With Automatic Lock-on Patents (Class 342/97)
  • Patent number: 9194946
    Abstract: Systems and methods for providing an efficient radar system that can operate at both near and far ranges. An exemplary radar system includes a controller that generates a clock signal and a mode signal, a transmitter with a synthesizer, and a dual-mode transmitter. The synthesizer and the transmitter generate a signal in a first or a second mode (frequency ranges) based on the clock or mode signals. An antenna transmits the generated signal and receives a return signal based on the transmitted signal. A receiver processes the received return signal according to the first or second mode, based on the generated at least one clock signal or mode signal. A processor determines existence of a target included in the processed return signal. An output device (such as a display device) outputs a presentation based on the determination. The system operates in FMCW or pulse modes.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 24, 2012
    Date of Patent: November 24, 2015
    Assignee: Honeywell International Inc.
    Inventor: David C. Vacanti
  • Patent number: 9041593
    Abstract: According to one embodiment, a target tracking apparatus acquires a first determination result by determining which combination of N-dimensional tracks is for the real target, acquires a second determination result by determining which combination of N-dimensional angular observation values is for the real target, selects the first determination result when an observation environment is an environment other than a dense environment, selects the second determination result when the observation environment is a dense environment, and calculates distance information to thereby generate an (N+1)-dimensional track for each target.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 13, 2012
    Date of Patent: May 26, 2015
    Assignee: KABUSHIKI KAISHA TOSHIBA
    Inventor: Hidetoshi Furukawa
  • Patent number: 9030347
    Abstract: Systems and methods for improving vehicle survivability. In some embodiments, threat information relating to at least one potential threat against at least one vehicle during a mission may be accessed. The threat information may comprise threat location information indicative of at least one likely location for the at least one potential threat and at least one model associated with the at least one potential threat. Prior to commencing the mission, the threat information may be used to assign a numerical measure to each potential action of a plurality of potential actions for the at least one vehicle based at least in part on at least one measure of the at least one vehicle resulting from executing the potential action. The plurality of potential actions may be compared based at least in part on the respective numerical measures assigned to the plurality of potential actions.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 3, 2012
    Date of Patent: May 12, 2015
    Assignee: Lockheed Martin Corporation
    Inventors: Carl R. Herman, James C. Rosswog
  • Patent number: 8816895
    Abstract: Embodiments of a target classifier and method for target classification using measured target epsilons and target glint information are generally described herein. The target classifier is configured to compare a total epsilon measurement with target glint information to determine whether to the target being tracked corresponds to an intended target type. Based on the comparison, the target classifier may cause target tracking circuitry of a target-tracking radar to either continue tracking the target or break-off from tracking the target. Glint of different target types may be characterized at different ranges and the target's glint characteristics may be used to distinguish intended from non-intended targets. Accordingly, intended targets such as incoming artillery may be distinguished from non-intended targets such as aircraft to help prevent countermeasures from being launched against non-intended targets.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 15, 2011
    Date of Patent: August 26, 2014
    Assignee: Raytheon Company
    Inventors: Brett J. Young, Jason A. Johnson
  • Publication number: 20130002472
    Abstract: An active retrodirective antenna array is provisioned with a virtual beacon for use with uncooperative targets. An RF pilot signal is imposed onto an optical carrier beam and directed at a target. The scattered optical carrier beam is optically detected by a plurality of the retrodirective array nodes to extract the RF pilot signal. Each recovered RF pilot-signal is phase-conjugated with a phase reference signal, amplified and retransmitted towards the target where the RF beams add-in phase at the virtual beacon. The array may be used to complete an RF communication link with the target, to transfer microwave power from orbiting solar power stations to a target or as a directed energy weapon to prosecute the target.
    Type: Application
    Filed: June 28, 2011
    Publication date: January 3, 2013
    Inventor: David D. Crouch
  • Patent number: 8274425
    Abstract: The disclosed approach provides a low-cost approach by employing a single channel receiver for a direction-finding missile, rather than a conventional four-channel system. It employs interferometry techniques. The proposed approach leverages orthogonal waveforms and pseudorandom noise (PN) codes. This is a low-cost approach for a single channel direction finding system by leveraging orthogonal waveforms and interferometric techniques.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 29, 2010
    Date of Patent: September 25, 2012
    Assignee: Raytheon Company
    Inventors: Mark B. Yeary, James R. Toplicar, Paul E. Doucette, Eleanor Foltz
  • Patent number: 8149156
    Abstract: A system for estimating a location of the source of a projectile includes a radar system for transmitting a wave and detecting and providing an indication of a wave reflection from the projectile, an acoustic detection system for detecting and providing an indication of at least one sound associated with the projectile, and circuitry for estimating the location in response to the indication of a wave reflection and the indication of at least one sound.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 19, 2009
    Date of Patent: April 3, 2012
    Assignee: Mustang Technology Group, L.P.
    Inventors: Rustin W. Allred, Robert R. Bless
  • Patent number: 8106814
    Abstract: The present invention relates to a method enabling precise determination of the elevation of a projectile following a ballistic trajectory by use of a conventional Doppler surveillance radar. The method includes calculating first the estimate {circumflex over (?)}? of the value of the radial component ?? of the acceleration of the projectile from the quantities {dot over (d)} and {umlaut over (d)}, respectively representing the first derivative and the second derivative with respect to time of the Doppler velocity d of the projectile, then calculating the estimate {circumflex over (V)} of the speed V of the projectile from d, {dot over (d)} and {circumflex over (?)}?, and finally calculating the estimate Ê of its angle of elevation E from d and {circumflex over (V)}. The method according to the invention may apply to the protection of sensitive areas against the firing of ballistic projectiles.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 30, 2007
    Date of Patent: January 31, 2012
    Assignee: Thales
    Inventors: Bernard Durand, Christian Cavallari, Odile Adrian
  • Patent number: 8044841
    Abstract: A method of selecting a sub-set of a plurality of available sensors to guide an interceptor to a target is described. The method includes characterizing a quality of position estimate received from each of the plurality of available sensors, projecting the positioning errors of the sensors onto a plane normal to a line-of-sight of the interceptor, and selecting the sub-set of the plurality of available sensors based on the projection of positioning errors.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 2, 2009
    Date of Patent: October 25, 2011
    Assignee: Lockheed Martin Corporation
    Inventors: Jonathan Alan Boardman, Naresh Raman Patel, Jeffrey Bruce Boka
  • Patent number: 8035549
    Abstract: A method for calculating a drop track time for a radar system includes receiving characteristics of the radar system as an input, determining in a computer process the characteristics of a target being tracked by the radar system, calculating in a computer process a target track drop time for the target based on the characteristics of the radar system and the target, determining in a computer process whether a value associated with the target being tracked has been updated within the target track drop time, and discontinuing the tracking of the target if a value associated with the target being tracked is not updated within the target track drop time.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 13, 2009
    Date of Patent: October 11, 2011
    Assignee: Lockheed Martin Corporation
    Inventors: Kourken Malakian, Stephen J. Salvatore
  • Patent number: 8026842
    Abstract: A land-based smart sensor system and several system architectures for detection, tracking, and classification of people and vehicles automatically and in real time for border, property, and facility security surveillance is described. The preferred embodiment of the proposed smart sensor system is comprised of (1) a low-cost, non-coherent radar, whose function is to detect and track people, singly or in groups, and various means of transportation, which may include vehicles, animals, or aircraft, singly or in groups, and cue (2) an optical sensor such as a long-wave infrared (LWIR) sensor, whose function is to classify the identified targets and produce movie clips for operator validation and use, and (3) a supercomputer to process the collected data in real-time. The smart sensor system can be implemented in a tower-based or a mobile-based, or combination system architecture. The radar can also be operated as a stand-alone system.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 8, 2007
    Date of Patent: September 27, 2011
    Assignee: Vista Research, Inc.
    Inventors: Phillilp A. Fox, Joseph W. Maresca, Jr.
  • Patent number: 7924213
    Abstract: A method of tracking an object including the steps of: collecting N measurements of range Ri and Doppler velocity Di associated with the object from a plurality M of radar sensors Si each measurement being assigned a time stamp ti; time aligning each Range Ri measurement to a common time stamp tN to provide a corresponding time aligned range Pi for each of the N measurements; using each time aligned Range measurement Pi to define a corresponding spherical equation such that N spherical equations are defined; and deriving analytical solutions from three of the N spherical equations to determine the position vector of the object.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 14, 2007
    Date of Patent: April 12, 2011
    Assignee: Thales Nederland B.V.
    Inventors: Huub De Waard, Piet Griffioen, Henk Regtop, Gert Van De Brug
  • Patent number: 7911373
    Abstract: A radar system, including: a compact, active phased array antenna for transmission and reception of a focused radiation beam, circuits for providing signals to produce or detect a radiation beam by the phased array antenna and to control or detect the direction of the radiation beam, and wherein the radar is adapted to be mounted on a missile and scan a selected area proceeding the direction of motion of the missile.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 3, 2008
    Date of Patent: March 22, 2011
    Inventors: Hillel Weinstein Weinstein, Alberto Milano
  • Patent number: 7898466
    Abstract: The radar tracking or pulse refresh rate is calculated for a target. The refresh rate is selected which makes a sum equal to a predetermined fraction of the radar beamwidth, where the sum is the sum of the bias error and a multiplicative product. The multiplicative product is the product of the random error multiplied by a number associated with the containment probability of the total error.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 8, 2008
    Date of Patent: March 1, 2011
    Assignee: Lockheed Martin Corporation
    Inventors: Kourken Malakian, Tamara A. Vosbikian
  • Patent number: 7825848
    Abstract: Method, tracking system, and intercept missile for tracking highly maneuverable target objects. The method includes estimating the motion of the at least one target object via a mathematical method that includes a filter method relating to a model assumption for estimating at least one of the motion and an orientation of the target object. The filter method includes a semi-martingale algorithm for estimating motion.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 17, 2008
    Date of Patent: November 2, 2010
    Assignee: LFK-Lenkflugkoerpersysteme GmbH
    Inventor: Alfred Schoettl
  • Patent number: 7786925
    Abstract: A method and apparatus determines the shape of an orbiting or airborne object. A radar determines the general location and a telescope is directed toward the object to form an image of background stars, which will be occluded by the object. The image is compared with a memorized star map, to identify the region of the image in the map. Stars visible in the map which are not visible in the image are listed. The invisible stars are paired with next adjacent visible stars to form star pairs. The midpoints are identified of lines extending between star pairs. Segment lines are drawn between a midpoint and the next closest midpoint. The segment lines define an outline of the object.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 13, 2009
    Date of Patent: August 31, 2010
    Assignee: Lockheed Martin Corporation
    Inventors: Peter W. Knibbe, John B. Stetson
  • Patent number: 7768444
    Abstract: A system for detecting weapons is provided. The system includes a radar system transmitting electromagnetic radiation, analyzing reflected signals to detect a weapon, and generating reflected signal data. An energy field parameter system receives the reflected signal data and sets a plurality of energy field parameters. An energy field system transmits energy at a location associated with the detected weapon.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 29, 2008
    Date of Patent: August 3, 2010
    Inventor: Christopher J. Rourk
  • Patent number: 7741991
    Abstract: An angle tracking radar system particularly for a missile with a steerable antenna and gyros strapped down to the missile body—a ‘partially strapdown’ system. The body rate signals, body acceleration signals where provided, and target position signals are converted into an electronic reference frame which is controlled to align with the target sightline, the above body and target signals being employed to produce estimates of target direction, sightline rate and sightline acceleration for use in controlling the missile.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 26, 1987
    Date of Patent: June 22, 2010
    Assignee: MBDA UK Limited
    Inventor: Peter James MacBean
  • Patent number: 7719461
    Abstract: The invention, called “ORSE Track Fusion”, combines sensor tracks from dispersed sites, when limited communication bandwidth does not permit sharing of individual measurements. Since estimation errors due to maneuver biases are not independent for each sensor, optimal fusion of tracks produced by Kalman filters requires transmission of all the filter gain matrices used to update each sensor track prior to the fusion time. For this reason, prior art has resorted to suboptimal designs. ORSE Track Fusion according to aspects of the invention overcomes this disadvantage by propagating, transmitting, and fusing separately calculated covariance matrices for random and bias estimation errors. Furthermore, with ORSE, each sensor can have its own criteria in forming its track, and track fusion can be performed with different criteria at each processing site. Thus, ORSE Track Fusion has the unique flexibility to optimize track fusion simultaneously for multiple criteria to serve multiple users.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 5, 2008
    Date of Patent: May 18, 2010
    Assignee: Lockheed Martin Corporation
    Inventors: Purusottam Mookerjee, Frank J. Reifler
  • Patent number: 7629918
    Abstract: An RFDE system includes an RFDE transmitter and at least one RFDE antenna. The RFDE transmitter and antenna direct high power electromagnetic energy towards a target sufficient to cause high energy damage or disruption of the target. The RFDE system further includes a targeting system for locating the target. The targeting system includes a radar transmitter and at least one radar antenna for transmitting and receiving electromagnetic energy to locate the target. The RFDE system also includes an antenna pointing system for aiming the at least one RFDE antenna at the target based on the location of the target as ascertained by the targeting system. Moreover, at least a portion of the radar transmitter or the at least one radar antenna is integrated within at least a portion of the RFDE transmitter or the at least one RFDE antenna.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 15, 2005
    Date of Patent: December 8, 2009
    Assignee: Raytheon Company
    Inventors: Kenneth W. Brown, David J. Canich, Russell F. Berg
  • Patent number: 7626535
    Abstract: Various embodiments are described herein for a track quality based multi-target tracker and an associated method. The method includes associating a measurement with a track, generating measurement association statistics for the track, generating and updating a track quality value for a track based on a measurement-to-track association likelihood, and updating track lists based on the track quality value and the measurement association statistics of the tracks in these lists. The tracker includes structure for carrying out this method.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 1, 2007
    Date of Patent: December 1, 2009
    Assignee: Raytheon Company
    Inventors: Zhen Ding, Abhijit Sinha, Thia Kirubarajan, Mohamad Farooq
  • Patent number: 7626534
    Abstract: A target tracking method uses sensor(s) producing target signals subject to positional and/or angular bias, which are updated with sensor bias estimates to produce updated target-representative signals. Time propagation produces time-updated target states and sensor positional and angular biases. The Jacobian of the state dynamics of a target model produces the state transition matrix for extended Kalman filtering. Target state vector and bias covariances of the sensor are time propagated. The Kalman measurement residual is computed to produce state corrections, which are added to the time updated filter states to thereby produce (i) target state updates and (ii) sensor positional and angular bias updates.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 12, 2007
    Date of Patent: December 1, 2009
    Assignee: Lockheed Martin Corporation
    Inventors: Jeffrey B. Boka, Purusottam Mookerjee, Naresh R. Patel
  • Patent number: 7605747
    Abstract: A method for determining or compensating for the positional errors of a sensor tracking a target comprises the steps of operating the sensor to generate sensed information relating to the target and adding any sensor positional bias update information to produce updated sensed information. The target state is propagated to produce time updated state estimates. The Jacobian of the state dynamics and the state transition matrix for the extended Kalman filter algorithm are computed. The covariance of a state vector is time propagated using the state transition matrix.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 14, 2006
    Date of Patent: October 20, 2009
    Assignee: Lockheed Martin Corporation
    Inventors: Purusottam Mookerjee, Jeffrey B. Boka
  • Patent number: 7576688
    Abstract: Moving objects are detected with a radar by collecting samples of a received signal over an integration period. The terms of a match function contain a product of a sample of said received signal and a delayed-in-time, Doppler-shifted replica of a transmission and depend on parameters that describe an object that caused a reflection of the transmission. The most probable values of the parameters are found by maximizing the match function through Fourier transforming a vector consisting of terms of the match function. Those of said products that contain a non-zero contribution of said delayed-in-time, Doppler-shifted replica of a transmission are actually computed while the others of said products are zero Only non-zero blocks of the products count as final terms to the vector to be Fourier transformed that have nonzero value while intermittent blocks that have zero value are left out.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 20, 2006
    Date of Patent: August 18, 2009
    Assignee: Eigenor Oy
    Inventor: Markku Sakari Lehtinen
  • Patent number: 7522094
    Abstract: A method and system is proposed for use by a moving station (such as a jetfighter) for radar tracking of a moving target (such as an air-to-air missile). The proposed method and system involves the use of a hybrid FSK/LFM (Frequency Shift Keying & Linear Frequency Modulation) scheme for acquiring a collection of raw radar data, a first Gaussian-noise filter array of one-stage linear Kalman filters for S/N-enhancement of the raw radar data, a trilateration module, and a second Gaussian-noise filter array of one-stage linear Kalman filters for S/N-enhancement of the trilateration-resulted radar data. These features allow the radar tracking of moving objects to be more fast and accurate.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 20, 2007
    Date of Patent: April 21, 2009
    Assignee: National Taiwan University
    Inventors: Po-Jen Tu, Jean-Fu Kiang
  • Patent number: 7508336
    Abstract: A method and radar system for detecting a target and verifying its presence to begin tracking and to enable future detections of the same target to be correctly associated with its initial detection uses two separate detections. Each detection provides three components of position measurements (range, elevation, and azimuth). The invention also pertains to an associated method for initiating a target track utilizing a rotating radar antenna having an electronic scanning antenna comprising the steps of: acquiring data representative of one or more of range, elevation and azimuth of a target, calculating target motion, forming multiple models for each degree of freedom of target motion, composing a set of initial state vectors that includes one having predictive validity for the realization of the true measurement errors and target motion.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 17, 2006
    Date of Patent: March 24, 2009
    Assignee: Lockheed Martin Corporation
    Inventor: Donald M. Leskiw
  • Patent number: 7508335
    Abstract: A method of multiple sensor processing includes receiving, at a first sensor system, track data from a second sensor system, comparing track data from the first sensor system to the track data from the second sensor system to determine if a track will be within a field of view of the first sensor system during a time period, determining, at a first sensor system, predicted quality of tracks based on the track data and broadcasting the predicted quality of tracks. The method also includes receiving predicted quality of tracks from the second sensor system and determining a first set of tasks based on the predicted quality of tracks determined by the first sensor system and the predicted quality of tracks received from the second sensor system.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 16, 2007
    Date of Patent: March 24, 2009
    Assignee: Raytheon Company
    Inventors: Steven T. Cummings, George A. Blaha, Larry L. Stern
  • Patent number: 7504982
    Abstract: The disclosed system, device and method for an anti-missile system generally includes a ground-based sensor array generating tracking data of a guided missile tracking a target. A control node in communication with the ground-based sensor array generates targeting data from the tracking data. A phased array directed-energy unit in communication with the control node radiates the guided missile with microwave radiation based on the targeting data received from the control node, where the microwave radiation disrupts an electronic component of the guided missile such that the guided missile discontinues tracking the target.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 12, 2006
    Date of Patent: March 17, 2009
    Assignee: Raytheon Company
    Inventors: Russell Berg, Keith Kato, Kenneth Brown, Reid Lowell, David Crouch
  • Patent number: 7425693
    Abstract: A method of tracking a target. The method includes the steps of acquiring a first spectral image of a scene that includes the target, designating a spectral reference window, in the first spectral image, that includes a respective plurality of pixel vectors, acquiring a second spectral image, of the scene, that includes a respective plurality of pixel vectors, and hypercorrelating the spectral reference window with the second spectral image, thereby obtaining a hypercorrelation function, a maximum of the hypercorrelation function then corresponding to a location of the target in the scene.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 18, 2004
    Date of Patent: September 16, 2008
    Assignee: Rafael Advanced Defence Systems Ltd.
    Inventor: Ruth Shapira
  • Patent number: 7411543
    Abstract: A sensor suite determines location and velocity information relating to a missile threat, which is converted to missile or rocket state estimates. The state estimates are transformed into time-invariant dynamic parameters, unique for each missile type. Estimated rocket dynamic parameters are computed for each target type being considered, and compared with a reference set of rocket parameters representing different target types. The estimated rocket parameters are compared with the reference parameters in a maximum-likelihood sense, and combined using fuzzy logic to identify the rocket type and the likelihood. The identified rocket type and likelihood is used to aid in determining the future location of the missile so countermeasure can be applied.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 13, 2004
    Date of Patent: August 12, 2008
    Assignee: Lockheed Martin Corporation
    Inventor: Jeffrey B. Boka
  • Patent number: 7345621
    Abstract: A real-time signal processing engine robustly detects, localizes, tracks and classifies ground targets based on radar signals from a multistatic radar system. The system differentiates between different targets based on an optimized cost function, which can include the total returned normalized pulse energy. The local transmitters/receivers can communicate with each other via the transmitted radar signals.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 26, 2007
    Date of Patent: March 18, 2008
    Assignee: BBN Technologies Corp.
    Inventors: John M. Bourdelais, Ernest Scott Stickles, William Ray Wright, David Earl Norris, Michael Anthony Tiberio, Gary Dana Butler
  • Patent number: 7333052
    Abstract: Signal processing with reduced combinatorial complexity for tracking evolving phenomena such as radar tracks associated with weighted measurement parameters includes selecting a current phenomenon and obtaining a set of measurement parameters associated with it. Beginning at a start node providing a first parent node having an identity, an identity for a child node of the patent is produced from the sets of parameters, the parent identity and a parameter selected from the set and corresponding to the child. This is iterated for other parameters in the set. Child nodes of like identity for the phenomenon are treated as a single node with multiple parameter relationships associated with at lest one parent node, whereas child nodes with differing identities are represented as separate nodes. The process is iterated for other phenomena and associated sets of measurement parameters, but child nodes of a previously processed phenomenon are not treated as parent nodes of a phenomenon processed immediately following.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 24, 2004
    Date of Patent: February 19, 2008
    Assignee: Qinetiq Limited
    Inventor: Simon Richard Maskell
  • Publication number: 20070285303
    Abstract: A system and method is presented for detecting and classifying slow-moving and hovering helicopters from a missile's took-down Doppler radar that is compatible with the existing base of Doppler radars. This approach uses definable attributes of a helicopter rotor assembly and its extended Doppler rotor return to differentiate “rotor samples” from other samples (steps 123, 125), extract features such as bandwidth, activity, angle, and shape from the rotor samples (step 127), and classify a potential target as a helicopter or other based on the extracted rotor features and the known attributes of the helicopter rotor assembly (step 129). A target report including a classification target, range, range-rate, and angle of the extended rotor return is suitably passed to a tracking processor (step 121).
    Type: Application
    Filed: June 12, 2006
    Publication date: December 13, 2007
    Inventors: Bernard P. Radza, Joseph Henning, Sunny Ali, John Mincer, Randal Walters
  • Publication number: 20070279276
    Abstract: System for dynamically tracking a position of a target with an antenna in a communication system. The system includes an antenna system (410) configured for generating a sum and difference antenna pattern (201-1, 201-2). A sum RF channel (401) is coupled to a sum channel output of the antenna system. A difference RF channel (402) is coupled to a difference channel output of the antenna system. An RF coupler (422-1) is provided that has a first input coupled to the sum RF channel and a second input coupled to the RF difference channel. One or more coupling control devices (418-1, 418-2) selectively vary an effective coupling value as between the difference channel and the sum channel. An antenna tracking error signal is generated at an output of the coupler.
    Type: Application
    Filed: May 31, 2006
    Publication date: December 6, 2007
    Applicant: HARRIS CORPORATION
    Inventors: James K. Conn, James B. Offner, Larry P. Serulneck, Earl B. Knick, Ron Hash, Ying-Ming Lee, Pete Denney, Joseph A. Elam, Brian A. Smith
  • Patent number: 7248206
    Abstract: Unknown alignment biases of sensors of a tracking system are estimated by an iterative Kalman filter method. Current measurements are corrected for known alignment errors and previously estimated alignment biases. The filter time reference is updated to produce estimated target state derivative vectors. A Jacobian of the state dynamics equation is determined, which provides for observability into the sensor alignment bias through gravitational and coriolis forces. The target state transition matrix and the target error covariance matrix are propagated. When a new measurement becomes available, the Kalman gain matrix is determined, the state vector and covariance measurements are updated, and sensor alignment biases are estimated. The state vector, covariance measurements, and estimated sensor alignment biases are transformed to an estimated stable space frame for use in tracking the target and updating the next iteration.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 10, 2005
    Date of Patent: July 24, 2007
    Assignee: Lockheed Martin Corporation
    Inventors: Jeffrey B. Boka, Peter J. Mavroudakis, Naresh R. Patel
  • Patent number: 7242345
    Abstract: A method is described for detecting an object with target radar. After the first detection of an object, the antenna is tilted. The original direction towards the object is restored by electronically steering the emitted beam. The beamsteering is obtained by changing the frequency of the emitted signal. Thus, the object may be detected several times on different frequencies. The method is particularly applicable in search and track radars.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 3, 2003
    Date of Patent: July 10, 2007
    Assignee: Telefonaktiebolaget LM Ericsson (Publ)
    Inventors: Atle Eivind Raestad, Jan-Olov Winnberg, Andreas Mattsson
  • Patent number: 7236122
    Abstract: An object self-protection apparatus (12) having a monitoring device (14) which is fixed with respect to the object and a launch container (18), in particular for fragmentation projectiles, which has a target-tracking radar device (20) for the approach movement of a missile (22) which is to be defended against. The monitoring device (14) which is fixed with respect to the object and the target-tracking radar device (20) are connected together with an aiming drive for the launch container (18). Hereby, an expensive search radar is replaced by a passive sensor device (16) forming the monitoring device (14) which is fixed with respect to the object. The passive sensor device (16) generates accurately measured angular information in respect of the approaching missile (22). The distance and the speed of the missile (22) are then determined by the target-tracking radar device (20).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 18, 2003
    Date of Patent: June 26, 2007
    Assignee: Diehl Munitionssysteme GmbH & Co. KG
    Inventors: Gunnar Pappert, Andreas Günther, Volker Koch
  • Patent number: 7218272
    Abstract: Reducing antenna boresight error includes receiving radar pulses reflected from the ground, where pulses are emitted from the antenna of a radar system, reflected by the ground, and received by the antenna. The return pulses carry information about the ground. Measurement indices are established from radar and platform parameters, and a clutter spectrum is generated from the return pulse information. The amplitude of the clutter spectrum is measured at each of the measurement indices. Whether there is an amplitude imbalance is established in accordance with the measured amplitudes. An error estimate describing an antenna boresight error is determined if there is an amplitude imbalance.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 27, 2006
    Date of Patent: May 15, 2007
    Assignee: Raytheon Company
    Inventor: David L. Steinbauer
  • Patent number: 7199750
    Abstract: A real-time signal processing engine robustly detects, localizes, tracks and classifies ground targets based on radar signals from a multistatic radar system. The system differentiates between different targets based on an optimized cost function, which can include the total returned normalized pulse energy. The local transmitters/receivers can communicate with each other via the transmitted radar signals.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 22, 2005
    Date of Patent: April 3, 2007
    Assignee: BBN Technologies Corp.
    Inventors: John Michael Bourdelais, Ernest Scott Stickels, William Ray Wright, David Earl Norris, Michael Anthony Tiberio, Gary Dana Butler
  • Patent number: 7193557
    Abstract: Tracking objects by receiving a dataframe from a detection sensor device, the dataframe containing a timestamp and data corresponding to each detected object, generating new observation nodes for each detected object, propagating group track state parameters to obtain posterior observable positions and projecting them onto the received dataframe, generating gates for the posterior observable positions and projecting them onto the received dataframe, determining feasible track node and feasible observation node assignments based on the proximity of the new observation nodes to the gates, updating track node state parameters and corresponding scores, performing a multi-frame resolution algorithm to resolve group track nodes into subtrack nodes, determining a set of feasible composite assignments for composite sets of track nodes and observation nodes, updating track node state parameters and corresponding scores, and determining a selected set of joint assignments based on the feasible composite assignments and
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 29, 2004
    Date of Patent: March 20, 2007
    Assignee: Lockheed Martin Corporation
    Inventors: Michael A Kovacich, Thomas R Casaletto
  • Patent number: 7068215
    Abstract: Reducing antenna boresight error includes receiving radar pulses reflected from the ground, where pulses are emitted from the antenna of a radar system, reflected by the ground, and received by the antenna. The return pulses carry information about the ground. Measurement indices are established from radar and platform parameters, and a clutter spectrum is generated from the return pulse information. The amplitude of the clutter spectrum is measured at each of the measurement indices. Whether there is an amplitude imbalance is established in accordance with the measured amplitudes. An error estimate describing an antenna boresight error is determined if there is an amplitude imbalance.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 8, 2004
    Date of Patent: June 27, 2006
    Assignee: Raytheon Company
    Inventor: David L. Steinbauer
  • Patent number: 7053815
    Abstract: A radar tracking system for an anti-aircraft, missile, including angle tracking, doppler tracking and range tracking feedback loops operating on sum and difference channels. Fast fourier transform digital filters are used to provide a frequency spectrum of the sum and difference I.F. channels and detection and confirmation algorithms are employed for selecting the F.F.T. target ‘bin’. Adjacent F.F.T. bins are used to simulate a bin centered on the target frequency, shifts of the latter with target/missile acceleration causing frequency errors which are detected by a discriminator and used to control the target I.F. Confirmation of target acquisition is achieved by successive summations of the target bin power the totals being accumulated and compared with upper and lower thresholds. Confirmation and rejection results from total levels outside the thresholds while further accumulation and comparison follow the intermediate condition.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 30, 1982
    Date of Patent: May 30, 2006
    Assignee: Alenia Marconi Systems Limited
    Inventors: David William Joynson, Nigel Stansfield, Peter James MacBean
  • Patent number: 7046190
    Abstract: A method and apparatus for determining range of a radar target is provided. Signal samples based on returns of a target during tracking are processed to produce a wideband envelope range estimate for components of target motion. The components of target motion include precession and spin motion. Ambiguous phase values are measured. An unambiguous phase value indicative of range is produced from the wideband envelope range estimate and measured ambiguous phase values.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 25, 2003
    Date of Patent: May 16, 2006
    Assignee: Raytheon Company
    Inventor: Fritz Steudel
  • Patent number: 7030809
    Abstract: A multiple model (MM) radar tracking filter which controls the weighting applied to outputs of first and second model functions responsive to non-Markovian switching logic, includes the first and second model functions, switching logic receiving unweighted outputs from the first and second model functions and generating first and second weighting signals, first and second multipliers generating respective first and second weighted output signals responsive to received ones of the unweighted outputs of the first and second model functions and the first and second weighting signals, and a feed back loop for providing a feedback signal to respective inputs of the first and second model functions responsive to the weighted outputs of the first and second multipliers. If desired, the MM radar tracking filter may also include a summer for generating a signal output responsive to the weighted outputs of the first and second multipliers.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 14, 2003
    Date of Patent: April 18, 2006
    Assignee: The United States of America as representd by the Secretary of the Navy
    Inventors: D. Hugh McCabe, A. Sunshine Smith-Carroll
  • Patent number: 7026980
    Abstract: Sensors determine the kinematic measurements of a boosting missile, and the information is applied to a plurality of pairs or sets of filters, one of which is matched to the characteristics of a particular target type, and the other of which is general, and not matched to a particular target, for producing from each filter of the set missile position, velocity, acceleration, and specific mass flow rate states, and covariances of those states. From the filtered information, the estimates are made of at least missile mass flow rate, thrust, velocity at stage burnout, and remaining burn time. The likelihood is computed that the states and covariances from the filter sets represent the same target. The largest likelihood is selected as representing the target. In one mode, the estimated parameters are weighted and summed for a composite likelihood.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 4, 2005
    Date of Patent: April 11, 2006
    Assignee: Lockheed Martin Corporation
    Inventors: Peter J. Mavroudakis, Jeffrey B. Boka, Naresh R. Patel
  • Patent number: 7026979
    Abstract: A method, apparatus, and computer program product for joint kinematic and feature tracking are presented. Kinematic measurements and feature/class measurements regarding an object are received from a sensor. A probabilistic argumentation operation is performed on the feature/class measurements using information from a knowledge base and a track file ect to generate feature track likelihood scores regarding likely tracks for the object. Kinematic track likelihood scores are generated based on the kinematic measurements and the track file. Joint track likelihood scores are generated based on the feature track likelihood scores and the kinematic track likelihood scores. Joint track likelihood scores are used to generate a multi-frame track measurement association to determine a most likely track for the object. The track file is continually updated with the most likely track for the object, so that the most likely trajectory of the object is obtained.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 19, 2003
    Date of Patent: April 11, 2006
    Assignee: HRL Labortories, LLC
    Inventor: Deepak Khosla
  • Patent number: 7019684
    Abstract: An arrangement for reducing the effect of vibration-induced changes in phase of the first local oscillator in a tracking receiver wherein final detection is accomplished by a synchronous detector in a phase lock loop incorporating a voltage-controlled oscillator is shown to include a differentiator providing a control signal whenever a vibration-induced change occurs, such control signal being applied to cause the time taken for the voltage-controlled oscillator to regain proper phase is reduced to a minimum.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 14, 1984
    Date of Patent: March 28, 2006
    Assignee: Raytheon Company
    Inventors: George R. Spencer, Walter J. Hicks
  • Patent number: 6977610
    Abstract: A mechanism for combining signals of multiple radars to achieve increased range, radar sensitivity and angle accuracy is provided. A first signal beam is radiated from an antenna of a first radar in the direction of a target. A second signal beam is radiated from an antenna of a second radar in the direction of the same target. The echo signals from the first signal beam and the second signal beam are received at both radars. The echo signals received at the first radar are processed to produce first radar processed echo signals and the echoes signals received at the second radar are processed to produce second radar processed echo signals. The first and second radar processed echo signals are combined to form an aggregate value.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 10, 2003
    Date of Patent: December 20, 2005
    Assignee: Raytheon Company
    Inventors: Eli Brookner, David V. Manoogian, Fritz Steudel
  • Patent number: 6914554
    Abstract: A reflected energy detecting device includes a transmitter for transmitting an electromagnetic signal and a receiver for receiving a reflected electromagnetic signal. An antenna may be operatively connected with the transmitter and the receiver for radiating the electromagnetic signal and capturing the reflected electromagnetic signal and the antenna may be movable. A main controller may be provided for controlling operation of the transmitter and the receiver and the movement of the antenna and the reflected energy detecting device may further include at least one platform. The at least one platform may support a remote reflector that is dimensioned and configured to redirect the transmitted electromagnetic signal in a desired direction and a platform controller that is configured to communicate with the main controller and to maintain alignment between the remote reflector and the antenna.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 17, 2003
    Date of Patent: July 5, 2005
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the Secretary of the Army
    Inventors: Leon H. Riley, Brian R. Strickland
  • Patent number: 6856272
    Abstract: Methods and apparatus for early detection and identification of a threat such as individuals carrying hidden explosive materials, land mines on roads, etc. are disclosed. Methods comprise transmitting radar signals in the direction of a potential threat, measuring the energy in reflected signals, dynamically generating a threat threshold value from signals received from multiple areas and comparing the energy in the reflected signals corresponding to different areas to the generated threat threshold value. The threat threshold value may be generated by averaging the weighted reflected energy measured from different areas during a single scan of a region including the different areas. The contribution to the threshold from different areas is weighted in some embodiments as a function of the distance from the transmitter and/or receiver to the particular area. Analysis of areas and treating different areas as segments facilitates accurate analysis and display of threat information.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 8, 2003
    Date of Patent: February 15, 2005
    Assignee: Personnel Protection Technoloties LLC
    Inventors: Arthur C. Levitan, Lester Kosowsky