Fluid Filter Or Fluid Mirror Patents (Class 359/358)
  • Patent number: 8379302
    Abstract: A system for controlling an infrared light distribution pattern that includes an electrowetting lens arranged proximate to an infrared light source, and operable to vary a distribution pattern of infrared light from the infrared light source into an area; an electrowetting shutter overlaying the electrowetting lens, and operable to an opaque state where infrared light from the infrared light source is blocked from projecting into at least a portion of the area, and operable to a transparent state where infrared light passes through the electrowetting shutter; an object detector configured to detect an object in the area; and a controller configured to receive a detection signal from the object detector, and operate the electrowetting lens and the electrowetting shutter in order to control the infrared light distribution pattern based on a location of the object. The pattern may be uniform or may be customized for the object being heated.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 20, 2011
    Date of Patent: February 19, 2013
    Assignee: Delphi Technologies, Inc.
    Inventors: Frederick F. Kuhlman, Dwadasi H.R. Sarma, Nasser Lukmani
  • Patent number: 8289499
    Abstract: Spectral purity of a radiation beam of a first wavelength may be improved by providing an optical element that includes a structure having at least first layer including a first material, which structure is configured to be substantially reflective for a radiation of the first wavelength and substantially transparent or absorptive for a radiation of a second wavelength, a second layer including a second material, the second layer being configured to be substantially reflective, absorptive or scattering for the radiation of the second wavelength, and vacuum between the first layer and the second layer, wherein the first layer is located upstream in the optical path of incoming radiation with respect to the second layer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 30, 2009
    Date of Patent: October 16, 2012
    Assignee: ASML Netherlands B.V.
    Inventors: Wouter Anthon Soer, Maarten Marinus Johannes Wilhelmus Van Herpen
  • Publication number: 20120174477
    Abstract: The invention proposes numerous aspects for improving greenhouses which may lead to durable improvement of the worldwide climate system.
    Type: Application
    Filed: March 16, 2012
    Publication date: July 12, 2012
    Applicant: Sunvention International GmbH
    Inventor: Juergen KLEINWAECHTER
  • Publication number: 20120092758
    Abstract: A nanocomposite, comprising single-wall and/or multi-wall one-dimensional nanomaterials, and at least one nanooxide of at least one transition metal, said nanooxide filling said nanotubes and covering their walls. A process for preparing such a nanocomposite and an optical limiting device comprising such a nanocomposite in suspension in a medium that is transparent to visible and infrared radiation are disclosed.
    Type: Application
    Filed: February 16, 2010
    Publication date: April 19, 2012
    Applicants: Institut Franco-Allemand De Recherche De Saint Louis, Centre National De La Recherche Scientifique - CNRS
    Inventors: Valerie Keller-Spitzer, Anne Teissier, Yves Lutz, Jean-Pierre Moeglin, Olivier Muller, Fabrice Lacroix
  • Patent number: 7841728
    Abstract: An image display apparatus 100 that displays an image using a light modulated according to an image signal includes a projection optical system 90 that includes a projection lens 20, a first mirror 30 that reflects a light from the projection lens 20, and a second mirror 40 that widens an angle of a light from the first mirror 30 by reflecting the light, and projects the light modulated according to the image signal from an optical engine unit 10; a third mirror 50 that reflects a light from the projection optical system 90; and a screen 50 that transmits a light from the third mirror 50. The projection lens 20 and the second mirror 40 are arranged in such a manner that an optical axis of the projection lens 20 substantially matches an optical axis of the second mirror 40, and shift the light from the optical engine unit 10 to a specific side from the optical axis of the projection lens 20.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 19, 2006
    Date of Patent: November 30, 2010
    Assignee: Seiko Epson Corporation
    Inventors: Eiji Morikuni, Masatoshi Yonekubo, Toshihiko Sakai, Shunji Kamijima
  • Patent number: 7763872
    Abstract: A system for providing extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation comprises a laser source arranged to produce a laser beam having a focus; and a carrier movable relative to the laser source for carrying a surface material, the surface material when carried by the carrier providing a renewable target edge. The focussed beam is arranged to impinge on the target edge to produce an EUV radiation emitting plasma. The system is cooperable with a mirror for harnessing the EUV radiation by reflecting EUV radiation impinging thereon. The mirror comprises a substantially aspheric surface and means for supplying a reflecting liquid to at least partially coat the aspheric surface, the mirror being rotatable to centrifugally confine the liquid to the aspheric surface.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 23, 2006
    Date of Patent: July 27, 2010
    Assignee: University College Dublin, National University of Ireland, Dublin
    Inventors: Fergal O'Reilly, Patrick Hayden, Gerard O'Sullivan, Padraig Dunne
  • Patent number: 7763869
    Abstract: A UV light irradiating apparatus for irradiating a semiconductor substrate with UV light includes: a reactor in which a substrate-supporting table is provided; a UV light irradiation unit connected to the reactor for irradiating a semiconductor substrate placed on the substrate-supporting table with UV light through a light transmission window; and a liquid layer forming channel disposed between the light transmission window and at least one UV lamp for forming a liquid layer through which the UV light is transmitted. The liquid layer is formed by a liquid flowing through the liquid layer forming channel.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 23, 2007
    Date of Patent: July 27, 2010
    Assignee: ASM Japan K.K.
    Inventors: Kiyohiro Matsushita, Kenichi Kagami
  • Patent number: 7755070
    Abstract: The invention is directed to an arrangement for the suppression of unwanted spectral components (‘out-of-band’ radiation, as it is called) in a plasma-based radiation source. The object of the invention is to find a novel possibility for the suppression of unwanted spectral components in radiation exiting from a plasma-based EUV radiation source which permits a simple suppression of out-of-band radiation outside the desired EUV range without requiring costly manufacturing and adjustment of diffraction gratings. This object is met according to the invention in that a filter unit is provided between the plasma and an application location of the EUV radiation, which filter unit has at least one gas curtain comprising at least one rapidly flowing gas whose molecules have no absorption maxima for the desired EUV radiation and intensive absorption maxima for other, unwanted wavelengths that are emitted, at least in the IR region.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 6, 2006
    Date of Patent: July 13, 2010
    Assignee: XTREME technologies GmbH
    Inventors: René De Bruijn, Chinh Duc Tran, Bjoern Mader, Jesko Brudermann, Juergen Kleinschmidt
  • Patent number: 7747127
    Abstract: A plurality of optical members (lenses) for use in ultraviolet region are mutually stuck. A fluorine-based organic compound (for example, fluorine-based oil) is provided between them. The periphery of the optical members is sealed with a sealant. As the sealant, an adhesive fluorine resin, for example, a soluble fluorine resin is used.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 6, 2006
    Date of Patent: June 29, 2010
    Assignee: Kabushiki Kaisha Topcon
    Inventor: Takashi Takahashi
  • Patent number: 7598508
    Abstract: Spectral-purity filters (SPFS) are disclosed that produce a stream of “SPF gas” through which a beam of light, particularly a beam including extreme ultraviolet (EUV) light, is allowed to pass. The SPF can be located in a system that receives a beam of EUV-containing light from a source and delivers the beam to a downstream EUV-optical system, wherein the beam from the source passes through the SPF to the optical system. The gaseous SPF is formulated and configured to enrich the beam in at least one EUV wavelength as the beam passes through the gaseous SPF. For enrichment of EUV wavelengths, an exemplary SPF gas is ZrCl4. The stream of SPF gas can be sheathed in an inert “sheath gas.” The gaseous SPF is usable in a vacuum environment, in which used SPF gas, and sheath gas if used, is collected.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 23, 2006
    Date of Patent: October 6, 2009
    Assignee: Nikon Corporation
    Inventor: Michael R. Sogard
  • Publication number: 20090116100
    Abstract: To improve an optical property of a near-infrared-absorbing PDP filter and suppress a manufacturing cost. The present invention provides a dispersion liquid for near-infrared-absorbing adhesive-body. The dispersion liquid includes, in a solvent, one or more types of nanoparticles selected from a tungsten oxide nanoparticle and a composite tungsten oxide nanoparticle, and an acryl-based polymer dispersant is added to the dispersion liquid. The average dispersed nanoparticle diameter of the tungsten oxide nanoparticles and the composite tungsten oxide nanoparticles is equal to or smaller than 800 nm.
    Type: Application
    Filed: November 4, 2008
    Publication date: May 7, 2009
    Applicant: SUMITOMO METAL MINING CO., LTD.
    Inventors: Yosuke Ota, Atsushi Tofuku
  • Patent number: 7527680
    Abstract: Data of a barometric pressure that a barometric pressure sensor outputs, and data of an air volume that an air-volume sensor outputs are input into a system control circuit. The system control circuit is provided with a table storing portion. In the table storing portion, a control table is stored. The control table is formed of a plus supplied-voltage value to fan power set by a barometric pressure value and an air-volume value, and a warning instruction. In a case that the warning instruction is selected based on the barometric pressure value and the air-volume value, the system control circuit turns on a warning-use LED so as to inform a user that a filter is clogged.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 21, 2005
    Date of Patent: May 5, 2009
    Assignee: Sanyo Electric Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Hirotake Horiguchi, Takeshi Higashino, Ryosuke Sato
  • Publication number: 20090027767
    Abstract: A novel method makes it possible to form cavities intended to contain a liquid with determined optical properties within a film for optical use. The walls (38) of the cavities (40) are formed by plasma etching of a layer of transparent or light absorbent material (30, 34) transferred onto a microtechnological substrate, the walls (38) having a structured profile in order to limit the parasitic phenomena of light diffusion and diffraction.
    Type: Application
    Filed: February 6, 2007
    Publication date: January 29, 2009
    Applicant: COMMISSARIAT A L'ENERGIE ATOMIQUE
    Inventors: Jean-Charles Souriau, Nicolas Sillon, Jean-Pierre Joly
  • Patent number: 7414794
    Abstract: An autofocus unit is provided to an immersion lithography apparatus in which a fluid is disposed over a target surface of a workpiece and an image pattern is projected onto this target surface through the fluid. The autofocus unit has an optical element such as a projection lens disposed opposite and above the target surface. An autofocus light source is arranged to project a light beam obliquely at a specified angle such that this light beam passes through the fluid and is reflected by the target surface of the workpiece at a specified reflection position that is below the optical element. A receiver receives and analyzes the reflected light. Correction lenses may be disposed on the optical path of the light beam for correcting propagation of the light beam.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 26, 2005
    Date of Patent: August 19, 2008
    Assignee: Nikon Corporation
    Inventor: W. Thomas Novak
  • Patent number: 7359117
    Abstract: A illumination device for microscope, which has a illumination axis, includes illumination unit, which emits rays of illumination light, for illuminating a specimen, a field stop projection lens, which is located on the illumination axis between the illumination unit and specimen, a light deflector array, which is located on the illumination axis between the illumination unit and field stop projection lens in conjugation with the specimen, the light deflector array having micro optical deflection portions, which individually deflect the rays of illumination light from the illumination unit, and switch unit for switching between a state in which the rays of illumination light is applied to the specimen and a state in which the rays of illumination light is not applied to the specimen.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 26, 2004
    Date of Patent: April 15, 2008
    Assignee: Olympus Corporation
    Inventors: Keiji Shimizu, Yasushi Aono
  • Patent number: 7256932
    Abstract: An optical system for ultraviolet light having wavelengths ??200 nm, which may be designed in particular as a catadioptric projection objective for microlithography, has a plurality of optical elements including optical elements made of synthetic quartz glass or a fluoride crystal material transparent to a wavelength ??200 nm. At least two of the optical elements are utilized for forming at least one liquid lens group including a first delimiting optical element, a second delimiting optical element, and a liquid lens, which is arranged in an interspace between the first delimiting optical element and the second delimiting optical element and contains a liquid transparent to ultraviolet light having wavelengths ??200 nm. This enables effective correction of chromatic aberrations even in the case of systems that are difficult to correct chromatically.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 19, 2005
    Date of Patent: August 14, 2007
    Assignee: Carl Zeiss SMT AG
    Inventors: Alexander Epple, Toralf Gruner, Wolfgang Singer
  • Patent number: 7196842
    Abstract: An attenuating filter provides a prescribed attenuation of the intensity of transmitted, short-wavelength, ultraviolet light, in particular, at wavelengths below 200 nm, that is governed by a predefinable spatial distribution of its spectral transmittance. The filter has a transparent substrate (3), e.g. fabricated from crystalline calcium fluoride. A filter coating (5) fabricated from a dielectric material that absorbs over a predefined wavelength range is applied to at least one surface (4) of the substrate. In the case of operating wavelengths of about 193 nm, the filter coating consists largely of tantalum pentoxide. Filters of the type, which may be inexpensively fabricated with high yields, are noted for their high abilities to withstand laser radiation and may be effectively antireflection coated employing simply designed antireflection coatings.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 29, 2004
    Date of Patent: March 27, 2007
    Assignee: Carl Zeiss SMT AG
    Inventors: Bernhard Weigl, Hans-Jochen Paul, Eric Eva
  • Patent number: 7119952
    Abstract: An exposure apparatus for exposing a substrate to ultraviolet light via a pattern of a reticle. The apparatus includes an optical element disposed on a path of the ultraviolet light extending from a light source to the substrate, a holder configured to hold the optical element, and a container configured to accommodate the optical element therein. The container has a partition wall with an opening through which the holder extends. The partition wall and the holder have a gap therebetween inside the opening. The holder is configured to move in a range of the opening so as to adjust a position of the optical element. The partition wall and the holder is configured so that a portion of the gap can be filled with a detachable filling cover. The apparatus further includes an outer cover detachably mounted on the container to cover the partition wall gas-tightly, and a supplier configured to supply inert gas into the container.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 2, 2004
    Date of Patent: October 10, 2006
    Assignee: Canon Kabushiki Kaisha
    Inventor: Sumitada Yamamoto
  • Patent number: 7099080
    Abstract: An autostereoscopic lenticular screen has a lenticular screen held in juxtaposition with a display surface. The lenticular screen has lenticules disposed on one side thereof and a smooth surface on the other side thereof. In one aspect of the invention, a closed chamber is formed over the lenticules. In order to deactivate the refractive properties of the lenticular screen, and thereby view the display in a planar mode, an optically clear fluid, such as a fluoropolymer, is introduced into at least a portion of the closed chamber. In order to activate the refractive properties of the lenticular screen, and thereby view the display in a stereoscopic mode, the optically clear fluid is removed from the closed chamber. In a particularly preferred arrangement, the lenticular screen is oriented such that the lenticules face inwardly toward the display screen, and the smooth surface of the lenticular screen is coated with an antireflective material.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 30, 2001
    Date of Patent: August 29, 2006
    Assignee: Stereo Graphics Corporation
    Inventors: Lenny Lipton, William McKee, Jeffrey James Halnon
  • Patent number: 7038867
    Abstract: A filter for a display system is provided which includes a fluid chamber having a selectively moveable filtering fluid, plural electrodes being coupled with the fluid chamber to accommodate establishment of an electric field whereby the filtering fluid may be selectively positioned in an optical path.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 14, 2005
    Date of Patent: May 2, 2006
    Assignee: Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P.
    Inventors: Steven W. Steinfield, Mohammad M. Samii, Jack H. Schmidt, Matthew Giere, David Tyvoll, Noah Lassar, Winthrop D. Childers
  • Patent number: 6920000
    Abstract: A filter for a display system is provided which includes a fluid chamber having a selectively moveable filtering fluid, plural electrodes being coupled with the fluid chamber to accommodate establishment of an electric field whereby the filtering fluid may be selectively positioned in an optical path.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 19, 2002
    Date of Patent: July 19, 2005
    Assignee: Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P.
    Inventors: Steven W. Steinfield, Mohammad M. Samii, Jack H. Schmidt, Matthew Giere, David Tyvoll, Noah Lassar, Winthrop D. Childers
  • Patent number: 6795237
    Abstract: An illuminator system (16) for an interior cabin (12) of a vehicle (14) includes a light source (72) and a beam-forming optic (100) that is optically coupled to the light source. The optic (100) forms an illumination pattern (22) that is directed forward of the vehicle (14). A housing (58) supports the beam-forming optic (100) along a roofline (47) and window perimeter (48) of the vehicle (14).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 2, 2003
    Date of Patent: September 21, 2004
    Assignees: Ford Motor Company, Lear Corporation
    Inventors: Michael A. Marinelli, Radek Zlamal
  • Publication number: 20040057143
    Abstract: A filter for a display system is provided which includes a fluid chamber having a selectively moveable filtering fluid, plural electrodes being coupled with the fluid chamber to accommodate establishment of an electric field whereby the filtering fluid may be selectively positioned in an optical path.
    Type: Application
    Filed: September 19, 2002
    Publication date: March 25, 2004
    Inventors: Steven W. Steinfield, Mohammad M. Samii, Jack H. Schmidt, Matthew Giere, David Tyvoll, Noah Lassar, Winthrop D. Childers
  • Patent number: 6603601
    Abstract: The present invention provides an infrared laser optical element, in which a dense optical thin film with a low laser absorption and high moisture resistance is formed on the surface thereof, and a manufacturing method for the same. In this infrared laser optical element, the main surface of the optical substrate is smoothed, a BaF2 film formed on said main surface thereof and then a ZnSe film formed on said BaF2 film. The smoothing treatment for the main surface of the optical substrate is carried out by irradiating Xe gas ion beams. The BaF2 and the ZnSe films formed on said BaF2 film are formed on the main surface of the optical substrate, which has been smoothed, by Xe gas ion assisted vapor deposition. Superior performance can be achieved if the series of treatments are carried out under the specified conditions.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 7, 2001
    Date of Patent: August 5, 2003
    Assignee: Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd.
    Inventors: Hiromi Iwamoto, Hirokuni Nanba
  • Publication number: 20030133206
    Abstract: A fluid-containing lens filter (20) for modifying images in photographic, video and motion picture cameras in the form of a filter housing (22) that consists of a front plate (24), a back plate (26) with a bottom edge (28) and a pair of opposed side edges (30). The edges are juxtaposed between the front plate (24) and the back plate (26), leaving a void therebetween. The bottom edge (28) and side edges (30) are bonded to the front and back forming a fluid-tight chamber (36) within the filter housing. A fluid (38), having light modifying qualities, is disposed within the chamber (36) such that color, translucency, and clarity are altered to create a supplementary visual effect on an image viewed by the camera. Various types of fluids may be used in the filter, affecting the image by means of color pigment (40), particles (42), chemical reactions (48) and myriad different combinations thereof. In addition, particles within the fluids may be illuminated by light sources (54) directed to the edges.
    Type: Application
    Filed: January 15, 2002
    Publication date: July 17, 2003
    Inventor: Brian Belefant
  • Patent number: 6564796
    Abstract: A thermal panel (10) for passive temperature control includes a cell (28) having a transparent side (14) and a base side (24). The cell (28) has a heatable plate (12) contained therein. The heatable plate (12) is passively disposable between a warming position and a cooling position. The heatable plate (12) is heated by a plurality of light waves (34) when the plate (12) is passively disposed in the warming position. Further, the cell also has an insulating medium (30) contained therein. The insulating medium (30) shields the heatable plate (12) from the light waves (34) when the heatable plate (12) is in the cooling position.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 6, 2002
    Date of Patent: May 20, 2003
    Assignee: The Boeing Company
    Inventor: James Kevan Guy
  • Publication number: 20030090787
    Abstract: An optical assembly is provided that allows a user to view objects with normal perspective and scale under conditions of total darkness, in daylight, or other conditions limiting normal vision, or adverse weather conditions. The optical assembly includes a white light flashlight, with a filter cap mounted to the illuminating end of the flashlight. The filter cap permits infrared light in the appropriate range of 900 to 1200 nanometers to pass through. The optical assembly further includes a camera pack including a camera, and preferably including a transmitter. Said camera pack attached to the flashlight and in communication with a display mounted to a head gear worn by the user so that the screen of the display is directly in front of an eye of the user. The camera lens of the camera pack and the illuminating end of the flashlight are aligned along a single linear optical axis. The camera pack communicates with the display via a communication means when wireless communication is not preferred.
    Type: Application
    Filed: November 8, 2002
    Publication date: May 15, 2003
    Inventor: Samuel A. Dottle
  • Patent number: 6555193
    Abstract: Laminated adhesive-backed color-correction and light-diffusion filters are comprised of a gel layer having a desired light wavelength characteristic, one face of which is affixed by means of an optically transparent adhesive to an optically transparent supporting substrate. The other side of the supporting substrate is fixed, by means of an optically transparent adhesive layer, to an optically transparent peelable protective film. This process is done in such a way that no distortion, irregularities, or imperfections are detectable on any surface, allowing clear visual inspection and full color-corrective quality. Moreover, more than one such filter can be combined to achieve unique results.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 13, 2000
    Date of Patent: April 29, 2003
    Inventor: Jonathan Ryan Cupina
  • Publication number: 20030063375
    Abstract: A reflection type demagnification projection optical system that uses light of light with a wavelength of 200 nm or less includes six light-reflecting mirrors arranged from an object side to an image side such that said mirrors basically form a coaxial system, wherein a third mirror in said six mirrors is located at a pupil position of said optical system.
    Type: Application
    Filed: July 29, 2002
    Publication date: April 3, 2003
    Inventors: Masayuki Suzuki, Chiaki Terasawa
  • Publication number: 20030043456
    Abstract: The reflectivity of multilayered EUV mirrors tuned for 11-16 nm, for which the two-component Mo/Be and Mo/Si multilayered systems are commonly used, is enhanced by incorporating additional elements and their compounds mainly from period 5 of the periodic table. In addition, the reflectivity performance of the multilayer stacks is further enhanced by a numerical global optimization procedure by which the layer thicknesses are varied for optimum performance in, contradistinction to the constant layer thickness—i.e. constant partition ratio—multilayer stacks commonly designed and, fabricated hitherto. By incorporating additional materials with differing complex refractive indices in various regions of the stack, or by wholly replacing one of the components (typically Mo), we have observed peak reflectivity enhancements of up to 5% for a single reflector compared to a standard unoptimized stack. The additional materials used are: Rb, RbCl, Sr, Y, Zr, Ru, Rh, Tc, Pd, Nb and Be.
    Type: Application
    Filed: July 26, 2002
    Publication date: March 6, 2003
    Applicant: ASM LITHOGRAPHY B.V.
    Inventor: Mandeep Singh
  • Patent number: 6254594
    Abstract: A system and method for modification of tissue. The system and method utilize a disposable sample cell that contains a chemical mixture capable of photoinitiation. Upon photoinitiation, a chemical reaction creates electromagnetic radiation that is readily absorbed by a desired portion of tissue. The absorption of energy creates heat which can be controlled to result in predetermined modifications to the tissue.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 30, 1999
    Date of Patent: July 3, 2001
    Assignee: Quadrivium, LLC
    Inventor: Michael J. Berry
  • Patent number: 6221281
    Abstract: A liquid immersion oil which is used in optical systems in any of the fields of microscopes, fluorescence microscopes, optical measurements and other related fields includes a liquid polyolefine or a liquid copolymer of butylene (&agr;-butylene, &bgr;-butylene) and another olefine, blended with an aromatic compound, or blended with an aromatic compound and a paraffin compound.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 13, 1999
    Date of Patent: April 24, 2001
    Assignee: Nikon Corporation
    Inventor: Izumi Motoyama
  • Patent number: 6108126
    Abstract: An illuminating apparatus which comprises a light source, an optical system for condensing light emitted from the light source and illuminating an object with the condensed light, and an optical member which absorbs light having a wavelength from 260 to 340 nm among the light emitted from the light source, wherein the optical member is made of glass or crystalline material to which metal is doped.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 7, 1998
    Date of Patent: August 22, 2000
    Assignee: Nikon Corporation
    Inventors: Shigeru Hagiwara, Hiroyuki Hiraiwa, Takashi Mori
  • Patent number: 6097530
    Abstract: Devices that comprise novel, mesoscopically periodic materials that combine crystalline colloidal array (CCA) self-assembly with the temperature ined volume phase transitions of various materials, preferably poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) are disclosed. In one embodiment, a PNIPAM CCA is formed in an aqueous media and contained within cell means. In another embodiment, a CCA of charged particles is formed and polymerized in a PNIPAM hydrogel. Methods for making these devices are also disclosed. The devices of the present invention are useful in many applications including, for example, optical switches, optical limiters, optical filters, display devices and processing elements. The devices are further useful as membrane filters. All of these devices have the feature of being tunable in response to temperature. Devices that change diffracted wavelength in response to pressure are also disclosed.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 10, 1999
    Date of Patent: August 1, 2000
    Assignee: University of Pittsburgh of the Commonwealth System of Higher Education
    Inventors: Sanford A. Asher, Jesse M. Weissman, Hari B. Sunkara
  • Patent number: 5898530
    Abstract: A radiation apparatus comprising a radiation source and a filter arranged in an optical path, said filter comprising two transparent filter discs which are arranged substantially in plane-parallel fashion relative to each other and which are held with their surrounding edges in a frame made of a material of good heat conduction, the filter discs and the frame defining a closed cavity which has provided therein a medium for selectively influencing the radiation spectrum. The frame is divided substantially in a direction transverse to the filter axis into first and second frame halves in such a manner that the one filter disc is arranged on the first frame half at the side facing the cavity and the other filter disc is arranged on the second frame half at the side facing the cavity.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 19, 1995
    Date of Patent: April 27, 1999
    Assignee: Maxs AG
    Inventor: Werner Braun
  • Patent number: 5795295
    Abstract: Embodiments of the present invention provide method and apparatus for use during a neurosurgical procedure to enable a multi-coordinate manipulator ("MCM") to locate blood vessels and nerves in a patient's brain with submillimeter resolution. In addition, embodiments of the present invention provide method and apparatus for mapping oxygenation of brain tissue in three dimensions to differentiate tumor tissue from normal brain tissue with submillimeter resolution.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 25, 1996
    Date of Patent: August 18, 1998
    Assignee: Carl Zeiss, Inc.
    Inventors: Thomas Hellmuth, Michael Kaschke, John C. Moore, Gerhard Unold
  • Patent number: 5687022
    Abstract: A lens system with a liquid optical element is for use in the mid-wave infrared from 3.0 micron to 5.0 micron wavelength is described. Using a liquid optical element which is highly transmissive in the 3.0 micron to 5.0 micron waveband of interest in conjunction with a solid material which is also highly transmissive in that waveband provides a lens design with very good optical performance which is less expensive and which is much lighter in weight than an all solid design of the same optical performance.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 24, 1995
    Date of Patent: November 11, 1997
    Assignee: Lockheed Missiles & Space Company, Inc.
    Inventor: Paul Newell Robb
  • Patent number: 5682263
    Abstract: Design forms are disclosed for lens triplets comprising a liquid lens element, which are well-corrected for chromatic aberration over a broad wavelength band extending from the ultraviolet region through the visible region into the near infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 14, 1994
    Date of Patent: October 28, 1997
    Assignee: Lockheed Missiles & Space Company, Inc.
    Inventors: Paul N. Robb, Robert D. Sigler
  • Patent number: 5543086
    Abstract: Novel squarylium dyestuffs are formed by condensing one molecular equivalent of squaric acid with two molecular equivalents of a heterocyclic intermediate of the formula ##STR1## in which X is an optionally substituted ethylene or o-phenylene group; Y is an optionally substituted methylene or imino group, oxygen, sulfur, selenium or (if X is ethylene) a direct bond; and R.sub.1 through R.sub.5 are various substituents or (except for R.sub.2 and R.sub.5) hydrogen. A preferred class of dyestuffs are those formed from intermediates in which Y is methylene or a direct bond, the former including 7-acylaminotetrahydroquinolines and the latter including 6-acylaminoindolines. Thus, two molecular equivalents of each of 1-methyl-7-acetamido-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline and 6-acetamido-1,2,3, 3-tetramethylindoline were condensed with one molecular equivalent of squaric acid to produce respective dyes each having an absorption maximum substantially coincident with the ruby-laser wavelength of 694 nm.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 30, 1989
    Date of Patent: August 6, 1996
    Assignee: Gentex Corporation
    Inventors: Robert C. Bertelson, Robert A. Sallavanti
  • Patent number: 5491583
    Abstract: Lens systems (68, 78, 88, 98, 108, 118) with first and second rigid lens elements (70,71;80,81;90,91;100,101;110,111;120,121) and a liquid lens element (76, 86, 96, 106, 116, 126) therebetween are provided. The first and second rigid lens elements and the liquid lens elements co-act with each other to cause the lens system to have substantially diffraction limited performance over a continuous infrared wavelength band, wherein the first and second rigid lens elements and the liquid lens element are configured and positioned with respect to each other according to a selection of particular designs and design forms.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 17, 1994
    Date of Patent: February 13, 1996
    Assignee: Lockheed Missiles & Space Company, Inc.
    Inventor: Paul N. Robb
  • Patent number: 5452123
    Abstract: Methods for making a nonlinear optical device and related devices are dissed. The method includes creating an ordered dispersion of charged particles in a surrounding medium. The charged particles and the surrounding medium are chosen such that they initially have identical refractive indices. In accordance with one aspect of the invention, cadmium sulfide inclusions are added to at least one of (a) the particles or (b) the medium. The cadmium sulfide inclusions have a highly nonlinear refractive index. The inclusions are optically nonlinear and upon high intensity radiation the refractive index of the particles change. This change in the refractive index occurs on the order of nanoseconds. In accordance with another aspect of the invention, a nonfluorescent dye is incorporated into at least one of (a) the particles or (b) the medium. The dye is photoabsorptive. Upon being impinged with high intensity radiation, the dye absorbs photons and heats the surrounding particles.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 30, 1992
    Date of Patent: September 19, 1995
    Assignee: University of Pittsburgh of the Commonwealth System of Higher Education
    Inventors: Sanford A. Asher, Song-Yuan Chang, Seshadri Jagannathan, Rasu Kesavamoorthy, Guisheng Pan
  • Patent number: 5426569
    Abstract: A method and apparatus for improving the accuracy of the simulation of sunlight reaching the earth's surface includes a relatively small heated chamber having an optical inlet and an optical outlet, the chamber having a cavity that can be filled with a heated stream of CO.sub.2 and water vapor. A simulated beam comprising infrared and near infrared light can be directed through the chamber cavity containing the CO.sub.2 and water vapor, whereby the spectral characteristics of the beam are altered so that the output beam from the chamber contains wavelength bands that accurately replicate atmospheric absorption of solar energy due to atmospheric CO.sub.2 and moisture.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 7, 1994
    Date of Patent: June 20, 1995
    Assignee: Midwest Research Institute
    Inventor: Bhushan L. Sopori
  • Patent number: 5409634
    Abstract: Near infrared absorbers which have a molecular extinction coefficient of 200,000 or more and are represented by the formula (I) ##STR1## wherein each of Y.sup.1, Y.sup.2, Y.sup.3, Y.sup.4, Y.sup.5, Y.sup.6, Y.sup.7 and Y.sup.8 is hydrogen, an alkyl group, alkoxyl group or alkylthio group; each of A.sup.1, A.sup.2, A.sup.3, A.sup.4, A.sup.5, A.sup.6, A.sup.7 and A.sup.8 is hydrogen, halogen, a nitro group, alkyl group, aralkyl group, alkenyl group, alkynyl group, alkoxyl group, aryloxy group, alkylthio group or arylthio group; and Met represents two hydrogen atoms or a metal, are useful for the production of optical display and recording materials.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 11, 1991
    Date of Patent: April 25, 1995
    Assignees: Mitsui Toatsu Chemicals, Incorporated, Yamamoto Chemicals, Incorporated
    Inventors: Hisato Itoh, Katashi Enomoto, Takahisa Oguchi, Tutomu Nishizawa
  • Patent number: 5299068
    Abstract: A laser protection device employing a gas plasma switch wherein applied laser radiation is focused inside a gas chamber, and a nuclear source is employed to pre-ionize the gas volume, whereupon focused laser radiation causes gas breakdown and plasma formation that attenuates the radiation. Specifically, the invention reduces the threshold of plasma switch initiation by incorporating a nuclear source within the gas chamber that constantly injects plasma forming seed particles into the vicinity of a focused laser beam. The plasma resulting from avalanche ionization of the seed particles reflects, absorbs and deflects the laser radiation. The nuclear source introduces charged particles, excimers and metastable atoms with low ionization potential into the gas chamber. Such charged particles are effective plasma initiators because they have low ionization thresholds. The present invention has been found well suited to protect against pulsed laser sources because of fast rise times and high attenuation levels.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 19, 1990
    Date of Patent: March 29, 1994
    Assignee: Hughes Aircraft Company
    Inventors: David B. Cohn, Michael J. Nicol, Mitchell B. Haeri
  • Patent number: 5296162
    Abstract: Near infrared absorbers which have a molecular extinction coefficient of 200,000 or more and are represented by the formula (I) ##STR1## wherein each of Y.sup.1, Y.sup.2, Y.sup.3, Y.sup.4, Y.sup.5, Y.sup.6, Y.sup.7 and Y.sup.8 is hydrogen, an alkyl group, alkoxyl group or alkylthio group; each of A.sup.1, A.sup.2, A.sup.3, A.sup.4, A.sup.5, A.sup.6, A.sup.7 and A.sup.8 is hydrogen, halogen, a nitro group, alkyl group, aralkyl group, alkenyl group, alkynyl group, alkoxyl group, aryloxy group, alkylthio group or arylthio group; and Met represents two hydrogen atoms or a metal, are useful for the production of optical display and recording materials.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 2, 1992
    Date of Patent: March 22, 1994
    Assignees: Mitsui Toatsu Chemicals, Incorporated, Yamamoto Chemicals, Incorporated
    Inventors: Hisao Itoh, Katashi Enomoto, Takahisa Oguchi, Tutomu Nishizawa
  • Patent number: 5286979
    Abstract: This invention is a process for absorbing ultraviolet radiation in the atmosphere by dispersing melanin, its analogs, or derivatives into the atmosphere. By appropriate choice of melanin composition, size of melanin dispersoids, and their concentration, the melanin will absorb some quantity of ultraviolet radiation and thereby lessen its overall effect on the critters who would normally absorb such radiation.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 7, 1993
    Date of Patent: February 15, 1994
    Inventors: David L. Berliner, Helen Leong
  • Patent number: 5270463
    Abstract: A method for preparing a halogenated alkoxyphthalocyanine represented by the formula (7) ##STR1## wherein R.sup.3 to R.sup.6 may be different and each of them is a secondary alkyl group, X is a halogen atom, n is the number of X and in the range of from 1 to 4, and Met is two hydrogen atoms, a divalent metal atom, or a trivalent or a tetravalent metallic derivative, which comprises the step of reacting a metal or a metallic compound with one to four kinds of raw materials selected from the group consisting of phthalonitriles represented by the following formula (1) and diiminoisoindolines represented by the following formula (2) ##STR2## wherein R.sup.1 is a secondary alkyl group, X is a halogen atom, and each of p and q is 0 or 1, but in at least one raw material, p or q is 1, and halogenated alkoxyphthalocyanine prepared by said method.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 1, 1991
    Date of Patent: December 14, 1993
    Assignees: Mitsui Toatsu Chemicals, Incorporated, Yamamoto Chemicals, Incorporated
    Inventors: Hisato Itoh, Katashi Enomoto, Takahisa Oguchi, Tutomu Nishizawa
  • Patent number: 5188887
    Abstract: A heat treatment sputter-coated glass having on its glass substrate a coating system consisting essentially of a high nickel alloy overcoated with tin oxide and, optionally, undercoated with tin oxide with, or without, a layer of metallic aluminum located between the high nickel alloy layer and the overcoat of tin oxide.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 18, 1992
    Date of Patent: February 23, 1993
    Assignee: Guardian Industries Corp.
    Inventors: Philip J. Linge, Raymond Nalepka
  • Patent number: 5124067
    Abstract: Near infrared absorbers which have a molecular extinction coefficient of 200,000 or more and are represented by the formula (I) ##STR1## wherein each of Y.sup.1, Y.sup.2, Y.sup.3, Y.sup.4, Y.sup.5, Y.sup.6, Y.sup.7 and Y.sup.8 is hydrogen, an alkyl group, alkoxyl group or alkylthio group; each of A.sup.1, A.sup.2, A.sup.3, A.sup.4, A.sup.5, A.sup.6, A.sup.7 and A.sup.8 is hydrogen, halogen, a nitro group, alkyl group, aralkyl group, alkenyl group, alkynyl group, alkoxyl group, aryloxy group, alkylthio group or arylthio group; and Met represents two hydrogen atoms or a metal, are useful for the production of optical display and recording materials.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 15, 1989
    Date of Patent: June 23, 1992
    Assignees: Mitsui Toatsu Chemicals, Incorporated, Yamamoto Chemicals, Incorporated
    Inventors: Hisao Itoh, Katashi Enomoto, Takahisa Oguchi, Tutomu Nishizawa
  • Patent number: 5124859
    Abstract: A narrow passband, reflective optical filter at a wavelength L, has a container filled with a pressurized gas, the pressurized gas having a ground state transition corresponding to the wavelength L and transparent to all other wavelengths. The container has at least one optically transparent major planar surface serving as the face thereof, whereby incoming broadband light is absorbed by the gas, except at its resonance wavelength L, which is specularly reflected. The optically transparent face of the container optionally has a broadband anti-reflective coating to improve its out-of-band rejection of unwanted wavelengths of the light signal.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 24, 1991
    Date of Patent: June 23, 1992
    Assignees: GTE Government Systems Corporation, GTE Laboratories, Incorporated
    Inventors: Frederick Martin, Timothy Fohl