Frequency Shift Or Inversion Patents (Class 380/38)
  • Patent number: 10193616
    Abstract: A system and method are disclosed for a communication system optimized for low data volume communications. In embodiments of the invention, a terminal in the communication system sends a burst comprising a message to network infrastructure in the system at a pre-scheduled time such that the network infrastructure can derive a terminal identity for the terminal by the time of the burst without having to include terminal identity information in the message. The bursts are intended to communicate a message without all of the overhead used in establishing and terminating a connection associated with convention communication systems. The bursts are sent in predetermined formats, at predetermined times so that the identity of the terminal can be easily determined eliminating the need for much of the overhead of a conventional MSS.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 22, 2017
    Date of Patent: January 29, 2019
    Assignee: eSAT Global, Inc.
    Inventor: Michael Parr
  • Patent number: 10116674
    Abstract: The present disclosure is directed towards systems and methods for characterizing anomalous network traffic. The system includes a device intermediary to clients and servers. The device includes a network traffic engine to receive network traffic including an anomaly. The device includes a univariate policy manager to determine whether the network traffic satisfies at least one of the rules of a univariate policy based on a respective single independent network traffic feature. The device includes a multivariate policy manager to determine, responsive to determining that the network traffic does not satisfy the rules of the univariate policy, that the network satisfies a multivariate policy including a plurality of anomaly explanation tests. The device includes an anomaly explanation selector to select, responsive to determining that the network traffic satisfies the multivariate policy, an anomaly explanation.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 30, 2015
    Date of Patent: October 30, 2018
    Assignee: Citrix Systems, Inc.
    Inventors: Nastaran Baradaran, Anoop Reddy, Ratnesh Singh Thakur
  • Patent number: 8903091
    Abstract: A secure optical communication system and method are disclosed. Short optical pulses are first modulated with data, then dispersed in time so that they spread out over multiple bit periods, then the desired code is applied to the dispersed pulses. The encoding may include frequency shifts or phase shifts or other. The dispersed optical symbols overlap in time so an applied code chip thus acts on multiple symbols simultaneously. There are generally multiple code chips per dispersed symbol. The coding device does not need to be synchronized to the data rate. Multiple wavelength division multiplexed channels may be encoded simultaneously. The signal propagates to a decoder that is synchronized with encoder to apply a complementary code thereby canceling out the effect of the encoder. The encoder and decoder can be realized by varying the wavelength of an optical pump to a parametric amplifier, allowing for a wide-band frequency shift.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 22, 2011
    Date of Patent: December 2, 2014
    Assignee: Nucript LLC
    Inventor: Gregory S. Kanter
  • Patent number: 8848909
    Abstract: Systems (100) and methods for selectively controlling access to data streams communicated from a first communication device (FCD) using a timeslotted shared frequency spectrum and shared spreading codes. Protected data signals (1301, . . . , 130S) are modulated to form first modulated signals (1321, . . . , 132S). The first modulated signals are combined with first chaotic spreading codes to form digital chaotic signals. The digital chaotic signals are additively combined to form a protected data communication signal (PDCS). The PDCS (136) and a global data communication signal (GDCS) are time division multiplexed to form an output communication signal (OCS). The OCS (140) is transmitted from FCD (102) to a second communication device (SCD) over a communications channel. The SCD (106, 108, 110) is configured to recover (a) only global data from the OCS, or (b) global data and at least some protected data from the OCS.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 22, 2009
    Date of Patent: September 30, 2014
    Assignee: Harris Corporation
    Inventors: Alan J. Michaels, David B. Chester
  • Patent number: 8850229
    Abstract: An apparatus for generating a decryption key for use to decrypt a block of encrypted instruction data being fetched from an instruction cache in a microprocessor at a fetch address includes a first multiplexer that selects a first key value from a plurality of key values based on a first portion of the fetch address. A second multiplexer selects a second key value from the plurality of key values based on the first portion of the fetch address. A rotater rotates the first key value based on a second portion of the fetch address. An arithmetic unit selectively adds or subtracts the rotated first key value to or from the second key value based on a third portion of the fetch address to generate the decryption key.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 29, 2013
    Date of Patent: September 30, 2014
    Assignee: VIA Technologies, Inc.
    Inventors: G. Glenn Henry, Terry Parks, Brent Bean, Thomas A. Crispin
  • Publication number: 20140226812
    Abstract: Multiple transform utilization and applications for secure digital watermarking In one embodiment of the present invention, digital blocks in digital information to be protected are transformed into the frequency domain using a fast Fourier transform. A plurality of frequencies and associated amplitudes are identified for each of the transformed digital blocks and a subset of the identified amplitudes is selected for each of the digital blocks using a primary mask from a key. Message information is selected from a message using a transformation table generated with a convolution mask. The chosen message information is encoded into each of the transformed digital blocks by altering the selected amplitudes based on the selected message information.
    Type: Application
    Filed: April 22, 2014
    Publication date: August 14, 2014
    Inventor: Scott A. Moskowitz
  • Patent number: 8769312
    Abstract: Tampering monitoring system can detect whether protection control module is tampered with even if some of detection modules are tampered with. Tampering monitoring system includes protection control module detection modules, and management device. Protection control module includes: generation unit generating d pieces of distribution data from computer program, n and d being positive integers, d smaller than n; selection unit selecting d detection modules; and distribution unit distributing d pieces of distribution data to d detection modules. Each detection module judges whether received piece of distribution data is authentic to detect whether protection control module is tampered with, and transmits judgment result indicating whether protection control module is tampered with. Management device receives judgment results from d detection modules and manages protection control module with regard to tampering by using received judgment results.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 19, 2011
    Date of Patent: July 1, 2014
    Assignee: Panasonic Corporation
    Inventors: Yuji Unagami, Yuichi Futa, Natsume Matsuzaki, Hiroki Shizuya, Eisuke Koizumi, Shingo Hasegawa
  • Patent number: 8719589
    Abstract: A microprocessor includes a storage element having a plurality of locations each storing decryption key data associated with an encrypted program. A control register field (may be x86 EFLAGS register reserved field) specifies a storage element location associated with a currently executing encrypted program. The microprocessor restores from memory to the control register a previously saved value of the field in response to executing a return from interrupt instruction. A fetch unit fetches encrypted instructions of the currently executing encrypted program and decrypts them using the decryption key data stored the storage element location specified by the restored field value. A kill bit associated with each storage element location may be employed if the location is clobbered because more encrypted programs are multitasked than available locations in the storage element, in which case an exception is generated to re-load the clobbered decryption key data in response to the return from interrupt instruction.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 21, 2011
    Date of Patent: May 6, 2014
    Assignee: VIA Technologies, Inc.
    Inventors: G. Glenn Henry, Terry Parks, Brent Bean, Thomas A. Crispin
  • Patent number: 8707053
    Abstract: Method and apparatus for obfuscating computer software code, to protect against reverse-engineering of the code. The obfuscation here is of the part of the code that performs a Boolean logic operation such as an exclusive OR on two (or more) data variables. In the obfuscated code, each of the two variables is first modified by applying to it a function which deconstructs the value of each of the variables, and then the exclusive OR operation is replaced by an arithmetic operation such as addition, subtraction, or multiplication, which is performed on the two deconstructed variables. The non-obfuscated result is recovered by applying a third function to the value generated by the arithmetic operation. This obfuscation is typically carried out by suitably annotating (modifying) the original source code.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 9, 2011
    Date of Patent: April 22, 2014
    Assignee: Apple Inc.
    Inventors: Augustin J. Farrugia, Benoit Chevallier-Mames, Mathieu Ciet, Thomas Icart
  • Patent number: 8700919
    Abstract: A fetch unit fetches a sequence of blocks of encrypted instructions of an encrypted program from an instruction cache at a corresponding sequence of fetch address values. While fetching each block of the sequence, the fetch unit generates a decryption key as a function of key values and the corresponding fetch address value, and decrypts the encrypted instructions using the generated decryption key by XORing them together. A switch key instruction instructs the microprocessor to update the key values in the fetch unit while the fetch unit is fetching the sequence of blocks. The fetch unit inherently provides an effective decryption key length that depends upon the function and amount of key values used. Including one or more switch key instructions within the encrypted program increases the effective decryption key length up to the encrypted program length.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 21, 2011
    Date of Patent: April 15, 2014
    Assignee: VIA Technologies, Inc.
    Inventors: G. Glenn Henry, Terry Parks, Brent Bean, Thomas A. Crispin
  • Patent number: 8671285
    Abstract: A fetch unit (a) fetches a block of instruction data from an instruction cache of the microprocessor; (b) performs an XOR on the block with a data entity to generate plain text instruction data; and (c) provides the plain text instruction data to an instruction decode unit. In a first instance the block comprises encrypted instruction data and the data entity is a decryption key. In a second instance the block comprises unencrypted instruction data and the data entity is Boolean zeroes. The time required to perform (a), (b), and (c) is the same in the first and second instances regardless of whether the block is encrypted or unencrypted. A decryption key generator selects first and second keys from a plurality of keys, rotates the first key, and adds/subtracts the rotated first key to/from the second key, all based on portions of the fetch address, to generate the decryption key.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 21, 2011
    Date of Patent: March 11, 2014
    Assignee: VIA Technologies, Inc.
    Inventors: G. Glenn Henry, Terry Parks, Brent Bean, Thomas A. Crispin
  • Patent number: 8645714
    Abstract: A branch target address cache (BTAC) caches history information associated with branch and switch key instructions previously executed by a microprocessor. The history information includes a target address and an identifier (index into a register file) for identifying key values associated with each of the previous branch and switch key instructions. A fetch unit receives from the BTAC a prediction that the fetch unit fetched a previous branch and switch key instruction and receives the target address and identifier associated with the fetched branch and switch key instruction. The fetch unit also fetches encrypted instruction data at the associated target address and decrypts (via XOR) the fetched encrypted instruction data based on the key values identified by the identifier, in response to receiving the prediction. If the BTAC predicts correctly, a pipeline flush normally associated with the branch and switch key instruction is avoided.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 21, 2011
    Date of Patent: February 4, 2014
    Assignee: VIA Technologies, Inc.
    Inventors: G. Glenn Henry, Terry Parks, Brent Bean, Thomas A. Crispin
  • Patent number: 8520843
    Abstract: In an inventive method for encrypting a discrete signal consisting of successive samples the successive samples are subdivided into successive time blocks, and the successive time blocks are then encoded into encoded data blocks having a predetermined order. Subsequently, the predetermined order of the encoded data blocks is altered in accordance with a predetermined interchange specification. The underlying findings are that a very high level of security of the encryption may be achieved by introducing temporal discontinuity, and that the occurrence of errors in unauthorized processing of signals encoded in such a manner maybe prevented, and the compatibility with standard codings may be ensured by performing the alteration of the chronological order in accordance with a coding of the discrete signal, i.e. with regard to encoded data blocks into which an encoder encodes the discrete signal.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 2, 2002
    Date of Patent: August 27, 2013
    Assignee: Fraunhofer-Gesellscaft zur Foerderung der Angewandten Forschung E.V.
    Inventors: Sascha Disch, Johannes Hilpert, Manfred Lutzky, Marc Gayer, Reinfried Bartholomaeus
  • Patent number: 8442218
    Abstract: A method and apparatus for a system and process for generating a hashing value using any number of cryptographic hashing functions. The hashing process receives an input value to be hashed. The input value is cyptographically hashed and augmented. The augmented value is then cryptographically hashed. The process then iteratively applies a set of non-linear functions to these values. Each iteration maintaining a ‘left half’ and ‘right half.’ After the last iteration, the left and right portions are concatenated to form a hash value that is output.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 27, 2009
    Date of Patent: May 14, 2013
    Assignee: Red Hat, Inc.
    Inventor: James Paul Schneider
  • Patent number: 8331559
    Abstract: The present invention discloses a diffused data encryption/decryption processing method, which comprises a plaintext, being at least a 2D matrix; and a password, being at least a 2D matrix; such that the password determines the starting point of the diffusion, the length of the diffusion, the cycle of diffusion, the number of encrypted diffusions and the number of decrypted diffusions to perform the diffusion computation of the plaintext as to achieve the purpose of processing the encryption and decryption.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 3, 2009
    Date of Patent: December 11, 2012
    Inventor: Chiou-Haun Lee
  • Patent number: 8300813
    Abstract: Secure communication of information is effected from a first party to a second party when the first party knows its own global location and the global location of the second party, and employs what essentially is an undiscoverable code signal that is broadcast to, and received by, both the first and the second parties. The first party securely communicates information to the second party by modifying the code signal with the information that is to be communicated and sends the modified code signal to the second party. Illustratively, the code signal is related to the Y component of a GPS signal.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 29, 2008
    Date of Patent: October 30, 2012
    Assignee: The Boeing Company
    Inventors: David S DeLorenzo, Per K Enge, Sherman C. Lo
  • Patent number: 8270708
    Abstract: Briefly, in accordance with one embodiment, a method of identifying marked images based at least in part on frequency domain coefficient differences is disclosed.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 16, 2011
    Date of Patent: September 18, 2012
    Assignee: New Jersey Institute of Technology
    Inventors: Yun-Qing Shi, ChunHua Chen
  • Patent number: 8130948
    Abstract: A method and system enables the selective addressing of groups of broadcast receivers within part of a satellite footprint. It uses two satellites having a common transmission band to transmit respective signals, and at receivers in the footprint the phases of the signals received from the two satellites are compared. This phase difference is dependent upon receiver location, but by measuring phase difference no absolute timing or phase measurement is required. A common key is generated at the receivers in a certain area. The output of selected receivers is fed back to the broadcast control centre and is used to encode the location-based services for that area. Preferably the operation is conducted on multiple frequencies and in multiple rounds of such frequencies. A multibit keyword can be directly generated at the receivers by use of a discrete Fourier transform (DFT) and combining its outputs for different rounds.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 3, 2006
    Date of Patent: March 6, 2012
    Assignee: British Broadcasting Corporation
    Inventor: Nigel Christopher Earnshaw
  • Publication number: 20110243322
    Abstract: Security of communications between a mobile terminal 1 and a cellular network node (base station 3) is enhanced. A communication session transmitted on a first traffic channel ‘0’ is encrypted using a key ‘KA’. The security is enhanced by causing the communication channel to change to a second communication channel ‘7’ after a predetermined time, preferably very quickly after establishing the key. In one embodiment the communication channel then changes to a third communication channel ‘25’ after a predetermined time. In another embodiment the communication session is encrypted using a second key ‘KB’after causing the communication channel to change to the second communication channel ‘7’.
    Type: Application
    Filed: January 19, 2009
    Publication date: October 6, 2011
    Applicant: VODAFONE GROUP PLC
    Inventors: Christopher Pudney, Steven Babbage, Alberto Gomez, Miguel Arranz, Robert Olheide-Koehler
  • Publication number: 20110228929
    Abstract: A method for encrypting an information carrier comprising generating a sequence of data using a sequence generator, modulating, using a first modulator an output from the sequence generator such that an interference signal results, encoding the interference generator's synchronization information using an encoder, modulating, using a second modulator, the encoded synchronization information such that a synchronization carrier signal results, spreading the synchronization carrier signal using a spreader such that a spread sub-carrier synchronization signal results, and combining the modulated information carrier signal, interference signal, and spread sub-carrier synchronization signal using a signal combiner such that a composite signal results, the interference signal having one or more signal characteristics that results in obfuscation of the information carrier signal when the information carrier signal and interference signal are combined.
    Type: Application
    Filed: May 31, 2011
    Publication date: September 22, 2011
    Applicant: COMTECH EF DATA CORP.
    Inventors: Kasra Akhavan-Toyserkani, Andrew Ripple, Michael Beeler, Cris Mamaril
  • Patent number: 7925080
    Abstract: Briefly, in accordance with one embodiment, a method of identifying marked images based at least in part on frequency domain coefficient differences is disclosed.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 13, 2006
    Date of Patent: April 12, 2011
    Assignee: New Jersey Institute of Technology
    Inventors: Yun-Qing Shi, ChunHua Chen
  • Publication number: 20110019817
    Abstract: Systems (100) and methods for selectively controlling access to data streams communicated from a first communication device (FCD) using a timeslotted shared frequency spectrum and shared spreading codes. Protected data signals (1301, . . . , 130S) are modulated to form first modulated signals (1321, . . . , 132S). The first modulated signals are combined with first chaotic spreading codes to form digital chaotic signals. The digital chaotic signals are additively combined to form a protected data communication signal (PDCS). The PDCS (136) and a global data communication signal (GDCS) are time division multiplexed to form an output communication signal (OCS). The OCS (140) is transmitted from FCD (102) to a second communication device (SCD) over a communications channel. The SCD (106, 108, 110) is configured to recover (a) only global data from the OCS, or (b) global data and at least some protected data from the OCS.
    Type: Application
    Filed: July 22, 2009
    Publication date: January 27, 2011
    Applicant: Harris Corporation
    Inventors: Alan J. Michaels, David B. Chester
  • Patent number: 7870390
    Abstract: Input signals are electronically watermarked using an uneven or non-uniform sampling rate. The uneven or non-uniform sampling may be pseudo-random. The uneven or non-uniform sampling meets the Nyquist criterion so that aliasing and loss of content are avoided. The resulting sampling pattern in the sampled data is detectable by a comparison with the original source data.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 5, 2005
    Date of Patent: January 11, 2011
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventor: Gordon James Smith
  • Patent number: 7864959
    Abstract: Methods and apparatus for converting original data into a plurality of sub-bands using wavelet decomposition; encrypting at least one of the sub-bands using a key to produce encrypted sub-band data; and transmitting the encrypted sub-band data to a recipient separately from the other sub-bands.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 1, 2007
    Date of Patent: January 4, 2011
    Assignee: New Jersey Institute of Technology
    Inventor: Atam Dhawan
  • Patent number: 7844053
    Abstract: A microprocessor apparatus is provided, for performing a cryptographic operation. The microprocessor apparatus includes an x86-compatible microprocessor that has fetch logic, a cryptography unit, and an integer unit. The fetch logic is configured to fetch an application program from memory for execution by the x86-compatible microprocessor. The application program includes an atomic instruction that directs the x86-compatible microprocessor to perform the cryptographic operation. The atomic instruction has and opcode field and a repeat prefix field. The opcode field prescribes that the device accomplish the cryptographic operation as further specified within a control word stored in a memory. The repeat prefix field is coupled to the opcode field. The repeat prefix field indicates that the cryptographic operation prescribed by the atomic instruction is to be accomplished on a plurality of blocks of input data.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 5, 2003
    Date of Patent: November 30, 2010
    Assignee: IP-First, LLC
    Inventors: Thomas A. Crispin, G. Glenn Henry, Terry Parks
  • Patent number: 7739501
    Abstract: A computer program product, for producing a cryptographic key label for use in exchanging information between first and second organizations of members, resides on a computer-readable medium includes computer-readable instructions configured to cause a computer to: produce a read-write cryptographic key using at least one base value; produce a write-only cryptographic key using the read-write cryptographic key; combine a first identifier, uniquely associated with the first organization, and a second identifier, uniquely associated with the key label to be produced, using a one-way function to produce a pedigree; and associate the pedigree with the read-write key and the write-only key to form the cryptographic key label.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 29, 2005
    Date of Patent: June 15, 2010
    Assignee: InfoAssure, Inc.
    Inventors: Gerald D. Kimmel, Ersin L. Domangue
  • Publication number: 20100098245
    Abstract: A spread scrambled multiple access (SSCMA) scheme is described. A first encoded bit stream of a first terminal is scrambled according to a first scrambling signature. A second encoded bit stream of a second terminal is scrambled according to a second scrambling signature. The first scrambled bit stream is spread to match a communication channel bandwidth. The second scrambled bit stream is spread to match the communication channel bandwidth.
    Type: Application
    Filed: December 24, 2009
    Publication date: April 22, 2010
    Applicant: Hughes Network Systems
    Inventors: Russell Fang, Mustafa Eroz, Neal Becker
  • Publication number: 20100074444
    Abstract: A system and method is provided for identifying fraudulent data in an optical data transmission. The system and method includes scrambling an encoded data signal using dynamically changing scramble code; transmitting the scrambled encoded data signal over a network; descrambling the scrambled encoded data signal using a descramble code corresponding to a compliment of the dynamically changing scramble code; analyzing the descrambled encoded data signal to search for a region of low error between descrambled data and noise; notifying of a possible spoofing attempt when a region of low error is not found; and decoding the descrambled encoded data signal using a compliment of phase codes originally used for encoding the encoded data signal in order to generate a decoded signal to retrieve a desired data signal when a region of low error is found.
    Type: Application
    Filed: June 26, 2009
    Publication date: March 25, 2010
    Applicant: TELCORDIA TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
    Inventor: Shahab Etemad
  • Publication number: 20090220083
    Abstract: A first bit sequence is generated using a first pseudorandom bit source. A second bit sequence is generated using a second pseudorandom bit source. A third bit sequence is generated by multiplying the first bit sequence with the second bit sequence over a finite field of even characteristic, modulo a fixed primitive polynomial. A message is received. The third bit sequence is comingled with the message to conceal contents of the message.
    Type: Application
    Filed: February 28, 2008
    Publication date: September 3, 2009
    Inventor: James P. Schneider
  • Publication number: 20090161865
    Abstract: The present invention discloses a diffused data encryption/decryption processing method, which comprises a plaintext, being at least a 2D matrix; and a password, being at least a 2D matrix; such that the password determines the starting point of the diffusion, the length of the diffusion, the cycle of diffusion, the number of encrypted diffusions and the number of decrypted diffusions to perform the diffusion computation of the plaintext as to achieve the purpose of processing the encryption and decryption.
    Type: Application
    Filed: February 3, 2009
    Publication date: June 25, 2009
    Inventor: Chiou-Haun LEE
  • Patent number: 7545929
    Abstract: The ability to securely transmit information between two locations is of paramount importance in today's communication systems. Before the invention of digital transmission methods, analog transmission was commonplace. However, today's communication systems rely almost exclusively on transmitting information digitally. Digital transmission has become commonplace because it provides optimal accuracy and security. However, digital transmission also has drawbacks, for example, increased bandwidth requirements and the loss of information when converting information between the analog and digital domains. The present invention relates to a method and apparatus for encrypting analog data while minimizing data loss and conserving bandwidth.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 25, 2002
    Date of Patent: June 9, 2009
    Assignee: Lockheed Martin Corporation
    Inventors: Harold D. Babb, Michael J. Brooks
  • Patent number: 7391867
    Abstract: Systems and methods for graphically displaying statistical information relating to the operation of a quantum key distribution (QKD) system. The method includes exchanging quantum photons between first and second QKD stations for each combination of modulator states, collecting data on the number of quantum photon counts obtained in each of two detectors for each modulator state combination, defining a statistical region for each modulator state combination based on the collected data, and displaying the statistical regions on a graph having indicia indicating ideal locations for the statistical regions. The method also optionally includes adjusting the QKD system based on the graphically displayed information to optimize system performance.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 22, 2004
    Date of Patent: June 24, 2008
    Assignee: MagiQ Technologies, Inc.
    Inventor: Harry Vig
  • Patent number: 7379878
    Abstract: An information encoding apparatus and method, an information decoding apparatus and method, a recording medium, and a program make it possible to embed information without causing an increase in the amount of data of compressed audio signals. A spectrum measurer converts an audio signal from a time axis signal into a frequency axis signal. A compressor removes frequency spectra having levels below a minimum audible threshold value. An embedability determiner determines whether information can be embedded. A spectrum switcher embeds information in an audio signal by switching or by not switching predetermined first frequency spectrum and second frequency spectrum under the control of an information adder. The present invention is applicable to a disk recording apparatus.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 10, 2003
    Date of Patent: May 27, 2008
    Assignee: Sony Corporation
    Inventors: Tetsujiro Kondo, Gakuho Fukushi, Masaaki Hattori, Kazutaka Ando, Hiroto Kimura
  • Patent number: 7333608
    Abstract: An analog signal scrambler/de-scrambler includes a receiver for receiving an analog signal and converting the signal into an intermediate frequency signal. A generator generates a pseudo-random gaussian frequency distribution signal, which is multiplied with the intermediate frequency signal by a frequency converter to scramble/de-scramble the analog signal.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 15, 2005
    Date of Patent: February 19, 2008
    Assignee: Lockheed Martin Corporation
    Inventor: Jack Elias Seitner
  • Patent number: 7298840
    Abstract: A method of authenticating a message (111) received via a transmission channel (108) using a Message Authentication Code (MAC). The message comprises a message body (114) and a tag (116) and the method comprises the steps of generating a second tag (115) according to a MAC function (112) on the basis of the received message body and a secret key (113), calculating a distance (117) between the received tag and generated second tag, and comparing (118) the calculated distance with a predetermined threshold value.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 9, 2002
    Date of Patent: November 20, 2007
    Assignee: Telefonaktiebolaget LM Ericsson (publ)
    Inventors: Christian Gehrmann, Rolf Blom
  • Patent number: 7219082
    Abstract: A financial transaction network includes a customer network serviced by a host processor. The financial transaction network provides customers with a plurality of diverse and interchangeable financial products and financial services that customers may utilize to directly manage their financial assets. The host processor acts as a communications switch validating incoming transaction requests and routing them to specialized subsystems. The host processor maintains central records that can be accessed by network participants. The financial transaction network enables customers to continually interchange account values relating to any financial product, or financial service within the network. With its accessibility, speed and finality of settlement, the network permits these interchanges to be accomplished with maximum efficiency.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 19, 2005
    Date of Patent: May 15, 2007
    Inventor: Patrick Forte
  • Patent number: 7076659
    Abstract: A method is provided for enhanced spread spectrum watermarking. The improved watermarking method includes: receiving host data which is expressed in a transform domain by a plurality of host transform parameters; reducing variance between the plurality of host transform parameters, thereby forming an enhanced sequence of host transform parameters; and adding a watermark to the enhanced sequence of host transform parameters using a spread spectrum technique. The enhanced sequence of host transform parameters may be formed by arranging the plurality of host transform parameters in at least one of an ascending order or descending order; determining a difference for each pair of consecutive host transform parameters; and alternating the sign of every other difference value, thereby forming the enhanced sequence of host transform parameters.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 25, 2002
    Date of Patent: July 11, 2006
    Assignee: Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Szeming Cheng, Hong Heather Yu, Zixiang Xiong
  • Patent number: 7051203
    Abstract: Input signals are electronically watermarked using an uneven or non-uniform sampling rate. The uneven or non-uniform sampling may be pseudo-random. The uneven or non-uniform sampling meets the Nyquist criterion so that aliasing and loss of content are avoided. The resulting sampling pattern in the sampled data is detectable by a comparison with the original source data.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 8, 1999
    Date of Patent: May 23, 2006
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventor: Gordon James Smith
  • Patent number: 6993153
    Abstract: A watermarking method converts a watermark message into a Frequency Shift Keying (FSK) signal and embeds the FSK signal in a host signal. The spectral properties of the FSK watermark signal facilitate its detection, even in applications where the watermarked signal is corrupted. Because of these properties, the FSK watermark signal can perform the dual function of identifying the watermark's presence and orientation in potentially corrupted media, and also conveying a hidden message in the host signal. Such a watermark may be referred to as a self-orienting watermark.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 23, 2003
    Date of Patent: January 31, 2006
    Assignee: Digimarc Corporation
    Inventor: Brett A. Bradley
  • Patent number: 6973190
    Abstract: The invention concerns a method for protecting an electronic system implementing a cryptographic calculation process involving a modular exponentiation of a quantity (x), said modular exponentiation using a secret exponent (d), characterized in that said secret exponent is broken down into a plurality of k unpredictable values (d1, d2, . . . , dk), the sum of which is equal to said secret exponent.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 26, 2000
    Date of Patent: December 6, 2005
    Assignee: CP8 Technologies
    Inventor: Louis Goubin
  • Patent number: 6973188
    Abstract: A method for scrambling/descrambling an analog signal includes receiving an analog signal and converting the signal into an intermediate frequency signal. A Gaussian pseudo-random noise signal is generated and then multiplied with the intermediate frequency signal to scramble/descramble the received analog signal.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 25, 2002
    Date of Patent: December 6, 2005
    Assignee: Lockheed Martin Corporation
    Inventor: Jack Elias Seitner
  • Patent number: 6970843
    Abstract: A financial transaction network includes a customer network serviced by a host processor. The financial transaction network provides customers with a plurality of diverse and interchangeable financial products and financial services that customers may utilize to directly manage their financial assets. The host processor acts as a communications switch validating incoming transaction requests and routing them to specialized subsystems. The host processor maintains central records that can be accessed by network participants. The financial transaction network enables customers to continually interchange account values relating to any financial product, or financial service within the network. With its accessibility, speed and finality of settlement, the network permits these interchanges to be accomplished with maximum efficiency.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 24, 2000
    Date of Patent: November 29, 2005
    Inventor: Patrick A. Forte
  • Patent number: 6823455
    Abstract: One inventive aspect pertains to a watermarking mechanism that allows a watermark to be determined from only a part of the video sequence without human intervention and without reference to the original watermarked frames. This watermark has improved invisibility, detection reliability and robustness. Invisibility is improved through the inclusion of frame difference parameters to calculate the amplitude of the watermark. Detection reliability and robustness can be improved by assuring that opposite signed values for the pseudo-random number sequence are spatially near each other and using data blocks forming the data sets, respectively. Another inventive aspect pertains to a watermarking mechanism that is exclusively dependent on the data contained in the data sets and is completely interoperable between spatial and compressed domains.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 8, 1999
    Date of Patent: November 23, 2004
    Assignee: Intel Corporation
    Inventors: William W. Macy, Matthew J. Holliman, Minerva Ming-Yee Yeung
  • Patent number: 6731757
    Abstract: A method of and apparatus for digitally generating a broadband signal comprising a plurality of CW or quadrature modulated signals having incrementally related frequencies wherein said plurality of signals are centered about a center RF frequency is disclosed. The invention provides for generating a first and second composite baseband signal each comprising a linear combination of N sinusoids, or N modulated signals each modulated in quadrature so as to achieve a desired instantaneous phasor value for each of the RF signals. The invention further provides for modulating in quadrature the first and second composite baseband signals on a local oscillator signal having a frequency equal to the center RF frequency.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 14, 2000
    Date of Patent: May 4, 2004
    Assignee: Broadband Innovations, Inc.
    Inventor: Ron D. Katznelson
  • Patent number: 6625297
    Abstract: A watermarking method converts a watermark message into a Frequency Shift Keying (FSK) signal and embeds the FSK signal in a host signal. The spectral properties of the FSK watermark signal facilitate its detection, even in applications where the watermarked signal is corrupted. Because of these properties, the FSK watermark signal can perform the dual function of identifying the watermark's presence and orientation in potentially corrupted media, and also conveying a hidden message in the host signal. Such a watermark may be referred to as a self-orienting watermark.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 10, 2000
    Date of Patent: September 23, 2003
    Assignee: Digimarc Corporation
    Inventor: Brett A. Bradley
  • Patent number: 6501841
    Abstract: One embodiment of the present invention is a method for providing security for a transmission of information in an ADSL environment using a DMT modulation technique. The order of the frequency orthogonal subchannels used in the DMT technique is scrambled according to a permutation cipher. The key for this scrambling operation is scrambled with the subscriber's public key, and is encoded according to a CDMA technique for transmission through the ADSL channel approximately concurrently with the information. The encoded key and the DMT data subblocks are recovered from the secured transmission. The encoded key is decoded according to the CDMA technique to generate the decoded key. The decoded key is used to assign an order to the subblocks of data.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 17, 1998
    Date of Patent: December 31, 2002
    Assignee: Intel Corporation
    Inventor: David M. Horne
  • Patent number: 6389138
    Abstract: A complex spreading and/or scrambling code sequence generation system uses a first complex code sequence having at least two components and a second complex code sequence having at least two components. The components of the first complex code sequence are respectively mixed with the corresponding components of the second complex code sequence to generate the complex scrambling code sequence. In doing so, an offset between the components of the complex scrambling code sequence is achieved for the same and/or different users. The complex scrambling code sequence can be used for spreading, scrambling, de-spreading or descrambling an information signal.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 12, 1998
    Date of Patent: May 14, 2002
    Assignee: Lucent Technologies Inc.
    Inventors: Quinn Li, Nallepilli S. Ramesh
  • Patent number: 6345100
    Abstract: Watermark data is encoded in a digitized signal by forming a noise threshold spectrum which represents a maximum amount of imperceptible noise, spread-spectrum chipping the noise threshold spectrum with a relatively endless stream of pseudo-random bits to form a basis signal, dividing the basis signal into segments, and filtering the segments to smooth segment boundaries. The data encoded in the watermark signal is precoded to make the watermark data inversion robust and is convolutional encoded to further increase the likelihood that the watermark data will subsequently be retrievable notwithstanding lossy processing of the watermarked signal.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 14, 1998
    Date of Patent: February 5, 2002
    Assignee: Liquid Audio, Inc.
    Inventor: Earl Levine
  • Patent number: 6229897
    Abstract: An apparatus and method for improved security in wire or wireless communication systems includes scrambling the audio signal, combining a masking signal with the scrambled audio signal, and then transmitting the scrambled masked signal. To recover the original audio, a receiver must by synchronized and know the characteristics of the masking signal and the scrambling technique. Such a receiver removes the masking signal, descrambles the audio and thus recovers the original audio. Any attempted interception of the communication would hear white noise, and even if the white noise mask where removed, the communication would still have the security level of the scrambling. The mask removes any remnants of the original audio that might be used to try to locate and intercept the communication.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 30, 1997
    Date of Patent: May 8, 2001
    Assignee: Transcrypt International, Inc.
    Inventors: James R. Holthaus, Max Aaron Caldwell
  • Patent number: RE42002
    Abstract: An apparatus and method for high speed transmission of data over a transmission line/medium/network telephone, wherein this high speed is achieved by simultaneously, or in a timed and marked relationship, transmitting multiple bits of data over parallel frequencies rather than serially transmitting one bit of data at a time over one frequency.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 6, 2006
    Date of Patent: December 14, 2010
    Inventors: William K. Riceman, Robert G. Riceman, Stephen A. Hollock