interface is coated with a high temperature solder containing at least 90% lead. An inner lead of the resonator is also coated with the solder and a portion of the vibrator is fixed to the lead by melting the solder. Alternative constructions employ a resin case or a metallic plate case and a configuration in which an integrated circuit and a piezoelectric vibrator are integrally molded to achieve a highly desirable mounting configuration.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 5, 1994
    Date of Patent: April 2, 1996
    Assignee: Seiko Epson Corporation
    Inventors: Tatsuo Ikeda, Hiroyuki Ogiso, Kazushige Ichinose
  • Patent number: 5490182
    Abstract: A phase-locked loop circuit has a ring oscillator comprising a plurality of 1st, 2nd, . . . , nth inverter chains composed of series-connected 21, 22, . . . , 2n inverters (n.gtoreq.2), respectively, an (n+1)th inverter chain composed of an odd number of series-connected inverters, and a plurality of 1st-nth selectors associated with the 1st-nth inverter chains, respectively, for selectively outputting input signals to and output signals from the 1st-nth inverter chains, the 1st-nth inverter chains being combined respectively with the 1st-nth selectors in respective combinations, the combinations and the (n+1)th inverter chain being connected in a ring configuration. A phase comparator compares an input clock signal and an oscillated clock signal from the ring oscillator in phase, and applies an output signal to a control circuit which controls the 1st-nth selectors to synchronize the oscillated clock signal with the input clock signal.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 24, 1994
    Date of Patent: February 6, 1996
    Assignee: NEC Corporation
    Inventor: Masanobu Arai
  • Patent number: 5430764
    Abstract: A direct digital frequency synthesizer employs residue number system based processors to generate output waveforms of desired frequencies. The frequency synthesizer includes a phase accumulator comprising a plurality of individual adders, each adding a predefined quantity to a digit of a frequency setting word in which the individual digits are residue digits of differing moduli. The outputs of the independent adders form a combined residue output word which is used to address a memory storing signal samples. In one embodiment of the invention, the memory is a dual port ROM storing samples of one-quarter of a sine wave and the dual port ROM is simultaneously addressed to read a selected sample and an associated sample corresponding to the magnitude of a sample of the sine wave advanced by 90.degree. from the first sample.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 1, 1993
    Date of Patent: July 4, 1995
    Assignee: Grand Valley State University
    Inventor: William A. Chren, Jr.