Abstract: A method of sequestering carbon dioxide emissions during recovery of hydrocarbons from hydrocarbonaceous materials can include forming a constructed permeability control infrastructure. This constructed infrastructure defines a substantially encapsulated volume. A comminuted hydrocarbonaceous material can be introduced into the control infrastructure to form a permeable body of hydrocarbonaceous material. The permeable body can be heated sufficient to remove hydrocarbons therefrom. During heating, the hydrocarbonaceous material is substantially stationary as the constructed infrastructure is a fixed structure. Additionally, during heating, any carbon dioxide that is produced can be sequestered. Removed hydrocarbons can be collected for further processing, use in the process, and/or use as recovered.
Abstract: Exemplary embodiments describe a clothes drying apparatus and a method for using a clothes drying apparatus. The clothes drying apparatus can include a base portion with at least one blower. A drying chamber can be positioned above the base portion. A clothing frame can be housed within the drying chamber; the clothing frame having at least one vertical support member extending from the base portion, and at least one horizontal support frame member. A top portion can be removably coupled to the drying chamber.
Abstract: The present invention relates to an apparatus and processing method for drying lumber, for example two-by-four studs in an environment in a kiln in a manner to avoid warping, including crook, bow, cup and twist. The lumber pieces are stacked in a normal manner with stickers for providing air flow between courses of the lumber pieces, and the stack is dried while a horizontal force is provided to the respective courses of lumber in the stack to hold the individual pieces of lumber in edge to edge contact throughout the drying, equalizing, conditioning and cooling process for first drying of lumber, redrying of lumber or in a treatment process for removing warp from previously dried lumber. A vertical force comprising a weight or other force generating device can be also applied to the stack of lumber to augment the overall reduction in warpage if so evidenced.
Abstract: A separator for separating stacked sheets of lumber or other building materials. The separator comprises a substantially planar top and bottom surface; the top and bottom surfaces extending substantially parallel to one another. The separator further comprises two side surfaces, each with outwardly protruding side edges for preventing the separator from resting on either side surface; and a front side and a back side substantially parallel to the front surface. A plurality of channels extend into the top and bottom surfaces with the channels defining a plateau, coexistent with the top and bottom surfaces, between adjacent channels. Each channel has one or more apertures for creating a substantially vertical airflow passage between top and bottom surfaces of the separator.
Abstract: A lumber sticker for separating lumber, comprised of an elongated generally rectangular shaped block with sides shaped such that the lumber sticker will not come to rest on the sides. The lumber sticker has channels cut into the top and bottom surfaces, traversing the width at substantially a diagonal. The channels are cut in an arcuate concave shape or a V-shape, and in one embodiment, the channels are cut at 45 degree angles relative to the lengths of the surfaces such that the channels of the top surface are perpendicular to the channels of the bottom surface. In yet another embodiment, the deepest point of each channel is at the midpoint of each channel. The point of contact between the lumber sticker and the lumber is a substantially flat plateau between each channel.
Abstract: A lumber drying kiln employs outside air pressure uses a flexible collapsing bag or cover alone or in combination with walls. The collapsing bag seals against a base to maintain the vacuum. The air pressure against the flexible top keeps the lumber layers from warping or cupping during drying. The lumber stack has alternating layers of hot plates or stickers separating layers of lumber. A bag having an open bottom and made of nylon-reinforced rubber or other strong flexible material is placed over the wood and sealed to the stainless steel platform. A vacuum pump is connected with the bag by means of a manifold and operated to remove air from the enclosed lumber stack, the vacuum strengthening the seal between the base and the bottom of the bag. This chamber design is easily scaled up or down to provide a desired drying capacity.
Abstract: The invention relates to drying equipment and can be used in wood and wood treatment industries, etc., whenever parameters and procedures necessary to dry materials such as wood are used. The invention allows the drying process to achieve a higher degree of environmental protection, a larger product output and power saving features on the account of the following design of the plant: the drying chamber (1) which contains the material to be dried includes a bottom (4) which has two cavities (5,6); hot combustion products are injected into one of these cavities (5) from the flue pipe (9) of the furnace (3) which is used to burn wood waste; hot air is supplied into the other cavity (6), whereby said air is heated in pipes which are located in the flue (9), and is used as a drying agent.
April 15, 2002
Date of Patent:
April 27, 2004
Viktor Georgievich Skrotsky, Olga Panteleimonovna Skrotskaya
Abstract: A lumber sticker for separating lumber, comprised of an elongated rectangular shaped block with generally rounded-off sides. The lumber sticker has channels cut into the top and bottom surfaces, traversing the width at substantially a diagonal. The channels are cut in an arcuate concave shape or a V-shape, and in one embodiment, the channels are cut at 45 degree angles relative to the lengths of the surfaces such that the channels of the top surface are perpendicular to the channels of the bottom surface. In yet another embodiment, the deepest point of each channel is at the midpoint of each channel. The point of contact between the lumber sticker and the wood panels is a substantially flat plateau between each channel.
Abstract: There is provided a method for drying wood which is capable of efficiently drying wood in a shorter period of time, by maintaining the concentration of a combustion gas contained in a drying room atmosphere for use in drying the wood to a high value and by maintaining the pressure of the drying room atmosphere to a high value. According to the method, wood fuels such as waste wood are put into a combustion chamber 4a provided in a lower area of a combustion gas generating furnace 4 and then the wood fuels are burned, followed by introducing the high-temperature combustion gas generated by the burning into an upper area of the drying room 1 housing the green wood, to thereby thermally dry the wood by the combustion gas. In this method, the thermal drying of the wood is carried out by maintaining the concentration of the combustion gas present in the drying room atmosphere to the high value and by maintaining the pressure of the drying room atmosphere to the high value.
Abstract: The present invention is an active microchannel fluid processing unit and method of making, both relying on having (a) at least one inner thin sheet; (b) at least one outer thin sheet; (c) defining at least one first sub-assembly for performing at least one first unit operation by stacking a first of the at least one inner thin sheet in alternating contact with a first of the at least one outer thin sheet into a first stack and placing an end block on the at least one inner thin sheet, the at least one first sub-assembly having at least a first inlet and a first outlet; and (d) defining at least one second sub-assembly for performing at least one second unit operation either as a second flow path within the first stack or by stacking a second of the at least one inner thin sheet in alternating contact with second of the at least one outer thin sheet as a second stack, the at least one second sub-assembly having at least a second inlet and a second outlet.
December 11, 2000
Date of Patent:
December 10, 2002
Battelle Memorial Institute
Wendy D. Bennett, Peter M. Martin, Dean W. Matson, Gary L. Roberts, Donald C. Stewart, Annalee Y. Tonkovich, Jennifer L. Zilka, Stephen C. Schmitt, Timothy M. Werner
Abstract: A kiln system includes a kiln chamber defining a chamber interior space, a furnace capable of providing heated air, one or more air moving devices capable of circulating air in the chamber interior space along a recirculating flow path, and a plenum positioned in the kiln chamber and generally separating the chamber interior space into an upper portion and a lower portion. The upper portion of the chamber interior space that is positioned above the plenum, and the lower portion of the chamber interior space is positioned below the plenum and is capable of receiving the charge of lumber for drying. The plenum defines a plenum cavity that is in communication with and capable of receiving the heated air from the furnace. The kiln system further includes one or more upright passageways. Each upright passageway is mounted to the plenum and in communication with the plenum cavity so that the upright passageway is capable of receiving heated air from the plenum cavity.
Abstract: A stack of lumber that can be efficiently dried includes a plurality of layers of lumber that are arranged one above the other and extend longitudinally and laterally. Each layer of lumber includes a first edge that extends in the longitudinal direction and at least partially defines a side of the stack of lumber. Many of the first edges of adjacent layers of lumber are laterally spaced apart by at least a predetermined separation distance so that the first edges define a staggered arrangement. Also, the layers of lumber that are adjacent are vertically spaced apart from one another so that each of the adjacent layers of lumber define a laterally extending passage therebetween. Each of the passages includes an inlet and an opposed outlet defined between two of the adjacent first edges that are vertically and laterally spaced apart from one another. The flow of air through the stack of lumber is distributed through the passages such that within each passage oppositely oriented boundary layers are formed.
Abstract: Elliptically shaped reheater conduits extend downward into a portion of a flow path that extends through a lower chamber interior space of a kiln chamber. Each of the reheater conduits has opposite ends, defines a length that extends between the opposite ends and is perpendicular to the portion of the flow path that extends through the lower chamber interior space, defines a first cross-dimension that is perpendicular to the length and parallel to the portion of the flow path, and defines a second cross-dimension that is perpendicular to both the length and the portion of the flow path. The second cross-dimension is less than the first cross-dimension. Each of the reheater conduits defines outlets positioned along the length of the reheater conduit. Each reheater conduit defines a pair of vertices between which its second cross-dimension is defined, and the outlets are proximate the vertices.
Abstract: A refrigerant is directly contacted to a substrate to be processed that was heated so as to quickly cool the substrate. Thus, the temperature of the substrate is dropped to a predetermined temperature level. The substrate is cooled by a cooling device and cooling water. Thus, the cooling temperature can be accurately controlled. In addition, the substrate can be effectively cooled.
Abstract: This invention relates to an improved separator, commonly referred to as a "lath", "stick", "sticker", or "crosser", that is used in the lumber industry to separate pieces of lumber in a stack or bundle. The separator features, in one embodiment, a plurality of grooves extending transverse to the length of the separator to permit air circulation within the grooves, and a plurality of ridges between the grooves to support the pieces of lumber. In another embodiment, a second plurality of grooves extending transverse to the length of the separator and the first grooves to form a cross-hatching of grooves to permit air circulation within the grooves, and a plurality of protrusions to support the pieces of lumber over the grooves.
Abstract: A rack assembly for drying short lumber pieces is provided. The rack assembly includes unitary racks for supporting each tier of lumber pieces in a stack. Each rack includes transverse stickers to separate it from the preceding tier and a number of longitudinal tracks to guide the placement of the short lumber pieces. The pieces are arranged end-to-end in rows extending the length of the rack and the rows are arranged side-by-side across the width of the rack. A method of using such a rack to facilitate the drying of lumber is also provided.
October 16, 1995
Date of Patent:
January 6, 1998
Carter Sprague Inc.
John L. Carter, Everett C. Davidson, Larry C. Lagging
Abstract: A method and a facility for dehydrating plants, particularly for dehydrating forage. The method consists in introducing the forage to be dehydrated in a drier with a retention time and a temperature that are suitable to achieve the at least partial drying of the leaves of the forage. The forage, when it leaves the drier, is subjected to an operation for separating the leaves from the stalks, and the leaves and stalks thus separated are then subjected, separately from each other, to additional treatments that include at least one additional drying for at least one of the two components constituted by the leaves and the stalks.
Abstract: A protective device for use in protecting hay bales and preventing spoilage thereof, the device comprising a cover designed to substantially cover an upper surface of the hay bale, the cover being spaced from the upper surface thereof and having a vent to permit the egress of air from the space between the upper surface and the cover and to prevent the increase ingress of moisture therethrough. The cover preferably has means of securing itself to the hay bale. The cover minimizes deterioration of the hay and is particularly adapted for use with so called round bales stored on their side.
Abstract: This invention relates to an improved separator, commonly referred to as a “lath”, “stick”, “sticker”, or “crosser”, that is used in the lumber industry to separate pieces of lumber in a stack or bundle. The separator features, in one embodiment, a plurality of grooves extending transverse to the length of the separator to permit air circulation within the grooves, and a plurality of ridges between the grooves to support the pieces of lumber. In another embodiment, a second plurality of grooves extending transverse to the length of the separator and the first groove to form a cross-hatching of grooves to permit air circulation within the grooves, and a plurality of protrusions to support the pieces of lumber over the grooves.