Plural Reflectors Patents (Class 343/781P)
  • Patent number: 6140978
    Abstract: A spaceborne hybrid antenna reflector for dual frequency band illumination of common spot beam coverage regions contains an interior solid reflector region, that is adjacent at its perimeter to a ring-shaped exterior dichroic reflector region and adjoined by a common backing structure. The solid interior region is reflective to RF energy at each of first and second spaced apart frequency bands, while the exterior dichroic reflector region is reflective at the first frequency band, but non-reflective at the second frequency band. This allows the hybrid reflector to realize the same beamwidth coverage for a transmitter operating at one frequency band and a receiver operating at the other frequency band. The backing support frame at the rear side of the reflector is electrically decoupled from the exterior dichroic ring.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 8, 1999
    Date of Patent: October 31, 2000
    Assignee: Harris Corporation
    Inventors: Yves Patenaude, Timothy E. Durham, James D. Struttmann, Robert C. Taylor, Adam Zaricki, William R. Whaley, Jay A. Kralovec
  • Patent number: 6137449
    Abstract: The invention consists of improvements of reflector antennas with self-supported feeds. The feed consists of a waveguide tube, a dielectric joint and a sub-reflector. The tube is attached to the center of the rotationally symmetric reflector and extends to the focal region of it. The sub-reflector is located in front of the tube, and the surface of this sub-reflector is provided with rotationally symmetric grooves also called corrugations.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 19, 1998
    Date of Patent: October 24, 2000
    Inventor: Per-Simon Kildal
  • Patent number: 6107973
    Abstract: A dual-reflector microwave antenna comprises the combination of a paraboloidal main reflector having an axis; a waveguide and dual-mode feed horn extending along the axis of the main reflector, a subreflector for reflecting radiation from the feed horn onto the main reflector in the transmitting mode, and a shield extending from the outer edge of the main reflector and generally parallel to the axis of the main reflector, the inside surface of the shield being lined with absorptive material for absorbing undesired radiation. The subreflector is shaped to produce an aperture power distribution that is substantially confined to the region of the main reflector outside the shadow of the subreflector. The support for the subreflector is preferably a hollow dielectric cone having a resonant thickness to cause energy passing through said cone to be in phase with energy reflected off of said cone so as to achieve phase cancellation.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 12, 1998
    Date of Patent: August 22, 2000
    Assignee: Andrew Corporation
    Inventors: Charles M. Knop, Gregory S. Orseno, D. John Cole
  • Patent number: 6094174
    Abstract: An omnidirectional microwave antenna comprises a paraboloidal reflector disposed above the ground and facing downwardly with a substantially horizontal aperture and a substantially vertical axis. A vertically oriented feed horn is located below the paraboloidal reflector on the axis of the paraboloidal reflector and has a phase center located near the focal point of the paraboloidal reflector. A conical reflector having a shaped reflecting surface defined by the parameters of a mathematical equation extends downwardly away from the periphery of the feed horn for reflecting radiation received vertically from the paraboloidal reflector in a horizontal direction away from the conical reflector, and for reflecting horizontally received radiation vertically to the paraboloidal reflector.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 8, 1998
    Date of Patent: July 25, 2000
    Assignee: Andrew Corporation
    Inventors: Charles M. Knop, Edward L. Ostertag, Gregory S. Orseno, Robert C. Gunnels
  • Patent number: 6075969
    Abstract: A C-Band or Ku-Band satellite communication system uses a relatively small receiving antenna while operating within current FCC designated bandwidth and using existing satellite configurations. Aperture synthesis techniques create nulls in orbit locations from which potential interference is expected. Bandwidth inefficient modulation techniques reduce transmission power flux density. Video compression reduces the power necessary to transmit video information. These three features make possible a receiving antenna with a receiving area equivalent to that of a three foot diameter dish, at C-Band frequencies. Comparable reductions are possible for Ku-, Ka-, S- and L-Band systems. Compressing the data reduces the required transmitted power by a factor of ten. Spreading the bandwidth reduces the power density below the FCC limitation.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 9, 1997
    Date of Patent: June 13, 2000
    Assignee: Terrastar, Inc.
    Inventor: Bruce B. Lusignan
  • Patent number: 6067050
    Abstract: Due to the frequency dependence of phasing mechanisms applied in planar printed reflectors, when using planar printed reflector antennas beam squint occurs as the frequency is scanned within the operating band. In order to reduce or eliminate beam squint, an incident signal incident upon a reflector is altered in such a way that the outgoing signal retains a same direction. In an embodiment, this is achieved by providing feed elements in different locations, each feed element for feeding a signal of a different frequency. In another embodiment, two reflector arrays are used wherein beam squint caused by the first reflector array is compensated for by the second reflector array.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 22, 1998
    Date of Patent: May 23, 2000
    Assignee: Her Majesty the Queen in right of Canada, as represented by the Minister of Industry through the Communications Research Centre
    Inventors: Jafar Shaker, Apisak Ittipiboon, Michel Cuhaci
  • Patent number: 6061033
    Abstract: An antenna system includes a beam source of a microwave wave beam, a gimbaled antenna, and a waveguide including a mirror system that directs the microwave wave beam from the beam source to the antenna. The mirror system is formed of a series of mirrors operable to reflect the microwave wave beam and includes a first paraboloid mirror positioned to receive the microwave wave beam from the beam source, a first planar mirror positioned to receive the microwave wave beam from the first paraboloid mirror, a second paraboloid mirror positioned to receive the microwave wave beam from the first planar mirror, and a second planar mirror lying on the system azimuth axis and positioned to receive the microwave wave beam from the second paraboloid mirror. The first planar mirror may be controllably tilted to finely steer the aim of the microwave wave beam to the antenna.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 6, 1997
    Date of Patent: May 9, 2000
    Assignee: Raytheon Company
    Inventors: Garry N. Hulderman, Kenneth W. Brown
  • Patent number: 6052095
    Abstract: An improved dual gridded reflector antenna configuration which allows cross-polarization radiation to be scanned in any given direction. The dual-gridded reflector assembly includes a front parabolic reflector illuminated by a first source, and a second parabolic reflector illuminated by a second source. The second reflector is positioned adjacent to and behind the front reflector such that the center points of the reflectors align to define a center axis. Additionally, the first and second sources are positioned at different offsets with respect to the reflectors and have a respective rotated offset angle with respect to the center axis such that the sources define an antenna feed separation. By modifying the offsets and the rotated offset angles, the feed separation can be designed to have an inclination with respect to the north-south or east-west feed separation direction.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 10, 1999
    Date of Patent: April 18, 2000
    Assignee: Hughes Electronics Corporation
    Inventors: Parthasarathy Ramanujam, Philip H. Law, Nancy Garcia, Daniel A. White
  • Patent number: 6049312
    Abstract: An antenna system having a front reflector and a rear reflector arranged in tandem, a front feed for illuminating the front reflector, and a rear feed for illuminating the rear reflector. Each of the reflectors has a generally dish-shaped configuration, and the feeds are located in positions offset from axes of the respective reflectors. The front reflector is reflective to a first radiation, while being substantially transparent to a second radiation except for a fraction of the power of the second radiation. The fractional part of the second radiation is reflected from the first reflector as an interfering beam, the interfering beam being scanned away from a coverage region of a beam of the first radiation by an offset between the feeds. The radiations may differ in polarization or in frequency.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 11, 1998
    Date of Patent: April 11, 2000
    Assignee: Space Systems/Loral, Inc.
    Inventors: Peter Lord, Howard Luh, Sina Barkeshli, Louis B. Brydon, Jeff Zaine
  • Patent number: 6043788
    Abstract: An improved very small antenna terminal (VSAT) dual-beam antenna system for use with user subscriber terminals that communicate with low-earth orbiting and other satellites. In one embodiment, the dual-beam antenna system has two offset Gregorian dual-reflector antennas that each has an ellipsoidal subreflector and a rotatable paraboloidal reflector having a focus in common with a focus of the ellipsoidal subreflector. The rotatable paraboloidal reflector couples energy to and from the ellipsoidal subreflector. An RF feed system couples RF energy to and from the ellipsoidal subreflector. Rotating apparatus rotates the paraboloidal reflector and ellipsoidal subreflector together around an azimuth axis of the antenna. The rotating apparatus independently and simultaneously rotates the paraboloidal reflector about an axis between the paraboloidal reflector and ellipsoidal subreflector which points the antenna at an orbiting satellite.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 31, 1998
    Date of Patent: March 28, 2000
    Inventor: John M. Seavey
  • Patent number: 6031502
    Abstract: A system and method for changing the radiation pattern of an antenna assembly of a satellite in orbit is provided. The antenna assembly includes a reflector antenna fed by a feed assembly. The reflector antenna transmits and receives signals within a radiation pattern. The reflector antenna and the feed assembly are movably mounted to a sliding mechanism so that they can be displaced with respect to one another. The displacement causes defocusing as the reflector antenna is displaced from the focus point. The defocusing causes the radiation pattern to become more compact or broadened. Thus, the radiation pattern of the satellite provided with a single reflector antenna and a single feed element may be changed while the satellite is in orbit. The system and method include gimballing the reflector antenna to steer the radiation pattern.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 27, 1996
    Date of Patent: February 29, 2000
    Assignee: Hughes Electronics Corporation
    Inventors: Parthasarathy Ramanujam, Louis R. Fermelia, Cynthia A. Dixon, Miguel A. Estevez
  • Patent number: 6020859
    Abstract: The present invention provides a reflector antenna which has dual polarization with low cross polarization within the main lobe and side lobes of the radiation pattern. The antenna includes a dish-shaped main reflector with a center located, self-supporting tubular feed element and a sub-reflector mounted on the free end of the tube and located at the focal area of the main reflector. The tube and sub-reflector are separated by a space which can be open or filled with a dielectric material. The diameter of the sub-reflector is greater than the tube. The surface of the sub-reflector facing the main reflector includes one or more concentric circular corrugations which can be filled with a dielectric material.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 26, 1996
    Date of Patent: February 1, 2000
    Inventor: Per-Simon Kildal
  • Patent number: 6011521
    Abstract: An omnidirectional microwave antenna comprises a paraboloidal reflector disposed above the ground and facing downwardly with a substantially horizontal aperture and a substantially vertical axis. A vertically oriented feed horn is located below the paraboloidal reflector on the axis of the paraboloidal reflector and has a phase center located near the focal point of the paraboloidal reflector. A conical reflector having a shaped reflecting surface defined by the parameters of a mathematical equation extends downwardly away from the periphery of the feed horn for reflecting radiation received vertically from the paraboloidal reflector in a horizontal direction away from the conical reflector, and for reflecting horizontally received radiation vertically to the paraboloidal reflector.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 22, 1997
    Date of Patent: January 4, 2000
    Assignee: Andrew Corporation
    Inventors: Charles M. Knop, Edward L. Ostertag, Gregory S. Orseno, Robert Gunnels
  • Patent number: 5977923
    Abstract: A double-reflector microwave antenna of the Gregorian optics family and capable of providing an elliptical beam with a major axis that may be oriented in any desired direction of space by rotation of the sub-reflector about an axis. By adding an additional degree of freedom, that is, an independent translation of the sub-reflector and/or the main reflector along respective axes, a considerable degree of reconfigurability of the shape of the beam may be realized. In particular, the axes of the beam may be widened to vary the ratio between the axes of the elliptical beam for any orientation of the major axis or to obtain a circular beam. The inventive antenna is particularly suitable for use as on board satellites with frequency re-use in an operational environment with one or more simultaneously active beams.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 4, 1997
    Date of Patent: November 2, 1999
    Assignee: Finmeccanica S.p.A.
    Inventors: Salvatore Contu, Alberto Meschini, Roberto Mizzoni
  • Patent number: 5977926
    Abstract: A multi-focus reflector antenna for providing a plurality of antenna patterns from a single reflector structure eliminates the need for multiple reflector antennas on a single spacecraft. The multi-focus reflector antenna includes a plurality of at least partially overlapping reflecting structures on a single support structure, each reflecting structure having a focal point and a focal axis. A plurality of RF signals radiate from the focal points, at least one of which passes through at least one of the plurality of reflecting structures and is incident upon another of the plurality of reflecting structures. The plurality of reflecting structures then direct the plurality of RF signals along the plurality of focal axis and generate a plurality of antenna patterns. The multi-focus reflector has applications in communications systems and more particularly, in satellite voice and data communications, and other RF type signals.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 10, 1998
    Date of Patent: November 2, 1999
    Assignee: TRW Inc.
    Inventor: L. Dwight Gilger
  • Patent number: 5973652
    Abstract: An improved reflector antenna with far improved return loss than prior art subreflector antennas is disclosed herein. The invention uses a circular waveguide antenna feed employing a non-planar, subreflector having a radial cavity which reflects the energy from the waveguide onto a rotationally symmetrical main reflector. The dimensions of the feed tube, the subflector, and the connection between them are chosen to make the total reflection back into the feed tube very close to zero. The dimensions of the antenna feed are also chosen such that its radiation pattern has an amplitude null along the antenna feed axis. This further improves return loss by minimizing the amount of energy from the main reflector that gets directed back into the feed tube. An alternate embodiment features a feed radiation pattern with an asymmetric amplitude taper for improvement of the sidelobe envelope in a preferred plane.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 22, 1997
    Date of Patent: October 26, 1999
    Assignee: Endgate Corporation
    Inventors: John R. Sanford, William Comisky
  • Patent number: 5973654
    Abstract: A receiving antenna includes a parabolic reflector and a feed horn. The feed horn includes an electrically conductive wall with an edge forming an aperture. The feed horn further includes a plurality of electrical conductors that extend from the edge to the center of the feed horn in a substantially coplanar relationship with the aperture. Each of the electrical conductors differentially affect a first polarized electrical field perpendicular to the edge adjacent the electrical conductor and a second polarized electrical field parallel to the edge adjacent the electrical conductor. In this manner, the electrical conductors can be configured to reduce the effective aperture of the feed horn in a plane, so that a first polarized horn radiation pattern produced by the feed horn can be circularized.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 6, 1998
    Date of Patent: October 26, 1999
    Assignees: Mitsubishi Electronics America, Inc., Terrastar, Inc.
    Inventors: Bruce B. Lusignan, Arthur Karp, Tohru Takagi, Kazuo Hosono
  • Patent number: 5963175
    Abstract: An efficient multi-beam antenna system for use with a high capacity communications satellite or spacecraft that maximizes frequency re-use of the allocated frequency spectrum. The antenna system has first and second offset reflectors disposed adjacent first and second sides of the spacecraft. A first plurality of the feed horns feed the first reflector, and a second plurality of the feed horns feed the second reflector. The feed horns and offset reflectors cooperate to produce a predetermined number of beams. Even numbered beams use a set of frequencies and polarizations that are orthogonal to a set of frequencies and polarizations used by odd numbered beams. The antenna beams are contiguous in one dimension.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 22, 1998
    Date of Patent: October 5, 1999
    Assignee: CyberStar, L.P.
    Inventor: Douglas G. Burr
  • Patent number: 5959590
    Abstract: An improved subreflector antenna with lower sidelobes than prior art subreflector antennas is disclosed herein. A tapered, anisotropic, corrugated subreflector is attached to a waveguide and located at the focus of a near-parabolic deep dish main reflector. The subreflector has corrugations of varying depth. The varying depths of the corrugations result in varying reactance, or reactance taper, of the subreflector. This taper is designed in such a manner to guide or steer the energy from the antenna feed to the main reflector in such a manner as to help assure sharply reduced sidelobes. Further, the subreflector is physically shaped so as to further steer or guide the energy in the desired direction. The deep geometry of the main reflector allows the reduced sized subreflector to be positioned within the rim of the main reflector such that the combination can be covered by a flat radome.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 8, 1996
    Date of Patent: September 28, 1999
    Assignee: Endgate Corporation
    Inventors: John R. Sanford, Raymond R. Blasing, Ahmed A. Kishk
  • Patent number: 5913151
    Abstract: A C-Band or Ku-Band satellite communication system uses a relatively small receiving antenna while operating within current FCC designated bandwidth and using existing satellite configurations. Aperture synthesis techniques create nulls in orbit locations from which potential interference is expected. Bandwidth inefficient modulation techniques reduce transmission power flux density. Video compression reduces the power necessary to transmit video information. These three features make possible a receiving antenna with a receiving area equivalent to that of a three foot diameter dish, at C-Band frequencies. Comparable reductions are possible for Ku-, Ka-, S- and L-Band systems. Compressing the data reduces the required transmitted power by a factor of ten. Spreading the bandwidth reduces the power density below the FCC limitation.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 7, 1997
    Date of Patent: June 15, 1999
    Assignee: Terrastar, Inc.
    Inventor: Bruce B. Lusignan
  • Patent number: 5898529
    Abstract: A large aperture light-weight space borne telescope is provided which may be launched by a relatively small launch vehicle. A 6 to 8 meter primary telescope composed of, e.g., 30 segments arranged in two concentric rings is provided. Supplemental outer mirror segments are stowed behind and substantially perpendicular to the main mirror which is usable in the absence of supplemental mirror deployment. Deployment of outer mirrors segments provides a large aperture telescope with a large field of view. Other deployable components include a secondary mirror, a bus, deployable with respect to the optics portion, and one or more sun shade sheets or panels.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 20, 1997
    Date of Patent: April 27, 1999
    Assignee: Ball Aerospace & Technologies, Inc.
    Inventors: Wallace W. Meyer, Robert A. Woodruff
  • Patent number: 5859619
    Abstract: The problem of reducing the size of a dual offset Cassegrain reflector type microwave antenna without adversely affecting performance while retaining the simplicity of the main reflector's (1) and subreflector's (3) traditional simple surface curvatures is solved by having the paraboloidal shaped main reflector's focal length, fm, and diameter, D, fulfil the criteria that the ratio of fm to D is less than 1.0; and in which the hyperboloidal shaped subreflector (3) is oriented so that its left foci, at which the microwave feed (5) aperture is placed, lies above the main reflector's focal axis. It's subreflector subtends an angular arc about the focal point that is slightly larger than the corresponding arc subtended by the main reflector. The elegance of the compact antenna is demonstrated by improved performance, attaining efficiencies in excess of seventy three percent.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 22, 1996
    Date of Patent: January 12, 1999
    Assignee: TRW Inc.
    Inventors: Te-Kao Wu, Benny Yee, George H. Simkins
  • Patent number: 5847681
    Abstract: A communication and tracking antenna is formed by embedding a tracking patch array in a shaped dual gridded reflector. The reflector includes first and second reflector grids that have orthogonally arranged grid lines and are respectively fed by feed horns. The patch array is positioned so that the first reflector grid is between the patch array and the first feed horn. The first reflector grid thus serves as a filter to remove unwanted polarization components and enhance the quality of both the tracking radiation and the radiation that is reflected from the second reflector grid. In other embodiments, a tracking array is positioned adjacent a reflector's perimeter.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 30, 1996
    Date of Patent: December 8, 1998
    Assignee: Hughes Electronics Corporation
    Inventors: William C. Faherty, Steven O. Lane
  • Patent number: 5844527
    Abstract: Radio waves from the point f2 of the horn 7 are reflected in the diagonal direction at the sub reflector 3 for transmitting and receiving the radio waves and then further reflected at the main reflector 5 so that a fan-shaped beam narrow in the lateral direction is designed to direct in the horizontal direction, and the main reflector 5, the sub reflector 3, and the horn 7 are built into an antenna proper which is designed to be rotatable around the vertial axis 8 passing the point f2 with the rotating means 23, 24, 25 so that the structure is simplified and manufacturing costs are reduced.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 26, 1997
    Date of Patent: December 1, 1998
    Assignee: Furuno Electric Company, Limited
    Inventors: Tetsuya Takashima, Koji Yano, Tadashi Ozaki
  • Patent number: 5815124
    Abstract: A scanning antenna is disclosed including: a rotatable cylinder having an outer surface; a continuously, or steppingly, varying period conductive grating pattern of separated strips on the outer surface, the varying conductive grating pattern of separated strips defining a grating axis; and a first elongated dielectric waveguide defining a first waveguide axis, the first elongated dielectric waveguide being located proximally adjacent and alongside the varying conductive grating pattern of separated strips so as to evanescently couple electromagnetic signals with the first elongated dielectric waveguide. The scanning antenna provides advantages in that the gain is high.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 30, 1996
    Date of Patent: September 29, 1998
    Assignee: Physical Optics Corporation
    Inventors: Vladimir A. Manasson, Lev S. Sadovnik, Paul I. Shnitser
  • Patent number: 5790077
    Abstract: A method for designing a shaped dual reflector antenna comprising the initial selection of a hyperboloidal or ellipsoidal reflective surface profile for the main reflector such that the cross-polarization of the contoured output RF signal beam of the resulting antenna structure is reduced.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 17, 1996
    Date of Patent: August 4, 1998
    Assignee: Space Systems/Loral, Inc.
    Inventors: Howard H. Luh, Peter W. Lord
  • Patent number: 5751254
    Abstract: A feed transport device for moving a feed within a non-planar focal surface defined by a satellite communications antenna, comprises first and second non-linear rails, and a feed transport unit comprising a feed support member for supporting the feed, and first and second slidable members slidably mounted on said first and second rails respectively to permit each slidable member to slide along the length of its respective rail, wherein one end of the feed support member is pivotally attached, not necessarily about a single pivot axis, to the first slidable member, the other end of the feed support member is both slidably and pivotally, again not necessarily about a single axis, attached to the second slidable member, and the first and second rails are shaped and positioned to maintain the feed in, or near to, said focal plane during movement of the feed support member along the first and second rails.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 21, 1997
    Date of Patent: May 12, 1998
    Assignee: Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation
    Inventors: Trevor S. Bird, Mark A. Sprey, Ian J. McInnes, Warren J. Hancock, Stephen R. Wilson
  • Patent number: 5745084
    Abstract: A data transmitting/receiving satellite terminal for transmitting to and receiving from a geosynchronous satellite employs an antenna having nulls in its antenna receiving pattern at a first frequency corresponding to satellites spaced at regular intervals from the satellite. In addition, a phase and amplitude compensation network adjusts a phase and amplitude of the transmitted signal to compensate for transmitting at a different frequency than for which the antenna is optimally designed. The antenna includes a main parabolic reflector, and two side parabolic reflectors offset from a plane parallel to the main parabolic reflector. Each of the reflectors uses a dual frequency feed horn to couple energy to and from the reflector to a dipole exciter to which the receiving electronics is coupled. The above terminal is particularly useful in C-Band applications.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 13, 1995
    Date of Patent: April 28, 1998
    Inventor: Bruce B. Lusignan
  • Patent number: 5714947
    Abstract: A collision avoidance system for a vehicle has a vehicle steering sensor for sensing a direction in which the vehicle is being steered, a source of radiation, an articulated reflector for directing radiation from the source in a desired direction, an articulation mechanism for effecting articulation of the articulate reflector, and a close loop control circuit responsive to the vehicle steering sensor for controlling the articulation mechanism so as to cause the articulated reflector to direct radiation in a direction which is generally the same as that direction in which the vehicle is turning.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 28, 1997
    Date of Patent: February 3, 1998
    Assignee: Northrop Grumman Corporation
    Inventors: David L. Richardson, Raj Mittra, Leonard J. Kuskowski
  • Patent number: 5706017
    Abstract: A hybrid antenna including a dielectric lens-antenna in the shape of an extended hemispherical dielectric lens than is operated in the diffraction limited regime. The dielectric lens-antenna is fed by a planar-structure antenna. The planar antenna is mounted on the flat side of the dielectric lens-antenna, using it as a substrate. An optimum extension distance is found experimentally and numerically for which excellent beam patterns and simultaneously high aperture efficiencies can be achieved. The hybrid antenna is diffraction limited, space efficient in an array due to its high aperture efficiency, and is easily mass produced, thus being well suited for focal place receiver arrays.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 21, 1993
    Date of Patent: January 6, 1998
    Assignee: California Institute of Technology
    Inventor: Thomas H. Buttgenbach
  • Patent number: 5684494
    Abstract: The invention provides a reflector antenna, especially for a communications satellite, having at least one fixed main reflector (102) with an essentially circular aperture. A fixed feed system (118) includes a horn radiator (108) with a rotationally symmetric radiation diagram and a fixed polarization direction. An auxiliary reflector may be arranged to be rotationally positionable around a main axis (E) and has a reflecting surface that is shaped as a partial surface of a nonrotationally symmetric ellipsoid with a low numerical eccentricity, which illuminates main reflector (102) elliptically with an ellipticity that is essentially constant regardless of the rotational position.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 15, 1995
    Date of Patent: November 4, 1997
    Assignee: Daimler-Benz Aerospace AG
    Inventors: Norbert Nathrath, Helmut Wolf, Ludwig Haas, Manfred Lieke, Detlev Blaschke
  • Patent number: 5673056
    Abstract: A pair of dual-gridded shaped reflectors (10) and (20) are arranged one behind the other for transmitting and receiving orthogonally polarized energy waves. A front reflector (10) has a first shaped reflective surface (12) formed on a first body surface (14) for providing a first shaped beam coverage. A rear reflector (20) has a second reflective surface (22) formed on a second body surface (24) for providing a second shaped beam coverage. The first and second reflective surfaces (12) and (22) have substantially identical surface contours and include reflective grids (13) and (23). The reflective grids (13) and (23) are orthogonal with respect to each other so as to handle orthogonally polarized energy. The first and second shaped reflective surfaces (12) and (22) are arranged offset and tandem from each other so as to provide first and second focal points (16) and (26) separate from each other while providing substantially identical first and second shaped beam coverages (15) and (25).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 14, 1995
    Date of Patent: September 30, 1997
    Assignee: Hughes Electronics
    Inventors: Parthasarathy Ramanujam, Eng-Chong Ha, Thomas A. Bockrath
  • Patent number: 5652597
    Abstract: An electronically-scanned two-beam antenna designed for being installed on board a moving platform, and in particular a satellite. The antenna of the invention comprises a single, complex reflector whose reflectivity is responsive to the polarization with which it is illuminated, and associated with two arrays of orthogonally-polarized sources that illuminate the complex reflector using an offset configuration. The complex reflector is made up of two reflectors placed one in front of the other in the beam propagation direction. The first reflector is transparent to a first linear polarization and reflective to an orthogonal polarization, while the second reflector is reflective at least for the first polarization. The two resulting beams thus propagate in different directions, both parallel to the trajectory of the platform. Electronic scanning is provided in a plane perpendicular to the orbit plane.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 16, 1994
    Date of Patent: July 29, 1997
    Assignee: Alcatel Espace
    Inventor: Gerard Caille
  • Patent number: 5581265
    Abstract: A reflector antenna assembly for dual linear polarization includes at least two feeds and two reflectors. At least one reflector has a surface which is nominally electrically transparent to linearly polarized radiation in one direction and is located in front of the other reflector so as to be closer to said feeds. At least one of the reflectors is profiled in a manner such as to enable it to generate at least one complex contoured beam while using one of said feeds.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 23, 1994
    Date of Patent: December 3, 1996
    Assignee: Matra Marconi Space UK Limited
    Inventors: Simon J. Stirland, Dharam P. S. Malik
  • Patent number: 5579021
    Abstract: Compact, microwave scanned antennas include combinations of a radiator, a reflector and a mirror. The radiator is formed by plating a shaped dielectric core. It generates an antenna beam at an output aperture in response to a microwave signal at an input port. The wavefront orientation of the antenna beam is a function of the wavefront orientation of the microwave signal at the input port. Changing the angular relationship between the path of the microwave signal and the input port changes the wavefront orentation of the antenna beam and, therefore, its beam axis. Pivoting the reflector realizes the desired angular change in the microwave signal path. Alternatively, the reflector can be fixed and the mirror pivoted to vary the microwave signal path. Antenna embodiments can be physically realized with a single moving part, the shaped dielectric is easy to form and when configured to operate at a high frequency, e.g., 77 GHz, the antenna is small enough to fit behind an automobile license plate.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 17, 1995
    Date of Patent: November 26, 1996
    Assignee: Hughes Aircraft Company
    Inventor: Jar J. Lee
  • Patent number: 5576721
    Abstract: A composite antenna for use in satellite communication provides both the functions of multiple beams and a shaped beam radiated from a single radiating aperture. The radiating aperture may employ a mirror or a lens. Transmitted radiation from an array of radiators is coupled via a subreflector to the main reflector or lens which constitutes the radiating aperture of the antenna system. During reception of radiant-energy signals, signals received by the main reflector or lens are coupled via a separate subreflector to a separate array of receiving radiators operated at a frequency band different from that of the transmit array. The two subreflectors are combined into a single subreflector assembly employing a metallic concave reflector covered by a layer or coating of frequency selective optical material which allows for propagation of radiation at one frequency to the metal reflector while reflecting radiation in the other frequency band from a surface of the coating.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 21, 1994
    Date of Patent: November 19, 1996
    Assignee: Space Systems/Loral, Inc.
    Inventors: Yeongming Hwang, Vito J. Jakstys
  • Patent number: 5572228
    Abstract: A scanning antenna is disclosed including: a rotatable cylinder having an outer surface; a varying period conductive grating pattern of separated strips on the outer surface, the varying conductive grating pattern of separated strips defining a grating axis; and a first elongated dielectric waveguide defining a first waveguide axis, the first elongated dielectric waveguide being located proximally adjacent and alongside the varying conductive grating pattern of separated strips so as to evanescently couple electromagnetic signals with the first elongated dielectric waveguide. The scanning antenna provides advantages in that the gain is high.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 1, 1995
    Date of Patent: November 5, 1996
    Assignee: Physical Optics Corporation
    Inventors: Vladimir A. Manasson, Lev S. Sadovnik, Paul I. Shnitser
  • Patent number: 5557292
    Abstract: An antenna has one feed for an S-band electromagnetic signal, and a second feed constructed as an array of radiators to service two C-band signal channels. A subreflector having a microwave frequency selective surface (FSS) is placed in front of a main reflector. The C-band feed is constructed of an array of square aperture horns joined by separate transmit and receive barline beam-forming networks, and a meanderline polarizer to produce circularly polarized radiation patterns. Tapered ridges extend longitudinally along inner wall surfaces of each of the horns to provide increased bandwidth to the C-band feed. The frequency selective surface is constructed, typically, of a generally planar substrate of material transparent to electromagnetic radiation, and numerous metallic, generally annular, radiating elements, or resonators, arranged on the substrate in an array of repeating nested sets of the radiating elements.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 22, 1994
    Date of Patent: September 17, 1996
    Assignee: Space Systems/Loral, Inc.
    Inventors: Evert C. Nygren, Peter W. Lord, Vito J. Jakstys, Sina Barkeshli, Levent Ersoy
  • Patent number: 5512913
    Abstract: An flat panel antenna for reflecting several microwave frequencies without adjusting to maximize frequency gain. Reflector surfaces propagate from a central axis and using declining inclined surfaces that focus reflected signals into a scaler collector set at a predetermined focal point from the surface of the panel. The shape of the antenna reflect signals with different frequencies by delay so that the scaler collector can process the signals separately.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 14, 1994
    Date of Patent: April 30, 1996
    Inventor: Michael W. Staney
  • Patent number: 5486838
    Abstract: An omnidirectional microwave antenna comprises a conical reflector and a conical feed horn. The conical reflector has a reflecting surface defined by a cone having an axis and a surface of revolution around the axis. The line of intersection between the surface of revolution and a plane passing through the axis and the surface of revolution is a segment of a parabolic curve. The reflector includes a flange extending outward from an outermost circumference of the surface of revolution of the cone. The conical feed horn feeds microwave energy to the conical reflector from a location along the axis of the cone. The feed horn has an aperture whose center is located approximately at the apex of the cone. The flange has absorptive material mounted thereto for absorbing microwave energy impinging thereon.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 19, 1994
    Date of Patent: January 23, 1996
    Assignee: Andrew Corporation
    Inventor: Geza Dienes
  • Patent number: 5485168
    Abstract: A multiband satellite communication antenna system includes a primary reflector and one or more movable subreflectors. A system with one subreflector operates at a first band when the subreflector is in a deployed position and reflects energy between a first feed and the primary antenna. When the subreflector is at a second, stowed, position, the primary reflector operates directly into a second feed. A communication antenna system with two subreflectors can operate at three bands under the conditions of having either both subreflectors stowed; the first subreflector deployed and the second subreflector stowed; or both subreflectors deployed.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 21, 1994
    Date of Patent: January 16, 1996
    Assignee: Electrospace Systems, Inc.
    Inventor: Sharad V. Parekh
  • Patent number: 5459475
    Abstract: A novel method for calculating the surface shapes for subreflectors in a suboptic assembly of a tri-reflector spherical antenna system is introduced, modeled from a generalization of Galindo-Israel's method of solving partial differential equations to correct for spherical aberration and provide uniform feed to aperture mapping. In a first embodiment, the suboptic assembly moves as a single unit to achieve scan while the main reflector remains stationary. A feed horn is tilted during scan to maintain the illuminated area on the main spherical reflector fixed throughout the scan thereby eliminating the need to oversize the main spherical reflector. In an alternate embodiment, both the main spherical reflector and the suboptic assembly are fixed. A flat mirror is used to create a virtual image of the suboptic assembly. Scan is achieved by rotating the mirror about the spherical center of the main reflector.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 22, 1993
    Date of Patent: October 17, 1995
    Assignees: Center for Innovative Technology, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Virginia Tech Intellectual Properties, Inc.
    Inventors: Bing Shen, Warren L. Stutzman
  • Patent number: 5426443
    Abstract: Dielectric body 20 has a back surface 18, a surface of revolution about an axis 9-9. Back surface 18 has the form of a primary reflector of an antenna for transmitting or receiving microwave or millimeter wave electromagnetic radiation. A layer 15 of electrically conductive material is in contact with back surface 18. Dielectric body 20 also has a dome 23, a coaxial surface of revolution. A layer 25 of electrically conductive material is in contact with dome 23. A horn 40 fits on a protrusion 17 of dielectric body 20. Protrusion 17 aligns horn 40 on axis 9-9. The axial dimension of dielectric body 20 maintains the proper spacing between horn 40, conductive layer 25, and conductive layer 15 to enable the assembly to function as an antenna system. In the configuration shown, conductive layer 15, in contact with surface 18, forms a paraboloidal primary reflector. Conductive layer 25 , in contact with dome 23, forms the concave ellipsoidal secondary reflector of a Gregorian antenna system.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 18, 1994
    Date of Patent: June 20, 1995
    Inventor: James R. Jenness, Jr.
  • Patent number: 5402137
    Abstract: Equalized offset fed east and west shaped reflectors (12) and (14) and technique for producing the same are provided herein. A first shaped reflector (12) has a first shaped reflective surface (3) formed to provide a first shaped beam radiation pattern (22). Dimensional deviations such as deviations (X) and (Y) are measured between the first shaped reflective surface (13) and a parent surface (30). A second shaped reflector (14) is formed with a shaped reflective surface (15) which has dimensional deviations superimposed on the other side of the parent surface (30). The second shaped reflector (12) is rotated 180 degrees relative to the first shaped reflector (14). The first and second shaped reflectors (12) and (14) are then placed in a configuration opposite one another and have shaped beam radiation patterns (22) and (24) which are substantially equal to one another. In addition, feed horns (18) and (20) are operatively coupled to the first and second shaped reflective surfaces (13) and (15) respectively.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 11, 1994
    Date of Patent: March 28, 1995
    Assignee: Hughes Aircraft Company
    Inventors: Parthasarathy Ramanujam, Alan R. Keith, Robert T. Clark
  • Patent number: 5373302
    Abstract: A multireflector antenna utilizes a frequency-selective surface (FSS) in a subreflector to allow signals in two different RF bands to be selectively reflected back into a main reflector and to allow signals in other RF bands to be transmitted through it to the main reflector for primary focus transmission. A first approach requires only one FSS at the subreflector which may be an array of double-square-loop conductive elements. A second approach uses two FSS's at the subreflector which may be an array of either double-square-loop (DSL) or double-ring (DR). In the case of DR elements, they may be advantageously arranged in a triangular array instead of the rectangular array for the DSL elements.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 23, 1993
    Date of Patent: December 13, 1994
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration
    Inventor: Te-Kao Wu
  • Patent number: 5357260
    Abstract: An antenna scanned by frequency variation, comprising: exciter means for producing a plane electromagnetic wave at a given frequency which is variable about a center frequency; and radiating means receiving the plane wave produced by the exciter means and subjecting the plane wave to a plurality of successive reflections, the radiating means including means for allowing a fraction of the plane wave to leak to the outside after each successive reflection in order to enable it to radiate to the outside; the phase shift of the wave between two reflections varying as a function of the frequency of the wave and the set of radiated waves produced in this manner thus having a determined relative phase difference, which is variable as a function of the frequency of the wave generated by the exciter means and which defines transmission having a main lobe whose direction is itself variable as a function of the said frequency.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 15, 1993
    Date of Patent: October 18, 1994
    Inventors: Antonine Roederer, Markus Kari
  • Patent number: 5321413
    Abstract: An offset type active antenna having two reflectors in a periscopic configuration. A radio lens is provided at the focii of the two reflectors. It comprises a collector and a primary array that is considerably larger in size than the collector. The "small" sources of the collector are in a geographically identical one-to-one correspondence with the "big" sources of the primary array, and they are respectively connected together via devices for providing fine phase adjustment.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 23, 1992
    Date of Patent: June 14, 1994
    Assignee: Alcatel Espace
    Inventor: Regis Lenormand
  • Patent number: 5302962
    Abstract: An antenna system for producing a millimeter wave beam having a Gaussian distribution uses a high power source and a partial mode converter operatively coupled to the source and reviving from the source a T.sub.m,n mode wave which might either be TE.sub.m,n or TM.sub.m,n'. The converter delivers a mixture of modes including the mode T.sub.m,n at a relative power rate of 70 to 85% and at a relative phase 0, and at least one of the following additional modes, namely T.sub.m,n-1 at a relative power rate of 10 to 20% and at relative phase .pi., and TE.sub.m,n+1 at a relative power rate of 10 to 20% and at relative phase .pi.. The mixture of modes is applied to a collimation reflector (3, 10), having a concentration point (5) constituting the antenna system outlet. The antenna system can convert any T.sub.m,n mode into a linearly polarized narrow beam of very high power (about 1 MW) and and of high frequencies above 100 GHz.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 23, 1991
    Date of Patent: April 12, 1994
    Assignee: European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom)
    Inventors: Luigi Rebuffi, Manfred Thumm
  • Patent number: 5160937
    Abstract: A dual reflector antenna system capable of passing radiation to or from a shaped coverage area by means of a single feed, a three dimensional main reflector surface and a three dimensional subreflector surface. Desired levels and/or characteristics of radiation incident upon or received from selected regions of said coverage area are defined, and actual radiation levels and/or characteristics for said regions by modifying both said reflector surfaces are optimized simultaneously. The optimization is achieved by iteratively determining levels and/or characteristics of radiation incident upon or received from each of said regions and obtaining the least favorable value of level and/or characteristic and modifying said reflector surfaces simultaneously to obtain an improved least favorable value of level and/or characteristic.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 12, 1991
    Date of Patent: November 3, 1992
    Assignee: British Aerospace Public Limited Company
    Inventors: Robert H. Fairlie, Simon J. Stirland
  • Patent number: RE34410
    Abstract: A satellite communications system employs separate subsystems for providing broadcast and point-to-point two-way communications using the same assigned frequency band. The broadcast and point-to-point subsystems employ an integrated satellite antenna system which uses a common reflector (12). The point-to-point subsystem achieves increased communication capacity through the reuse of the assigned frequency band over multiple, contiguous zones (32, 34, 36, 38) covering the area of the earth to be serviced. Small aperture terminals in the zones are serviced by a plurality of high gain downlink fan beams (29) steered in the east-west direction by frequency address. A special beam-forming network (98) provides in conjunction with an array antenna (20) the multiple zone frequency address function. The satellite (10) employs a filter interconnection matrix (90 ) for connecting earth terminals in different zones in a manner which permits multiple reuse of the entire band of assigned frequencies.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 4, 1991
    Date of Patent: October 19, 1993
    Assignee: Hughes Aircraft Company
    Inventor: Harold A. Rosen