By Conductive Fluid Or Work Function Within Sensor (e.g., Ionization) Patents (Class 374/174)
  • Publication number: 20140064324
    Abstract: Systems and methods for controlling the temperature of small volumes such as yoctoliter volumes, are described. The systems include one or more plasmonic nanostructures attached at or near a nanopore. Upon excitation of the plasmonic nanostructures, such as for example by exposure to laser light, the nanoparticles are rapidly heated thereby causing a change in the ionic conductance along the nanopore. The temperature change is determined from the ionic conductance. These temperature changes can be used to control rapid thermodynamic changes in molecular analytes as they interact with the nanopore.
    Type: Application
    Filed: November 6, 2013
    Publication date: March 6, 2014
    Applicant: National Institute of Standards and Technology
    Inventors: JOHN J. KASIANOWICZ, Joseph E. Reiner, Arvind K. Balijepalli, Joseph W. Robertson, Daniel L. Burden, Lisa Burden
  • Patent number: 8042347
    Abstract: A compressor inlet pressure estimation apparatus for a refrigeration cycle system is disclosed. An electronic control unit 14 uses Tefin_lag(N) as an actual corrected temperature Tefin_AD(N) during a period Tp1 included in the timing t1 to t2. During a period Tp2 included in the timing t1 to t2, Tefin_fwd(N) is used as the actual corrected temperature Tefin_AD(N). Thus, a highly accurate corrected temperature Tefin_AD(N) can be determined over the on period (t1 to t2) of a compressor 2. In addition, Tefin_fwd(N) is used as the actual corrected temperature Tefin_AD(N) during the off period (t2 to 3) of the compressor 2. As a result, a highly accurate corrected temperature Tefin_AD(N) can be determined over the whole period including the on and off periods of the compressor 2. In this way, a highly accurate estimated value Ps_es(N) of the refrigerant inlet pressure of the compressor 2 can be determined.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 22, 2008
    Date of Patent: October 25, 2011
    Inventors: Yoshikatsu Sawada, Yasutane Hijikata
  • Patent number: 7927010
    Abstract: Disposable, pre-sterilized, and pre-calibrated, pre-validated conductivity sensors are provided. These sensors are designed to store sensor-specific information, such as calibration and production information, in a non-volatile memory chip on the sensor. The sensors are calibrated using 0.100 molar potassium chloride (KCl) solutions at 25 degrees Celsius. These sensors may be utilize with in-line systems, closed fluid circuits, bioprocessing systems, or systems which require an aseptic environment while avoiding or reducing cleaning procedures and quality assurance variances.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 20, 2007
    Date of Patent: April 19, 2011
    Assignee: SenCal, LLC
    Inventors: Karl G. Schick, David Uhen
  • Patent number: 6594603
    Abstract: Diagnostic circuitry of a process device is used to detect degradation of a resistive element of the process device while the process device remains online and without an additional power source. The diagnostic circuitry includes a testing circuit and a processing system. The testing circuit is coupled to the resistive element and is configured to apply a test signal to the resistive element. The test signal heats the resistive element and causes the resistive element to generate a response signal. The processing system compares a time constant of the response signal to a corresponding reference to detect degradation of the resistive element.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 30, 1999
    Date of Patent: July 15, 2003
    Assignee: Rosemount Inc.
    Inventors: Evren Eryurek, Steven R. Esboldt
  • Patent number: 5148105
    Abstract: An electromagnetic rotation sensor for detecting a rotational speed of a rotating member includes a sensor portion and a connector portion which are molded of a resin to provide a resin-molded structure. The resin-molded structure is received in a cover, with the connector portion extending outwardly from the cover through a sensor portion-positioning hole formed through a wall of the cover. In order to prevent a positional displacement of the sensor portion with respect to a detection gear, connected to the rotating member, when fixedly mounting the cover on the resin-molded structure, a primary molded portion is molded to provide the sensor portion, and then the primary molded portion is inserted into the cover, and then a secondary molded portion is molded to form the connector portion on the primary molded portion in such a manner that a peripheral edge portion of the sensor portion-positioning hole is fixedly held between the primary molded portion and the secondary molded portion.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 13, 1991
    Date of Patent: September 15, 1992
    Assignee: Shindengen Electric Manufacturing Co., Ltd.
    Inventor: Takamichi Okada
  • Patent number: 4880596
    Abstract: A self-actuating reactor shutdown system incorporating a thermionic switched electromagnetic latch arrangement which is responsive to reactor neutron flux changes and to reactor coolant temperature changes. The system is self-actuating in that the sensing thermionic device acts directly to release (scram) the control rod (absorber) without reference or signal from the main reactor plant protective and control systems.To be responsive to both temperature and neutron flux effects, two detectors are used, one responsive to reactor coolant temperatures, and the other responsive to reactor neutron flux increase. The detectors are incorporated into a thermionic diode connected electrically with an electromagnetic mechanism which under normal reactor operating conditions holds the the control rod in its ready position (exterior of the reactor core).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 13, 1987
    Date of Patent: November 14, 1989
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the United States Department of Energy
    Inventors: Donald M. Barrus, Charles D. Shires, William A. Brummond
  • Patent number: 4770845
    Abstract: A control system for the automatic or self-actuated shutdown or "scram" of a nuclear reactor. The system is capable of initiating scram insertion by a signal from the plant protection system or by independent action directly sensing reactor conditions of low-flow or over-power.Self-actuation due to a loss of reactor coolant flow results from a decrease of pressure differential between the upper and lower ends of an absorber element. When the force due to this differential falls below the weight of the element, the element will fall by gravitational force to scram the reactor.Self-actuation due to high neutron flux is accomplished via a valve controlled by an electromagnet and a thermionic diode. In a reactor over-power, the diode will be heated to a change of state causing the electromagnet to be shorted thereby actuating the valve which provides the changed flow and pressure conditions required for scramming the absorber element.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 4, 1981
    Date of Patent: September 13, 1988
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the United States Department of Energy
    Inventors: Donald M. Barrus, Willian A Brummond, Leslie F. Peterson
  • Patent number: 4687903
    Abstract: A soldering iron bit is heated by an electrical heating element including a resistive element consisting of granular boron carbide packed in a quartz tube embedded in a piece of copper. A first power lead is electrically connected to the boron carbide at one end of the quartz tube. This first power lead passes through and is electrically insulated from the piece of copper. The second power lead is electrically connected to the boron carbide at the other end of the quartz tube, either directly or via the piece of copper. In use, connection of the first and second leads to an electrical power source causes the resistive element to generate heat in a very fast manner and to transmit this heat to the piece of copper. The piece of copper may be connected to or constitute the soldering bit and can be provided with a built-in thermostat comprising a meltable salt inserted in a hole provided in the piece of copper.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 27, 1985
    Date of Patent: August 18, 1987
    Inventor: Danny Zimmerman
  • Patent number: 4613238
    Abstract: The present invention provides a method and apparatus for measuring the temperature in an ultra small area by determining the electrical resistance, or changes in electrical resistance in an electrical circuit. The system utilizes a temperature sensory element comprised of a microcapillary tube containing an ionic liquid and an electrical circuit capable of measuring the electrical resistance, or the changes in the electrical resistance, of the liquid. The temperature sensory element is of a size useful to measure the temperature in ultra small areas. The temperature sensory element ranges up to about 2.0 microns in outside diameter, and more preferably has an outside diameter between about 0.1 and about 1.0 micron, and most preferably between about 0.5 and about 1.5 micron. Minute changes in the electrical resistance of the liquid within the temperature sensory element reflect minute temperature changes in the immediate area of the temperature sensory element.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 27, 1985
    Date of Patent: September 23, 1986
    Assignee: The Research Foundation of State University of New York
    Inventor: Frederick Sachs