By Change In Optical Property (e.g., Transmission) Patents (Class 374/17)
  • Patent number: 9520528
    Abstract: A restoration device of at least one silicon-based photovoltaic solar cell is provided with a support of the cell and a charge carriers generator configured to generate charge carriers in the photovoltaic solar cell. The device is further provided with a tank designed to be filled by a liquid, and the support is configured to place the photovoltaic solar cell in the liquid.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 16, 2013
    Date of Patent: December 13, 2016
    Assignee: COMMISSARIAT À L'ENERGIE ATOMIQUE ET AUX ENERGIES ALTERNATIVES
    Inventors: Sébastien Dubois, Nicolas Enjalbert, Jean-Paul Garandet, Pierre Gidon, Florent Tanay, Jordi Veirman
  • Patent number: 9005261
    Abstract: A therapeutic laser with a source of pulsed electromagnetic radiation, a control device for controlling the intensity and/or the duration of the therapeutic laser applied to the tissue, and a detection device for detecting optoacoustic signals triggered by irradiating the living tissue with the pulsed electromagnetic radiation. The therapeutic laser is characterized by an evaluation device that acts on the control device and is used for calculating a degree of quality B(t) from the optoacoustic signals detected by the detection device for individual laser pulses applied to a predetermined laser spot and determining a fit function f(t) at a predetermined point in time ?t1, the fit function f(t) approximating the mean curve of B(t) for 0?t??t1. The intensity and/or the irradiation time of the therapeutic laser is defined by the parameters for the predetermined laser spot, the parameters being determined for the fit function f(t).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 24, 2008
    Date of Patent: April 14, 2015
    Assignee: Medizinisches Laserzentrum Luebech GmbH
    Inventor: Ralf Brinkmann
  • Patent number: 8998485
    Abstract: The laser anemometry probe (LAP) system with continuous coherent detection, with single-particle mode, comprises means (AN) for analyzing the measurement signals of the said probe (LAP) and means (MES_T) for measuring the temperature (T). The system comprises, furthermore, means (DET_CG) for determining icing conditions when means (DET_GEL) for detecting the presence of a liquid water drop detect the presence of a liquid water drop, and when the said temperature (T) is below the said third threshold (S3).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 27, 2012
    Date of Patent: April 7, 2015
    Assignee: Thales
    Inventors: Jean-Pierre Schlotterbeck, Xavier LaCondemine
  • Publication number: 20150063406
    Abstract: A product critical temperature during freeze drying is determined. The product is imaged using optical coherence tomography (“OCT”). The product is freeze dried while the temperature of the product is measured. The product critical temperature is the temperature at which a product structure event occurs during freeze drying.
    Type: Application
    Filed: November 13, 2014
    Publication date: March 5, 2015
    Inventors: Mircea Mujat, William J. Kessler
  • Patent number: 8838407
    Abstract: A method and device for determining the freezing temperature of an ice-water mixture on a road surface. Reference measurements of ice-to-water ratios in dependence on road temperatures for different salt contents of reference ice-water mixtures are provided to the device. The thickness of a water layer on the road surface is detected and the thickness of an ice layer of the road surface is detected by the device and method. From the detected thickness of the water layer and the detected thickness of the ice layer, an ice-to-water ratio of the ice-water mixture is determined. The temperature of the road surface is also detected. The freezing temperature of the ice-water mixture is determined by the device and method from the determined ice-to-water ratio and the detected temperature by means of the provided reference measurements.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 10, 2010
    Date of Patent: September 16, 2014
    Assignee: G. Lufft Meβ-Und Regeltechnik GmbH
    Inventor: Axel Schmitz-Hübsch
  • Patent number: 8602640
    Abstract: A sensing system is configured to detect physical parameters of a fluid sample. In particular, the sensing system is configured to detect the dew point of the fluid by reducing temperature of a sensing medium and detecting the fluid condensate on a sensing surface by directing light from a light source to the sensing surface and detecting the light reflected off the sensing surface onto a light detector. The light source and the light detector are on the opposite side of the sensing medium from the sensing surface.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 20, 2009
    Date of Patent: December 10, 2013
    Assignee: Entegris—Jetalon Solutions, Inc.
    Inventors: Ronald P. Chiarello, Christopher Andrew Wacinski, Charles Eric Boyd, Stewart Robin Shearer
  • Patent number: 8465202
    Abstract: A microstructured sensor for detecting IR radiation includes: one measuring channel having a measuring diaphragm, on which a first sensitive detector surface is implemented for the absorption of a first IR radiation; and one reference channel having a reference diaphragm, on which a second sensitive detector surface is implemented for the absorption of a second IR radiation. A measuring structure, e.g., a thermopile measuring structure as a series circuit made of thermocouple pairs, is implemented between the measuring diaphragm and the reference diaphragm for measuring a temperature differential between the measuring diaphragm and the reference diaphragm. First and second thermal contacts lie alternately on the two diaphragms.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 29, 2010
    Date of Patent: June 18, 2013
    Assignee: Robert Bosch GmbH
    Inventors: Udo Kaess, Christian Lemier, Markus Niemann
  • Publication number: 20130142214
    Abstract: The laser anemometry probe (LAP) system with continuous coherent detection, with single-particle mode, comprises means (AN) for analysing the measurement signals of the said probe (LAP) and means (MES_T) for measuring the temperature (T). The system comprises, furthermore, means (DET_CG) for determining icing conditions when means (DET_GEL) for detecting the presence of a liquid water drop detect the presence of a liquid water drop, and when the said temperature (T) is below the said third threshold (S3).
    Type: Application
    Filed: November 27, 2012
    Publication date: June 6, 2013
    Applicant: THALES
    Inventor: THALES
  • Publication number: 20130100981
    Abstract: The present invention provides a system and a method of detecting a sublimation point, preferably applied to organic molecules. The system of detecting a sublimation point comprises: a heater, a capillary device, a vacuum pump, an ultraviolet light source, a photography device, a digital vacuum meter and a needle valve. The system of detecting a sublimation point is suitable for detecting the sublimation point of an organic light emitting molecule such as tris(8-hydroxyquinolinato) aluminum (Alq3) and tris(phenylpyridine) iridium (Ir(ppy)3). The needle valve can be used for controlling air pressure to measure the sublimation point under different pressures. Advantageously, the required quantity of organic molecules can be below 1 mg, thus not only saving the organic molecules, but also detecting the sublimation point without contaminating apparatuses.
    Type: Application
    Filed: February 17, 2012
    Publication date: April 25, 2013
    Inventors: Tu LEE, Jwo-Huei Jou, Meng-Hsun Tsai, Yu-Ren Syue
  • Publication number: 20120294328
    Abstract: A product critical temperature during freeze drying is determined. The product is imaged using optical coherence tomography (“OCT”). The product is freeze dried while the temperature of the product is measured. The product critical temperature is the temperature at which a product structure event occurs during freeze drying.
    Type: Application
    Filed: April 24, 2012
    Publication date: November 22, 2012
    Applicant: Physical Sciences, Inc.
    Inventors: Mircea Mujat, William J. Kessler
  • Patent number: 8172457
    Abstract: The invention relates to a method and a sensor for determining the hydrocarbon dew point in a gas, in particular in a gaseous fuel. According to the invention a roughened condensation surface is provided on a planar measurement surface of a transparent body. Light is shone onto the roughened condensation surface through the transparent body and the intensity of the light reflected back into the transparent body is measured. The hydrocarbon dew point temperature can be inferred from changes in the intensity of the light which is reflected back when heating or cooling the condensation surface.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 25, 2007
    Date of Patent: May 8, 2012
    Assignee: Bartec Benke GmbH
    Inventor: Alfred Boehm
  • Publication number: 20120044968
    Abstract: A system includes a sensing cell having a walled structure configured to receive a fuel sample within an interior space of the walled structure. The sensing cell also has at least one cooling surface located on at least a portion of the walled structure and configured to cool the fuel sample. The sensing cell further has an optical port configured to couple to one or more optical fibers and to provide first radiation to the fuel sample. In addition, the sensing cell has a mirror configured to reflect the first radiation in order to provide second radiation to the optical port. The optical port defines a collinear optical geometry for providing the first radiation to the fuel sample and receiving the second radiation through the fuel sample. The system also includes at least one cooler configured to cool the fuel sample in the sensing cell by cooling the at least one cooling surface.
    Type: Application
    Filed: August 17, 2010
    Publication date: February 23, 2012
    Applicant: Honeywell ASCa Inc.
    Inventors: Frank M. Haran, Sebastien Tixier, Stuart J. Heath
  • Patent number: 8011826
    Abstract: This invention provides an ultrasonic phantom that can respond to different ultrasonic intensities. Such ultrasonic phantom comprises a gel comprising a low-boiling compound in the form of droplets sealed therein. The invention also provides an assay technique using such phantom. This invention enables regulation of components of droplets, droplet size, and the ultrasonic intensity at which droplets are vaporized upon mixing of droplets with different sizes. This enables visualization of whether or not ultrasound beams that exceed relevant different ultrasonic intensities have been applied.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 21, 2007
    Date of Patent: September 6, 2011
    Assignee: Hitachi, Ltd.
    Inventor: Ken-ichi Kawabata
  • Publication number: 20110083994
    Abstract: An apparatus and method for determining at least one of the temperatures at which a petroleum product will manifest delayed haze and the temperature at which haze will not exist in the product is provided. The apparatus comprises a container for holding a sample of the product, a light source, light detector, heaters and coolers combined with microprocessor means for storing and analyzing at least one of light transmitted or scattered by the sample. Measurements are useful in determining the haze properties of the product and also for controlling a dehazing process to meet target haze properties.
    Type: Application
    Filed: October 13, 2009
    Publication date: April 14, 2011
    Inventors: Eric B. Sirota, James W. Gleeson, MaryKathryn Lee
  • Publication number: 20110040518
    Abstract: A method and device for determining the freezing temperature of an ice-water mixture on a road surface. Reference measurements of ice-to-water ratios in dependence on road temperatures for different salt contents of reference ice-water mixtures are provided to the device. The thickness of a water layer on the road surface is detected and the thickness of an ice layer of the road surface is detected by the device and method. From the detected thickness of the water layer and the detected thickness of the ice layer, an ice-to-water ratio of the ice-water mixture is determined. The temperature of the road surface is also detected. The freezing temperature of the ice-water mixture is determined by the device and method from the determined ice-to-water ratio and the detected temperature by means of the provided reference measurements.
    Type: Application
    Filed: August 10, 2010
    Publication date: February 17, 2011
    Inventor: Axel Schmitz-Hübsch
  • Publication number: 20100243631
    Abstract: A power line de-icing apparatus which is installed onto a power line without the need for disconnecting the power line. A temperature sensor and an ice sensor on the apparatus automatically activate the de-icing mode of operation. An internal motor and drive wheel move the apparatus along the power line in both directions, one direction at a time. Heaters and chisels on the apparatus remove any ice on the power line in one direction at a time. Power for the apparatus is generated from the electrical power carried by the power line using transformers. Proximity sensors on the apparatus detect stopping devices placed on the power line to stop the motion of the apparatus.
    Type: Application
    Filed: March 24, 2009
    Publication date: September 30, 2010
    Inventors: Tung Minh Huynh, Anthony Minh Truong Huynh, Alyssa Baotram Huynh
  • Patent number: 7692145
    Abstract: The present invention relates generally to a method for analyzing the surface and the near-surface layers of a solid and, more specifically, to a method that utilizes activating actions to analyze the physical and the chemical properties of the layers. The instant abstract is neither intended to define the invention disclosed in this specification nor intended to limit the scope of the invention in any way.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 17, 2007
    Date of Patent: April 6, 2010
    Inventors: Alexei Alexandrovich Kalachev, Nikolai Mikhailovich Blashenkov, Yuri Petrovich Ivanov, Vladimir Antonovich Kovalsky, Alexandr Lvovich Myasnikov, Lyubov Petrovna Myasnikova
  • Patent number: 7556425
    Abstract: Dual-wall container includes an outer wall that is at least one of at least partially substantially transparent and at least partially substantially translucent, an inner wall adapted to contain a substance, at least one symbol arranged an outer surface of the inner wall, and at least one of a coating of a thermochromatic composition arranged on the outer surface of the inner wall, a thermochromatic composition layer arranged on the outer surface of the inner wall, and a thermochromatic composition arranged on an outer surface of at least the at least one symbol. The thermochromatic composition is structured and arranged to change color when the inner wall experiences or senses a temperature change. This Abstract is not intended to define the invention disclosed in the specification, nor intended to limit the scope of the invention in any way.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 10, 2006
    Date of Patent: July 7, 2009
    Assignee: Robert Gordon Industries, Ltd.
    Inventor: J. Robert Gluck
  • Publication number: 20080137708
    Abstract: The invention provides a method for the determination of the phase change characteristics of a hazardous material, the method comprising optically recording images of a sample of the material and objectively evaluating the images. The phase change characteristics generally relate to a solid/liquid or liquid/solid phase change, and the method finds particular application in the determination of the crystallisation points of hazardous materials, most particularly radioactive materials. The images are typically recorded by means of a camera, and evaluated using a computer, which is able to objectively determine the point at which a phase change is first seen to occur, and thereby provide accurate, reliable and objective data.
    Type: Application
    Filed: July 1, 2005
    Publication date: June 12, 2008
    Inventors: Michael John Quayle, Phillip Stephen Goodall, Steven James Thomson, Neil Cockbain, Timothy Peter Tinsley, Gerard Toon
  • Patent number: 7338203
    Abstract: The invention concerns a method for determining the vanishing temperature of petroleum product crystals, characterized in that it comprises the following steps: introducing the sample to be analyzed in a measuring cell (4), arranged in a cryostatic chamber (1); connecting a laser emitter (6) and an associated optical receiver (7) to pass an optical beam through the sample to be analyzed and recording the light intensity received by the receiver (7); gradually lowering the temperature of the cryostatic chamber (1) then increasing it again gradually while recording the curve representing the variations in the light intensity received by the receiver (7) based on the temperature; and determining the vanishing temperature of the crystals from said curve.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 29, 2003
    Date of Patent: March 4, 2008
    Assignee: I.S.L.
    Inventors: Hervé Cleris, Olivier Lara
  • Patent number: 7309864
    Abstract: According to the method for analyzing physical and/or chemical properties of the surface layer of a solid as per claim 1, the surface layer is activated by a unit irradiation pulse and, when the irradiation is over, is deactivated by keeping the solid at a constant temperature and subsequently heating it, the spectrum of the energy quanta emitted by the surface layer of the solid is recorded during the deactivation; the spectrum of the emitted energy quanta recorded at a constant temperature provides data on the loosely coupled states of the surface layer and their half-lives and the thermoluminescence spectrum recorded during the heating gives information on phase and relaxation transition temperatures in the surface layer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 15, 2003
    Date of Patent: December 18, 2007
    Assignee: Alexey Alexandrovich Kalachev
    Inventors: Alexei Alexandrovich Kalachev, Nikolai Mikhailovich Blashenkov, Yury Petrovich Ivanov, Vladimir Antonovich Kovalsky, Alexandr Lyovich Myasnikov
  • Patent number: 6830567
    Abstract: A method and a system for the non-invasive temperature determination on biological tissue, particularly at the fundus of the eye, treated by a treatment radiation, particularly laser radiation, wherein, during the respective irradiation time, at essentially identical time intervals, additional radiation pulses of a shorter pulse duration and a lower energy are aimed at the treated biological tissue, the resulting tissue expansions and/or contractions being detected by a pressure measurement or optical measurement and, from the measuring signals, the absolute temperature values are determined and optionally the treatment radiation is controlled as a function thereof.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 24, 2002
    Date of Patent: December 14, 2004
    Assignee: Medizinisches Laserzentraum Luebeck GmbH
    Inventors: Georg Schuele, Ralf Brinkmann
  • Patent number: 6711518
    Abstract: A method is provided for aligning the center frequency of an infrared transmitter. The method comprises the steps of: (a) providing a voltage-controlled oscillator for driving the infrared transmitter, where the oscillator is adapted to receive a bias voltage from a microprocessor; (b) applying a bias voltage to the oscillator; (c) receiving an output signal from the infrared transmitter into an infrared receiver; (d) determining a frequency associated with the output signal; and (e) adjusting the bias voltage based on the frequency associated with the output signal, thereby aligning the center frequency of the infrared transmitter.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 23, 2000
    Date of Patent: March 23, 2004
    Assignee: Delphi Technologies, Inc.
    Inventor: J. Roger Davis
  • Patent number: 6443616
    Abstract: A device for determining the melting point of a sample material utilizing an infrared sensor to measure the temperature of the sample material and photocells to detect changes in transmissivity of the sample material at its melting point.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 13, 1999
    Date of Patent: September 3, 2002
    Inventor: Gregory R. Brotz
  • Patent number: 6250134
    Abstract: The apparatus for determining the dew-point and/or the content of vapor in the air, particularly for the use in radio sondes, comprises a dew-point mirror assembly, including a source of light, a reflector, a cooling element thermally coupled to the reflector, a temperature sensor for measuring the temperature of the reflector, and a detecting sensor for receiving the light emitted by the light source and reflected by the reflector. The detecting sensor is located in a temperature stabilized region of the apparatus and optically coupled to the reflector by means of a light wave conductor. The light source is an incandescent lamp. A sensor head is provided that receives the reflector, the cooling element, the light source, and the input end of the light wave conductor. The sensor head is heated by means of an active heating element.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 12, 1999
    Date of Patent: June 26, 2001
    Assignee: Meteolabor AG
    Inventor: Paul Ruppert
  • Patent number: 6231228
    Abstract: A device and method is disclosed for determining the melting point of a sample material utilizing an infrared thermometer to measure the indicated temperature of the sample material while under pressure as such sample material is being heated. Upon melting, the sample material is substantially displaced from the field of view of the infrared thermometer by the force of the applied pressure, resulting in a spike in the sensed temperature.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 8, 1999
    Date of Patent: May 15, 2001
    Inventor: Gregory R. Brotz
  • Patent number: 6030115
    Abstract: A method of measuring a melting temperature of a nucleic acid, which comprises a step of monitoring the fluorescent intensity of a mixture of a sample and a probe which is labeled with a fluorescent intercalative dye and contains a base sequence complementary to a specific nucleic acid in the sample, while varying the temperature of the mixture.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 2, 1998
    Date of Patent: February 29, 2000
    Assignee: Tosoh Corporation
    Inventors: Takahiko Ishiguro, Juichi Saitoh
  • Patent number: 5971609
    Abstract: A method of determining the dew point or frost point of a gas containing a very small amount of water uses an optical dew point meter having a reflector mirror the temperature of which can be varied from room temperature to any point of -80.degree. C. or below, a device for contacting the reflector mirror with the gas to be measured, a light source for irradiating the reflector mirror with focused rays of light, and a detector for detecting the change in scattered light and/or reflected light due to the dew and/or frost condensed on the reflector mirror. The method gradually reduces the temperature of the reflector mirror, either before or while the reflector mirror and the gas contact, thereby condensing dew and/or frost on the reflector mirror. Following formation of dew and/or frost on the reflector mirror, the intensity of scattered light or reflected light is adjusted from a maximum value to a constant level, at a controlled temperature.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 9, 1997
    Date of Patent: October 26, 1999
    Assignee: Osaka Sanso Kogyo Ltd.
    Inventors: Takahiko Kijima, Akira Makihara, Hiroshi Nakamura, Shigeru Kikuchi, Shigeki Hayashi
  • Patent number: 5933565
    Abstract: The melting point of a test substance is determined by placing it in a capillary tube within a heated block. The temperature of the block and sample are gradually increased using an electrical heater. The output of a light emitting diode or solid state laser is coupled into an optical fiber that carries the radiation to the capillary tube containing the test substance. A second fiber that is connected to a detector collects radiation from the capillary tube. At the melting point of a solid, or possibly at the boiling point of a liquid, the light scattering and transmissive properties of the test substance change causing the light signal collected by the second fiber to change. The phase transition point is recorded as a change in the output voltage from the detector. The melting point detector is equipped with a number of ports for capillary tubes, fibers, light emitters and detectors so that many phase transition points of different samples can be determined in one heating cycle.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 20, 1998
    Date of Patent: August 3, 1999
    Assignee: Digimelt Inc.
    Inventor: Gerald J. Diebold
  • Patent number: 5920010
    Abstract: The proposed method of determining dew point involves directing the gas under investigation onto a cooled section of an optically transparent body through which a luminous flux is allowed to pass and recording fluctuations in the intensity of the luminous flux, the flow-rate of the gas thus directed onto the cooled section being reduced down to zero while its molecular diffusion is preserved. To limit the flow-rate of the gas impinging on the cooled section (1) and reduce contamination of the optically transparent element, the dew point gauge is provided with a sampling tube (10).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 31, 1997
    Date of Patent: July 6, 1999
    Assignee: Alexandr Mikhailovich Derevyagin
    Inventors: Alexandr Mikhailovich Derevyagin, Alexandr Georgievich Gubanov, Andrei Robertovich Stepanov, Sergei Viktorovich Seleznev
  • Patent number: 5758968
    Abstract: The melting point of a test substance is determined by placing it in a capillary tube within a heated block. The temperature of the block and sample are gradually increased using an electrical heater. The output of a light emitting diode or solid state laser is coupled into an optical fiber that carries the radiation to the capillary tube containing the test substance. A second fiber that is connected to a detector collects radiation from the capillary tube. At the melting point of a solid, or possibly at the boiling point of a liquid, the light scattering and transmissive properties of the test substance change causing the light signal collected by the second fiber to change. The phase transition point is recorded as a change in the output voltage from the detector. The melting point detector is equipped with a number of ports for capillary tubes, fibers, light emitters and detectors so that many phase transition points of different samples can be determined in one heating cycle.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 15, 1996
    Date of Patent: June 2, 1998
    Assignee: Digimelt Inc.
    Inventor: Gerald J. Diebold
  • Patent number: 5683179
    Abstract: A quench detector for determining a conductive state in an energized superconductor, including a thermoluminescent quenching sensor in thermal contact with the superconductor and producing a quenching signal corresponding to the conductive state; and a signal processor connected to the quenching sensor, the signal processor determining the conductive state, responsive to the quenching signal. Also a method for detecting a conductive state in an energized superconductor includes detecting a luminescence signal from a thermoluminescent sensor in intimate thermal contact with, and responsive to, a temperature of the energized superconductor; comparing the luminescence signal to a threshold to determine the existence of the conductive state; and responding to the conductive state with a predetermined response. The method can include activating the thermoluminescent sensor by irradiating the sensor.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 15, 1995
    Date of Patent: November 4, 1997
    Assignee: Northrop Grumman Corporation
    Inventor: Jerald F. Lowry
  • Patent number: 5651614
    Abstract: An apparatus and a method for automatic determination of cloud point temperature and pour point temperature of a petroleum fraction. The apparatus is comprised of a receptacle for holding a sample of the petroleum fraction, a light source, a light detector, heaters, coolers and a proximity sensor combined with a motion indicator to determine cloud and pour point temperature. The apparatus has thermocouples to determine the temperature of samples within the container as the sample is heated and cooled. Measurements of light refraction are used to determine cloud point temperature. Detection of the freezing in place of a motion indicator is used to determine pour point temperature. The apparatus is particularly useful for determining the cloud point and pour point temperatures of middle distillate petroleum fuels and the pour point temperature of dark oils and for determining the amount of pour point depressant needed to achieve desired cloud and pour point temperatures in a fuel.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 20, 1995
    Date of Patent: July 29, 1997
    Assignee: BetzDearborn Inc.
    Inventor: Randy J. Juneau
  • Patent number: 5615954
    Abstract: The invention relates to an apparatus for determining the frost point of a gas containing a very small amount of water. The apparatus comprises (I) compartment A made of a good heat conductor; (II) an inlet for the gas to be measured, which inlet is provided on compartment A; and (III) a heater for adjusting the temperature in compartment A, and a temperature sensor. The apparatus further comprises (IV) compartment B which is adjacent to compartment A. At least part of compartment B is made of a poor heat conductor. Further, the apparatus comprises (V) a hole at the interface between compartments A and B and (VI) a reflector mirror having a temperature sensor. The reflector mirror is provided on compartment B in such a way as to cover the hole is connected thermally to a freeze source in such a way that the temperature of the reflector mirror can be varied from room temperature to at least -80.degree. C.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 21, 1994
    Date of Patent: April 1, 1997
    Assignee: Osaka Sanso Kogyo Ltd.
    Inventors: Junichi Nishizawa, Takahiko Kijima, Edward F. Ezell, Akira Makihara
  • Patent number: 5482371
    Abstract: A method of determining the dew point of a gas containing a very small amount of water using (1) a reflector mirror the temperature of which can be varied from room temperature down to at least -80.degree. C.; (2) a source of condensed rays of light for irradiating the reflector mirror; and (3) a light recovering device that detects changes in scattered light due to condensation on the reflector mirror by exposing the mirror to the gas. The method comprises cooling the mirror and detecting the temperature at which the scattered light has a maximum intensity; slowly raising the temperature and detecting the temperature at which the scattered light has a minimum intensity and repeating the cycle until the temperature at which the intensity is a maximum and the temperature at which the intensity is a minimum are almost the same.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 5, 1994
    Date of Patent: January 9, 1996
    Assignee: Osaka Sanso Kogyo Ltd.
    Inventors: Junichi Nishizawa, Takahiko Kijima, Edward F. Ezell, Akira Makihara
  • Patent number: 5470154
    Abstract: A method of cleaning a reflector mirror in an optical dew point meter that measures the dew point or frost point of a sample gas by a process including the steps of bringing the sample gas into contact with the reflector mirror whose temperature is variable, projecting condensed rays of light or laser light onto said reflector mirror, and detecting the change in the intensity of scattered light and/or reflected light on account of the dew or frost formed on said reflector mirror, characterized by bringing a CO.sub.2 gas or a CO.sub.2 containing gas into contact with the reflector while the latter is in a cooled state, thereby condensing CO.sub.2 on the surface of the reflector mirror, and the subsequent step of heating the reflector mirror to vaporize the CO.sub.2 is dischosed.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 1, 1994
    Date of Patent: November 28, 1995
    Assignee: Osaka Sanso Kogyo Ltd.
    Inventors: Juinchi Nishizawa, Takahiko Kijima, Edward F. Ezell, Akira Makihara
  • Patent number: 5251274
    Abstract: An optical fibre cable has an optical fibre with a core and cladding that is embraced by a cover of polymer material. In a limited temperature detection range the polymer material has a negative coefficient of heat expansion, the absolute value of which is larger than the coefficient of heat expansion in temperature detection ranges adjacent the limited temperature detection range. When subjected to an increase in temperature, the cover will contract and cause microbending of the optical fibre. Light travelling in the fibre is attenuated and reflected, and the reflected light will be attenuated further in a heated domain of the fibre. The size of the domain and its position along the fibre can be determined by measuring the running time of the light. The polymer cover has a coefficient of heat expansion that enables several heated domains to be detected. The fibre attenuates the light in a range of 0.01-0.1 dB/m in the heated state of the fibre.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 5, 1992
    Date of Patent: October 5, 1993
    Assignee: Telefonaktiebolaget LM Ericsson
    Inventors: Bengt J. A. Carlstrom, Gunnar S. Forsberg
  • Patent number: 5209566
    Abstract: A testing apparatus (dynamic thermomechanical analyzer) for analyzing a change of the state of a sample from a fluid state to a solid state. The dynamic thermomechanical analyzer includes: a) a vessel in which the sample is set; b) a spring standing in the vessel; the top of the spring rising above the surface of the sample; c) an oscillator for oscillating the spring via a push rod with a constant amplitude of force; and d) a displacement detector for detecting the displacement of the spring or the push rod. When the spring is oscillated at a constant amplitude of force, the amplitude .DELTA.L of the displacement of the push rod decreases as the initially fluid sample solidifies.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 23, 1992
    Date of Patent: May 11, 1993
    Assignee: Shimadzu Corporation
    Inventor: Hiroji Kuwata
  • Patent number: 5178462
    Abstract: A method and an apparatus for measuring dewpoint of different kinds of gases, is based on cooling the measured gas, with the help of cold gas, down to the dewpoint and then detecting the generated mist by optical sensors. The cooling gas is routed to a measurement area (7) from outside the process and the cooling gas is brought to an appropriate temperature below the dewpoint of the measured gas before being conducted to the measurement area (7). Mist generated during the cooling of the measured gas is detected by illuminating the measurement area (7) by a light emitting source (8) and measuring the light (2) scattered from the mist or light (3) penetrating through the mist with the help of a photodetector (9). The temperature of the measurement area is continuously monitored with temperature sensors (10) so that when the mist is detected, the temperature of the measurement area (7) at that instant corresponds to the dewpoint temperature of the measured gas.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 28, 1991
    Date of Patent: January 12, 1993
    Assignee: Vaisala OY
    Inventor: Ari Lehto
  • Patent number: 5122633
    Abstract: In order to obtain a more homogeneous energy absorption and preset maximum temperatures in an apparatus for radiating microwave energy into water-containing material or material mixed with water, which is introduced into a cavity resonator subjected to microwaves by one or more microwave generators, a pressure and/or temperature sensing device being included, the proposal is put forward that a sealable container be provided for receiving the material to be treated, which should be transparent to microwaves and resistant to gases and pressures, and whose interior should be enclosed by the cavity at a given distance, and that the pressure and/or temperature sensing device be connected with the interior of this container, and further that a device be provided for control of the energy output of the microwave generator, which device should control and maintain constant a preset interior pressure deviating from atmospheric pressure, and which should be connected to the pressure and/or temperature sensing device.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 6, 1990
    Date of Patent: June 16, 1992
    Assignees: Wolfgang Moshammer, Erwin Berger, Johann Freissmuth
    Inventors: Wolfgang Moshammer, Erwin Berger, Johann Freissmuth, Helmut Freiberger
  • Patent number: 5092679
    Abstract: A device and method for determining the melting point of a material having light reflective properties by determining changes in the reflective properties of the material while under pressure as it is being heated.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 14, 1990
    Date of Patent: March 3, 1992
    Inventor: Gregory R. Brotz
  • Patent number: 5088833
    Abstract: Apparatus for monitoring the cloud point of a liquid, or the temperature at which any light scattering phase occurs therein, comprising a light-proof and light-absorbing chamber, and a liquid sample-receiving receptacle within the chamber having a bottom formed by a non-light-scattering surface; this surface being in thermal contact with a heating or cooling device, such as a thermoelectric cooler, and with a temperature measurement device. The chamber can be opened to allow access to the receptacle so that sample liquid can be placed therein. A light beam source is located to direct a beam of light onto the surface at an incident angle so that light from the beam is reflected or absorbed by the surface. A light detector including a lens and an array of detection cells is arranged so as to detect scattered light which is produced when solid material forms in the liquid as it is cooled or disappears on heating.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 21, 1989
    Date of Patent: February 18, 1992
    Assignee: Nova Husky Research Corporation
    Inventors: Charles Y. Tsang, Victoria S. Ker
  • Patent number: 5080494
    Abstract: A method and an apparatus for measuring dewpoint of different kinds of gases is based upon cooling the measured gas by mixing it with a cold gas down to the dewpoint and then detecting the generated mist by optical sensors. The cooling gas is routed to a measurement area (7) from outside the process and the cooling gas is brought to an appropriate temperature below the dewpoint of the measured gas before being conducted to the measurement area (7) where it is mixed with the measured gas. Mist generated during the cooling of the measured gas is detected by illuminating the measurement area (7) by a light emitting source (8) and measuring the light (2) scattered from the mist or light (3) penetrating through the mist with the help of a photodetector (9).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 9, 1991
    Date of Patent: January 14, 1992
    Assignee: Vaisala OY
    Inventor: Ari Lehto
  • Patent number: 5052818
    Abstract: An improved method of and an apparatus for measuring a very low water content in a non-condensible gas which has a dew point in the range of from ordinary temperature to -80.degree. C. or less. The gas to be measured is pre-cooled to a temperature slightly higher than that of the dew point, and is then blown against a reflecting mirror whose surface is cooled down to the dew point temperature of the gas. A condensed light having high luminance is projected toward the reflecting mirror. When the gas is blown against the mirror and cooled down to the temperature of the dew point, thereof a dew or frost is formed on the mirror, and the amount of scattered light reflected from the mirror is increased by the dew or frost. This increase in scattered light is detected by a photodetector. A silicon wafer which is polished to have a surface precision of 1/4 or less that of the wavelength of the condensed light is employed as the mirror to enable measurement of dew points of -80.degree. C. or less.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 18, 1989
    Date of Patent: October 1, 1991
    Assignees: Junichi Nishizawa, Osaka Sanso Kogyo Ltd.
    Inventors: Junichi Nishizawa, Taichi Tagawa, Takahiko Kijima
  • Patent number: 5022045
    Abstract: The invention is directed to chemical compositions suitable for use in salt-solution transition temperature or hot mirror devices. It also provides methods of using these sensors (for the measurement of the humidity of gases) as well as the apparatus. The chemical composition which of itself senses the changes of water vapor pressure is birefringent at a first water vapor pressure and temperature, but non-birefringent at a second vapor pressure and temperature. The optical changes which accompany these phase changes may be amplified with polarizers. The means for heating the chemical composition can vary widely. Various thermometric devices can be used for temperature sensing. The accuracy required of the particular instrument model, the device's configuration, and the other components, selected for the particular system all affect the choice of thermometric device selected.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 5, 1990
    Date of Patent: June 4, 1991
    Inventor: Stanley B. Elliott
  • Patent number: 4927270
    Abstract: The melting point of a powdery or particulate material is determined by allowing a sample of the material to contact a heated surface. If the material does not melt it is removed from the surface and the temperature of the surface is increased. The process is repeated until the material is observed to melt on the surface, the temperature of the surface at that time being observed in order to determine the melting point in question.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 9, 1988
    Date of Patent: May 22, 1990
    Inventor: John A. Bonnard
  • Patent number: 4908835
    Abstract: A method of measuring reliability of an information recording medium which comprises an information recording thin film. The method comprises the steps of heating said film at least once to its melting point, rapidly cooling said film after heating, measuring a transition temperature of said film after cooling, and comparing said transition temperature with a predetermined reference temperature.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 29, 1989
    Date of Patent: March 13, 1990
    Assignee: Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Kenichi Nishiuchi, Nobuo Akahira, Noboru Yamada, Eiji Ohno
  • Patent number: 4804274
    Abstract: Disclosed are methods and apparatus for determining phase transition temperatures and, more particularly, for determining cloud, fluidity, freezing, and haze points of hydrocarbon fuels and hydrocarbon/oxygenate fuel blends. The attenuation of laser light as it passes through the sample, then through a laser line filter, and then into a photodetector is used to determine the transition temperature.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 30, 1986
    Date of Patent: February 14, 1989
    Assignee: Mobil Oil Corporation
    Inventor: Gary J. Green
  • Patent number: 4770540
    Abstract: Process for the determination of the turbidity point of a liquid, which consists in progressively cooling the liquid and noting the temperature at which turbidity appears; the temperatures at the center (T.sub.1) and at the periphery (T.sub.2) of the liquid are measured, their graphs as a function of time (.theta.) are plotted and changes in the slope of these graphs are noted, the turbidity point being the temperature (T.sub.1) at the center of the liquid which corresponds to the change in slope on the graph T.sub.2 -.function.'(.theta.).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 20, 1986
    Date of Patent: September 13, 1988
    Assignee: Societe Anonyme Elf France
    Inventors: Benoit Chague, Serge Esson, Philippe Julliat
  • Patent number: 4696580
    Abstract: A can container made of soft material such as aluminum having a wall thickness of less than 0.2 mm is used for low acid foods or drinks having pH of more than 5.0. A controlled quantity of liquified nitrogen is introduced into the can filled with the low acid foods or drinks and then the can is hermetically sealed off by double-seaming. The liquid nitrogen is soon gasified in the sealed can to increase internal pressure of the can to a level sufficient to prevent the can from being deformed. Then the can is subjected to retort sterilization treatment at a predetermined high steam temperature for a predetermined period of time for sterilization of any possible bacilli and bacteria in the low acid foods or drinks in the can. Prior to retort sterilization treatment, a thermal sensitive paint is applied to the can, which will change color when exposed to a steam of a predetermined temperature for a predetermined period.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 3, 1986
    Date of Patent: September 29, 1987
    Assignee: National Can Corporation
    Inventor: Toshinori Kameda