Heating Patents (Class 405/131)
  • Patent number: 10845002
    Abstract: The present invention utilize a combination of wooden elements (20, 21), stainless steel membranes (22) and insulating materials in embodiments of the present invention. An object of the present invention is to be able to build the LNG tank separately from the building of the ship, and fit a complete or nearly complete LNG tank into the space of the ship hull when appropriate during the process of building the ship. Therefore, the building of the tank and the ship can be done in parallel, which by experience reduces the total time of building the ship considerably, and hence provide substantial cost savings.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 1, 2017
    Date of Patent: November 24, 2020
    Assignee: IC TECHNOLOGY AS
    Inventor: Otto Skovholt
  • Patent number: 10669782
    Abstract: A frost removal system is for thawing frozen ground and a method removes frost from a selected area of frozen ground. The method can include providing at least one heat transfer device; auguring a hole into the frozen ground to at least a depth of the frost. The at least one heat transfer device is lowered into the selected area of frozen ground and self-augured to the predetermined depth. The at least one heat transfer device is heated and the heat is allowed to travel along a length of the at least one heat transfer device. Heat is applied from the at least one heat transfer device for thawing the selected area of frozen ground until the frost is removed. The removal system may also be used to remove moisture from saturated soil and to bake columns of soil with increased load-bearing capacity.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 9, 2019
    Date of Patent: June 2, 2020
    Inventor: Michael J. Davis
  • Patent number: 10240315
    Abstract: A tieback alignment and access device has a hollow core and vertically aligned angled anchor subassemblies that provide attachment points for tieback anchors that pass laterally through the hollow core. The hollow core is configured to allow a cutting tool (e.g., a drill bit) to be inserted therein longitudinally and used to cut the tieback anchors at any time. When cast into a contiguous temporary support-of-excavation wall, the angled anchor subassemblies are set back from an outwardly facing surface of the wall resulting in a smooth surface.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 10, 2017
    Date of Patent: March 26, 2019
    Assignee: MCMILLEN JACOBS ASSOCIATES, INC.
    Inventors: Sean William Peterfreund, Grant Cameron Finn
  • Patent number: 9523623
    Abstract: Methods of testing a honeycomb filter include the step of maintaining an average temperature of the honeycomb filter and/or fog within a range of from about 10° C. to about 30° C. and flowing a fog with moisture droplets into the honeycomb network of channels at the first end portion of the honeycomb filter, the fog including a relative humidity of at least 80%. In further examples, the moisture droplets include a mean droplet size of from about 1 micron to about 25 microns.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 28, 2012
    Date of Patent: December 20, 2016
    Assignee: Corning Incorporated
    Inventors: Aisha Price Blanchard, Julie Charmaine Frey, Patrick Michael Gargano, Ameya Joshi, Konstantin Vladimirovich Khodosevich, William Paul Ryszytiwskyj, John Paul Bir Singh
  • Patent number: 8967059
    Abstract: An emissions recycling system is used on a vehicle towing an agricultural implement to enrich the fertility of the soil. The system includes an exhaust collector for collecting exhaust emissions from the internal combustion engine of the towing vehicle and an exhaust distribution system for injecting at least a portion of the exhaust emissions collected by the exhaust collector into the ground worked by the ground working tools of the agricultural implement. Fertility of the soil is enriched by bioactivity within the soil's micro flora which consumes the greenhouse gas and emissions.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 23, 2013
    Date of Patent: March 3, 2015
    Assignee: N/C Quest Inc.
    Inventor: Gary Lewis
  • Patent number: 8845234
    Abstract: A microwave ground or road surface heating system that eliminates the need for preparation of the surface to be heated while preventing leakage of microwave radiation. The highly portable microwave heating system prevents leakage of microwave radiation via a microwave horn and sealing shroud configuration that seals the unit to the surface being heated.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 17, 2010
    Date of Patent: September 30, 2014
    Assignee: Microwave Utilities, Inc.
    Inventor: Vernon R. Hegg
  • Patent number: 8783364
    Abstract: A gas hydrate is produced by injecting guest molecules into voids in a layer of which temperature and pressure condition allows the guest molecules to cause to form hydrate, in a form of emulsion where liquid of the guest molecules is dispersed in water as minute particles having a size of less than a size of voids, and thereby dispersing the guest molecules uniformly into the voids in the layer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 25, 2006
    Date of Patent: July 22, 2014
    Assignee: Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry
    Inventor: Yojiro Ikegawa
  • Patent number: 8573143
    Abstract: An emissions recycling system is used on a vehicle towing an agricultural implement to enrich the fertility of the soil. The system includes an exhaust collector for collecting exhaust emissions from the internal combustion engine of the towing vehicle and an exhaust distribution system for injecting at least a portion of the exhaust emissions collected by the exhaust collector into the ground worked by the ground working tools of the agricultural implement. Fertility of the soil is enriched by bioactivity within the soil's micro flora which consumes the greenhouse gas and emissions.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 11, 2011
    Date of Patent: November 5, 2013
    Inventor: Gary Lewis
  • Patent number: 8281861
    Abstract: A method of heating a subsurface formation includes introducing a molten salt into a first passageway of a conduit-in-conduit heater at a first location. The molten salt is passed through the conduit-in-conduit heater in the formation to a second location. Heat transfers from the molten salt to a treatment area during passage of the molten salt through the conduit-in-conduit heater. The molten salt is removed from the conduit-in-conduit heater at a second location spaced away from the first location.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 9, 2009
    Date of Patent: October 9, 2012
    Assignee: Shell Oil Company
    Inventors: Scott Vinh Nguyen, Renfeng Richard Cao
  • Patent number: 8226326
    Abstract: The instant disclosure relates to a system and method of constructing drilling and production platforms that are particularly useful in remote, inaccessible and/or environmentally sensitive operating environments. According to one aspect of the invention, an arctic drilling platform is provided wherein various methods and means of interlocking neighboring platform modules are provided. Methods and means for sealing the intersections formed between a plurality of interlocked platform modules are also disclosed. According to further aspects of the invention, improved platform floor plans are provided, and various wellhead cellar layouts and sealing means are also described. Methods and to means of enhancing the usefulness of modular storage platforms are disclosed, and a number of support post installation and removal techniques are also provided.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 11, 2011
    Date of Patent: July 24, 2012
    Assignee: Anadarko Petroleum Corporation
    Inventors: Benton F. Baugh, Craig Watson, Keith K Millhelm, Ali G. Kadaster
  • Patent number: 8061283
    Abstract: An emissions recycling system is used on a vehicle towing an agricultural implement to enrich the fertility of the soil. The system includes an exhaust collector for collecting exhaust emissions from the internal combustion engine of the towing vehicle and an exhaust distribution system for injecting at least a portion of the exhaust emissions collected by the exhaust collector into the ground worked by the ground working tools of the agricultural implement. Fertility of the soil is enriched by bioactivity within the soil's micro flora which consumes the greenhouse gas and emissions.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 6, 2006
    Date of Patent: November 22, 2011
    Inventor: Gary Lewis
  • Patent number: 7959377
    Abstract: This invention provides a method of preparing a foundation structure including the steps of forming foundation trenches in the ground; and heating the ground defining the trenches sufficiently to irreversibly change the properties of the ground defining the trenches. In the case where the ground consists primarily of clay, it is heated to a temperature above a level where the ground is baked into a brick-like consistency, wherein the structural water of crystallisation is removed and any carbonaceous material and Fe is oxidised. If the ground consists primarily of sand, it is heated to a temperature above its vitrification point wherein mullite (AI6Si2O13) begins to form. The method includes the further step of pre-treating the ground by adding an additive such as potash or slaked lime to the soil, prior to the step of heating.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 7, 2005
    Date of Patent: June 14, 2011
    Inventor: John Terry Pidgeon
  • Publication number: 20100322713
    Abstract: A microwave ground or road surface heating system that eliminates the need for preparation of the surface to be heated while preventing leakage of microwave radiation. The highly portable microwave heating system prevents leakage of microwave radiation via a microwave horn and sealing shroud configuration that seals the unit to the surface being heated.
    Type: Application
    Filed: June 17, 2010
    Publication date: December 23, 2010
    Inventor: Vernon R. Hegg
  • Patent number: 7832484
    Abstract: A heating system for a subsurface formation includes a conduit located in an opening in the subsurface formation. An insulated conductor is located in the conduit. A material is in the conduit between a portion of the insulated conductor and a portion of the conduit. The material may be a salt. The material is a fluid at operating temperature of the heating system. Heat transfers from the insulated conductor to the fluid, from the fluid to the conduit, and from the conduit to the subsurface formation.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 18, 2008
    Date of Patent: November 16, 2010
    Assignee: Shell Oil Company
    Inventors: Scott Vinh Nguyen, Harold J. Vinegar
  • Publication number: 20100119306
    Abstract: A ground thawing mat includes at least a flexible upper sheet overlaying a serpentine twinned array of flexible heating fluid conduits, wherein the twinned array include at least a closely adjacent and parallel pair of conduits extending from a heating fluid inlet entering the parallel pairs of conduits to a heating fluid outlet exiting the parallel pair of conduits, and wherein the parallel pair of conduits extend substantially linearly without crossing one another between opposed serpentine turns. Further, the parallel pair of conduits turn through the turns without crossing one another so that the twinned array lie substantially in a single plane overlaid by the upper sheet.
    Type: Application
    Filed: November 7, 2008
    Publication date: May 13, 2010
    Inventor: Randy Albert
  • Patent number: 7712999
    Abstract: A method and apparatus for drying soil wherein a soil drying machine is adapted to traverse an area of soil and to dry the soil in the process. The soil drying machine includes a main frame having an air generating device, such as a blower, and a heater mounted thereon. A system of heated air is generated on the soil drying machine and directed downwardly into engagement with the soil being dried. Forming a part of the soil drying machine is a tilling implement. From time-to-time the tilling implement can be lowered and engaged with the soil so as to till the soil prior to the soil being subjected to the heated air, or after the soil has been subjected to the heated air. The soil drying machine may be in the form of a self-propelled unit or a pull-type unit configured to be pulled by a tractor.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 18, 2007
    Date of Patent: May 11, 2010
    Inventor: James Huckabee
  • Patent number: 7661907
    Abstract: A method of modifying geotechnically unsuitable soils at a site involving soil stabilization treatment and rolling dynamic compaction. A portion of the site is excavated to a predetermined depth x. Both the excavated site and the soil excavated therefrom are subjected to soils stabilization treatments before the treated excavated soils is backfilled in layers and subjected to both standard compaction and rolling dynamic compaction.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 1, 2007
    Date of Patent: February 16, 2010
    Assignee: AQS Holdings Limited
    Inventor: Andrew William Armstrong
  • Patent number: 7575052
    Abstract: An in situ conversion system for producing hydrocarbons from a subsurface formation is described. The system includes a plurality of u-shaped wellbores in the formation. Piping is positioned in at least two of the u-shaped wellbores. A fluid circulation system is coupled to the piping. The fluid circulation system is configured to circulate hot heat transfer fluid through at least a portion of the piping to form at least one heated portion of the formation. An electrical power supply is configured to provide electrical current to at least a portion of the piping located below an overburden in the formation to resistively heat at least a portion of the piping. Heat transfers from the piping to the formation.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 21, 2006
    Date of Patent: August 18, 2009
    Assignee: Shell Oil Company
    Inventors: Chester Ledlie Sandberg, Thomas David Fowler, Harold J. Vinegar, Willen Jan Antoon Henri Schoeber
  • Patent number: 7559367
    Abstract: A system for heating a hydrocarbon containing formation is described. A conduit may be located in an opening in the formation. The conduit includes ferromagnetic material. An electrical conductor is positioned inside the conduit, and is electrically coupled to the conduit at or near an end portion of the conduit so that the electrical conductor and the conduit are electrically coupled in series. Electrical current flows in the electrical conductor in a substantially opposite direction to electrical current flow in the conduit during application of electrical current to the system. The flow of electrons is substantially confined to the inside of the conduit by the electromagnetic field generated from electrical current flow in the electrical conductor so that the outside surface of the conduit is at or near substantially zero potential at 25° C. The conduit may generate heat and heat the formation during application of electrical current.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 20, 2006
    Date of Patent: July 14, 2009
    Assignee: Shell Oil Company
    Inventors: Harold J. Vinegar, Chester Ledlie Sandberg
  • Publication number: 20090169307
    Abstract: This invention provides a method of preparing a foundation structure including the steps of forming foundation trenches in the ground; and heating the ground defining the trenches sufficiently to irreversibly change the properties of the ground defining the trenches. In the case where the ground consists primarily of clay, it is heated to a temperature above a level where the ground is baked into a brick-like consistency, wherein the structural water of crystallisation is removed and any carbonaceous material and Fe is oxidised. If the ground consists primarily of sand, it is heated to a temperature above its vitrification point wherein mullite (AI6Si2O13) begins to form. The method includes the further step of pre-treating the ground by adding an additive such as potash or slaked lime to the soil, prior to the step of heating.
    Type: Application
    Filed: June 7, 2005
    Publication date: July 2, 2009
    Inventor: John Terry Pidgeon
  • Patent number: 7546880
    Abstract: A process for extracting hydrocarbon gases from marine sediment hydrates. In one embodiment, the process includes drilling from a sea floor into a hydrate rich subsea sediment to form at least one opening therein. Electrical heaters are inserted into the opening or openings. The hydrate rich subsea sediment is heated with the electrical heaters in order to release hydrocarbon gas therefrom. The released hydrocarbon gas is collected in an overhead receiver. The hydrocarbon gas forms hydrates again when moving through the cold sea water and inside the overhead receiver. The overhead receiver is raised to a sea depth where pressure and temperature permit the hydrates to dissociate and to release the hydrocarbon gas. The hydrocarbon gas is then gathered from the top of the overhead receiver.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 12, 2006
    Date of Patent: June 16, 2009
    Assignee: The University of Tulsa
    Inventors: Hong-Quan Zhang, James P. Brill, Cem Sarica
  • Patent number: 7284931
    Abstract: An apparatus controls the evacuation of volcanic magma to prevent explosions. Magma evacuation is through a single evacuation tube that heats the magma flow within the tube to prevent stickiness of the magma in the tube. The heating may use small combustion chambers to heat steam, which in turn heats and stabilizes the magma flow. Stability is aided by central cooling, where needed, using water jets from nozzles located at the wall of the tube.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 29, 2002
    Date of Patent: October 23, 2007
    Inventor: Brian Stapleton Stratford
  • Patent number: 7077198
    Abstract: A method is described for inhibiting migration of fluids into and/or out of a treatment area undergoing an in situ conversion process. Barriers in the formation proximate a treatment area may be used to inhibit migration of fluids. Inhibition of migration of fluids may occur before, during, and/or after an in situ treatment process. For example, migration of fluids may be inhibited while heat is provided from heaters to at least a portion of the treatment area. Barriers may include naturally occurring portions (e.g., overburden, and/or underburden) and/or installed portions.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 24, 2002
    Date of Patent: July 18, 2006
    Assignee: Shell Oil Company
    Inventors: Harold J. Vinegar, Dannie Antoine Aymond, Jr., Kevin Albert Maher, Billy John McKinzie, II, Bruce Donald Palfreyman, George Leo Stegemeier, John Michael Ward, Ronnie Wade Watkins, Scott Lee Wellington
  • Patent number: 6509557
    Abstract: Apparatus and method are provided for electrically heating subsea pipelines. An electrically insulating layer is placed over the pipe in the segment of the pipeline to be heated and electrical current is caused to flow axially through the steel wall of the pipe. In one embodiment (end fed), an insulating joint at the host end of the pipeline is used to apply voltage to the end of the segment. At the remote end an electrical connector is used to conduct the electrical current to a return cable or to a seawater electrode. A buffer zone of the pipeline beyond the remote end is provided. Separate electrical heating may also be applied in the buffer zone. Electrical chokes may be used in different arrangements to decrease leakage current in the pipeline outside the heated segment. In another embodiment (center fed), voltage is applied at or near the midpoint of the segment to be heated through an electrical connector and no insulating joint is used.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 1, 2000
    Date of Patent: January 21, 2003
    Assignee: Shell Oil Company
    Inventor: Ronald M. Bass
  • Publication number: 20020192030
    Abstract: The present invention relates to a plasma process and appropriate equipment well adapted for eliminating toxic or hazardous organic compounds, such as petroleum, oils, pesticides, herbicides and various hydrocarbons, orginitated from petrochemical spills or inappropriate discard/handling, from different materials, such assail, sludges; the process and appropriate equipment can also be used to remove the hydrocarbons contained in the sludge formed at the bottom of petroleum storage tanks. The plasma process, with the appropriate equipment, object of the invention, has the following advantages as compared to the other processes used to treat similar materials: removal of the contaminants to less than 0.1% in weight of the soil or sludge; continuous operation; possibility of recovering the contaminants when desired; high energy efficiency of the process; and insignificant amount of gases to be treated.
    Type: Application
    Filed: May 10, 2002
    Publication date: December 19, 2002
    Inventor: Fernando Carvalho Almeida
  • Patent number: 6413399
    Abstract: A soil remediation system heats contaminated soil by generating a rotating sub-surface electromagnetic field. The system includes three electrodes disposed 120 degrees apart on a remediation circle. These electrodes are excited by AC voltages with 120 degree phase differences relative to each other. This results in the generation of a sub-surface traveling wave that propagates in a circumferential direction.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 19, 2000
    Date of Patent: July 2, 2002
    Assignee: KAI Technologies, Inc.
    Inventor: Raymond S. Kasevich
  • Publication number: 20020018697
    Abstract: An in situ thermal desorption (ISTD) soil remediation system may be used to remove or reduce contamination within soil. Heat may be transferred to the soil from resistively heated, bare metal heater elements. The heater elements may be placed directly within the soil. Alternately, the heater elements may be suspended within casings. The heater elements may be conductive heaters, or the heater elements may be radiative heater elements. The ISTD soil remediation system may include temperature-resistant, chemical resistant, flexible conduits that transport off-gas removed from the ground to a treatment facility. A residence time of off-gas within the conduits may be sufficient to allow the off-gas to cool so that the off-gas may pass to a treatment facility through a manifold and piping made of polymeric material.
    Type: Application
    Filed: April 16, 2001
    Publication date: February 14, 2002
    Inventors: Harold J. Vinegar, George L. Stegemeier
  • Patent number: 6276873
    Abstract: A continuous process for removing organic contaminants from a subsurface formation.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 29, 1999
    Date of Patent: August 21, 2001
    Assignee: Southern California Edison Company
    Inventors: Craig L. Eaker, Randy S. Weidner, Terry C. Sciarrotta, George M. Becker
  • Patent number: 6273638
    Abstract: An air handling system includes an air handling device connectable to a duct network that is underneath a field having grass growing in it, at least one sensor disposed to measure a variable associated with the field, and a control unit connected to the air handling device to control operating parameters of the air handling device responsive to an output from the sensor. A heat exchanger is optionally part of the system. The variables associated with the field include temperature and moisture. The operating parameters of the air handling device include direction of the air flow, temperature of the air directed into the duct network, and the time of operation of the unit. The system optionally includes programmable control logic so that the sensor output automatically controls the operating parameters of the system. A computer with display is used to program the control logic, which can be done remotely over a modem or the internet.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 12, 1999
    Date of Patent: August 14, 2001
    Assignee: Subair, Inc.
    Inventor: Christopher B. Clarkson
  • Patent number: 6183162
    Abstract: A continuous process for removing organic contaminants from a subsurface formation. Including the steps of (a) injecting steam into the subsurface formation via an injection conduit, (b) removing a liquid stream from the subsurface formation via a liquid recovery conduit, (c) removing a vapor stream from the subsurface formation via a vapor recovery conduit, the vapor stream comprising both condensible vapors and non-condensible vapors, (d) combining the liquid stream and the vapor stream to create a combined stream and cooling the combined stream in a heat exchanger so that substantially all of the condensible vapors are condensed to condensed liquids, the condensed liquids being combined with the ground water liquid stream to form a combined liquid stream, and (e) separating the non-condensible vapors from the combined liquid stream.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 29, 1999
    Date of Patent: February 6, 2001
    Assignee: Southern California Edison
    Inventors: Douglas M. Sheppard, Cornelis L. W. Overduin
  • Patent number: 6142706
    Abstract: A thermal treatment wall emplaced to perform in-situ destruction of contaminants in groundwater. Thermal destruction of specific contaminants occurs by hydrous pyrolysis/oxidation at temperatures achievable by existing thermal remediation techniques (electrical heating or steam injection) in the presence of oxygen or soil mineral oxidants, such as MnO.sub.2. The thermal treatment wall can be installed in a variety of configurations depending on the specific objectives, and can be used for groundwater cleanup, wherein in-situ destruction of contaminants is carried out rather than extracting contaminated fluids to the surface, where they are to be cleaned. In addition, the thermal treatment wall can be used for both plume interdiction and near-wellhead in-situ groundwater treatment. Thus, this technique can be utilized for a variety of groundwater contamination problems.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 13, 1998
    Date of Patent: November 7, 2000
    Assignee: The Regents of the University of California
    Inventors: Roger D. Aines, Robin L. Newmark, Kevin G. Knauss
  • Patent number: 6120430
    Abstract: A method of melting solid materials while controlling melt shape, without the expenditure of energy to melt unwanted quantities of surrounding materials, and an apparatus to effect the method. The method comprises the use of a planar starter path between electrodes so as to initiate melting and/or vitrification in a plane rather than in a discrete linear path between electrodes. Because melting is initiated along a significant portion of the linear dimension of the electrodes, creating a melted zone that is deeper than it is thick, the aspect ratio (depth "Y"/width "Z") of the melted mass is greater than 1.0.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 10, 1997
    Date of Patent: September 19, 2000
    Inventors: James E. Hansen, Leo E. Thompson, Patrick S. Lowery
  • Patent number: 5997214
    Abstract: A method is provided to remove volatile liquid contaminates from a contaminated volume of earth, the contaminated volume lying above a noncontaminated layer of earth, the method including the steps of: penetrating the contaminated volume with at least one wellbore so that a wellbore penetrates the contaminated volume and at least one wellbore penetrates the noncontaminated layer; applying heat from the wellbore within the noncontaminated layer to the noncontaminated layer until the temperature of a substantial portion of the noncontaminated layer that is contiguous with the contaminated layer is at least the boiling point temperature of contaminated liquids; and applying heat from the wellbore within the contaminated volume to the contaminated volume wherein the temperature of the contaminated volume rises to the boiling point of contaminated liquids after a substantial portion of the noncontaminated layer that is contiguous with the contaminated layer is about the boiling point of the contaminated liquids.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 3, 1998
    Date of Patent: December 7, 1999
    Assignee: Shell Oil Company
    Inventors: Eric de Rouffignac, Harold J. Vinegar
  • Patent number: 5986159
    Abstract: A method to simultaneously remediate mixed-waste underground contamination, such as organic liquids, metals, and radionuclides involves chemical tailoring of steam for underground injection. Gases or chemicals are injected into a high pressure steam flow being injected via one or more injection wells to contaminated soil located beyond a depth where excavation is possible. The injection of the steam with gases or chemicals mobilizes contaminants, such as metals and organics, as the steam pushes the waste through the ground toward an extraction well having subatmospheric pressure (vacuum). The steam and mobilized contaminants are drawn in a substantially horizontal direction to the extraction well and withdrawn to a treatment point above ground. The heat and boiling action of the front of the steam flow enhance the mobilizing effects of the chemical or gas additives.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 16, 1997
    Date of Patent: November 16, 1999
    Assignee: The Regents of the University of California
    Inventors: Roger D. Aines, Kent S. Udell, Carol J. Bruton, Charles R. Carrigan
  • Patent number: 5984578
    Abstract: In preferred embodiments, an apparatus and method for enhancing the in situ removal of at least one contaminant from a contaminated body, the body being provided with at least one interstice, by generating and focusing vibrations toward the interstice, thereby exciting the contaminant within the body, whereby transport of the contaminant out of the body is facilitated. Preferably, the vibrations are sonic or ultrasonic. Vacuum extraction or transformation of the contaminant may also be effected.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 11, 1997
    Date of Patent: November 16, 1999
    Assignee: New Jersey Institute of Technology
    Inventors: Deran Hanesian, Angelo J. Perna, John R. Schuring, Hugo J. Fernandez
  • Patent number: 5975799
    Abstract: Electro-osmotic infusion of ground water or chemically tailored electrolyte is used to enhance, maintain, or recondition electrical conductivity for the joule heating remediation technique. Induced flows can be used to infuse electrolyte with enhanced ionic conductivity into the vicinity of the electrodes, maintain the local saturation of near-electrode regions and resaturate a partially dried out zone with groundwater. Electro-osmotic infusion can also tailor the conductivity throughout the target layer by infusing chemically modified and/or heated electrolyte to improve conductivity contrast of the interior. Periodic polarity reversals will prevent large pH changes at the electrodes. Electro-osmotic infusion can be used to condition the electrical conductivity of the soil, particularly low permeability soil, before and during the heating operation.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 6, 1997
    Date of Patent: November 2, 1999
    Assignee: The Regents of the University of California
    Inventors: Charles R. Carrigan, John J. Nitao
  • Patent number: 5954452
    Abstract: Heated hydrogen peroxide reagent under pressure is supplied to a well for underground remediation of pollution; the reaction with the pollutant is exothermic so that the high temperature of the reagent when injected is maintained as the reagent spreads. The remediation reaction is monitored by sensors, to regulate the supply of reagent and to shut off the supply automatically when the pollutant has been reduced to an acceptable level.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 11, 1997
    Date of Patent: September 21, 1999
    Assignee: GA Technologies, Inc.
    Inventor: Michel Goldstein
  • Patent number: 5944444
    Abstract: A control system for an athletic field coordinates drainage by gravity or vacuum-enhanced and irrigation by monitoring water level with respect to a subsurface membrane, wherein a flow network resides on the membrane and is covered by a fill layer, which in turn supports the field surface thereabove. The flow network includes couplings located at the intersections of some of the pipe rows and conduit rows. The water permeability of the conduit rows allows the flow network to be used for draining, irrigating or heating the field. The heating of the fill layer and the surface thereabove minimizes energy costs and eliminates installation and maintenance costs that would otherwise be necessitated by separate heating and draining systems.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 11, 1997
    Date of Patent: August 31, 1999
    Assignees: Technology Licensing Corp., Advanced Drainage Systems, Inc., Murray Equipment
    Inventors: Joseph E. Motz, Mark A. Heinlein, James B. Goddard, Carl Tyner, Craig Reese, Brian L. Ferry
  • Patent number: 5931600
    Abstract: An in-situ method for thermal desorption, extraction, and destruction of dense nonaqueous organic contaminants in fractured bedrock is accomplished through the use of thermal wells, a flameless oxidizer, and hot carbon adsorption chambers.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 7, 1997
    Date of Patent: August 3, 1999
    Assignee: General Electric Company
    Inventors: Richard Blair Sheldon, Icko Eric Timothy Iben, William Alan Edelstein
  • Patent number: 5910093
    Abstract: The invention disclosed here is a starter tube for initiating a vitrification process for melting contaminated soils, waste products, and hazardous materials. The starter tube comprises a tubular sheath made of a flexible material. Received within the sheath is an electrically conductive starter material. The sheath is gas-permeable so that gases created by the starter material during commencement of vitrification will escape from the tube.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 4, 1996
    Date of Patent: June 8, 1999
    Inventor: William A. Sliger
  • Patent number: 5908267
    Abstract: A method for pneumatically fracturing a soil formation, and thereafter utilizing or maintaining the fracture network thus formed by continuous injection of a gas stream into the fracture network, and introducing into that gas stream dry media which is entrained in the gas stream and thereby dispersed and distributed through the soil formation in substantially predictable or predetermined patterns, is described. The fracture network and/or the dry media contained therein create or enhance usefulness for a given purpose with respect to the soil formation. The method utilizes novel apparatus, especially high velocity nozzles which are substantially planar or directional and can be used in combination with the borehole casing to achieve a variety of fracturing and dry media injection effects.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 26, 1996
    Date of Patent: June 1, 1999
    Assignee: New Jersey Institute of Technology
    Inventors: John R. Schuring, Thomas M. Boland, Trevor C. King, Sean T. McGonigal
  • Patent number: 5879109
    Abstract: A process and apparatus for introducing a cable into a channel, which is formed into a heated surface of solid ground, such as asphalt, displaces the material to form a channel, inserts the cable and then reintroduces the displaced material back into the channel to refill the channel.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 10, 1998
    Date of Patent: March 9, 1999
    Assignee: Siemens Aktiengesellschaft
    Inventors: Lothar Finzel, Heinz Diermeier, Peter Dotzer, Ernst Mayr
  • Patent number: 5873675
    Abstract: Apparatus (10) and a method for vitrifying hazardous waste includes a melting vessel (12) in which hazardous waste and any other necessary components for forming a glassy mixture upon heating are introduced for heating by a heater (38), and a metallic containment vessel (46) of the apparatus receives the melting vessel so as to receive and contain any material that exits the melting vessel upon failure. A voltage is applied across spaced electrical connections (72) of the melting vessel (46) to heat material within the melting vessel. Any failure of the melting vessel (12) is detected by a sensor (48). Different embodiments of the heater (38) provide current flow through molten material (18) being heated, induction heating, electric resistance heating, and using the metallic mixing vessel (12) as an electric resistance element. A stirrer (39) can be utilized to mix the material (18) during the heating.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 25, 1997
    Date of Patent: February 23, 1999
    Assignee: Stir-Melter, Inc.
    Inventors: Kenneth H. Wetmore, Kenneth R. Kormanyos, Stephen F. Cox
  • Patent number: 5836718
    Abstract: A method for ex situ cleaning of contaminated soil using a closed system of heat-conductive solid-walled pipes embedded in the contaminated soil, the pipes being in communication with the heat source that heats and circulates air throughout the system of pipes, the method having the following steps of placing the contaminated soil in a heap on the pipes, substantially enclosing the soil heap with a vapor barrier, circulating heated air throughout the pipes to elevate the temperature of the surrounding soil to a temperature sufficient to cause vaporization of soil contaminants, extracting the vapor containing soil contaminants from the enclosed soil heap, and treating the vapor to remove contaminants and recycling the vapor.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 13, 1997
    Date of Patent: November 17, 1998
    Inventor: Philip A. Price
  • Patent number: 5829519
    Abstract: The present invention provides a system for cooling antenna assemblies, such as subterranean RF antennas used to heat geological formations. The invention generally includes a radio frequency (RF) generator, a waveguide operatively connected to the RF generator and to the antenna, a supply of cooling gas and a cooling gas delivery tube. In one embodiment, a housing encloses the antenna, with the antenna and the waveguide defining a gas enclosure. The supply of cooling gas in this embodiment includes a regulated gas supply, a desiccator and a heat exchanger through which the gas passes. The cooling gas delivery tube is in fluid communication with the supply of cooling gas and extends downwardly within the gas enclosure to deliver cooled, dried gas to the gas enclosure. An alternative embodiment employs a coaxial transmission line as the waveguide, with the coaxial line having an inner tubular member received within a lumen of an outer tubular member.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 10, 1997
    Date of Patent: November 3, 1998
    Assignee: Enhanced Energy, Inc.
    Inventor: Michael Uthe
  • Patent number: 5827012
    Abstract: A plasma arc torch heat based apparatus and method converts a quantity of particulate soil having a first set of engineering properties into a selected number of smaller quantities each having improved engineering properties differing from the first set of engineering properties and makes practical utilization of the smaller quantities for applications in which the first set of engineering properties were not suited. The apparatus includes a rotatable kiln which is positionable at an angle to horizontal such that soil is received in an upper end and discharged at a lower end thereof. The kiln is heated to a controlled temperature based on the properties of the soil before treatment and the desired improved properties after treatment to meet application requirements.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 6, 1997
    Date of Patent: October 27, 1998
    Inventor: Louis J. Circeo, Jr.
  • Patent number: 5820301
    Abstract: The object of the present invention to provide a method for thawing frozen ground for laying concrete primarily at a construction site by use of a continuous length of circulating hose placed on the frozen ground inside and/or adjacent a concrete form or over the area where the concrete will be laid, covering the circulating hose with a layer of aggregate material for insulation from cold air leaving the ends of the circulating hose protruding from the aggregate connecting the ends of the hose to a source of heated liquid to circulate warm liquid through the circulating hose to thaw the frozen ground, laying the concrete over the identified area while continuing to circulate heated liquid in the circulating hose to prevent the concrete from freezing, leaving the portion of the hose in the aggregate under the concrete by cutting the ends protruding from the aggregate, removing the remaining portions of the hose.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 17, 1996
    Date of Patent: October 13, 1998
    Inventor: Mark Bruckelmyer
  • Patent number: 5813799
    Abstract: Combustion is used as a source of heat to remove polluting volatiles from contaminated groundwater and subsurface soil. A burner assembly is placed in a well, either in or out of an aquifer, to produce steam and/or hot air and/or hot water which drives off the volatile contaminants which are collected through separate wells or vents depending upon the site. The combustion product gases are vented to atmosphere. Key elements are the addition of heat as close to the depth of the contaminated region as possible, transfer of heat through the aquifer and/or ground through the flow of steam and/or hot air and/or hot water to regions affected by the contaminants, and by drawing the flow to other well sites by which the contaminants are removed by pumping and subsequent treatment. Some of the contaminants are thermally destroyed.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 22, 1996
    Date of Patent: September 29, 1998
    Assignee: Aerochem Research Laboratories, Inc.
    Inventors: Hartwell F. Calcote, Charles H. Berman
  • Patent number: 5788412
    Abstract: The present invention involves heating of sub-surface soil by use of conduction heating intermediate the injection and extraction wells of a vacuum extraction system. This conduction heating is accomplished by implanting heat exchange units, such as a circulating hot oil system, into the soil between the injection and extraction wells.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 15, 1996
    Date of Patent: August 4, 1998
    Inventor: Jayant Jatkar
  • Patent number: 5769569
    Abstract: An in-situ thermal desorption system and process is utilized for mobilization and removal of nonvolatile and semi-volatile hydrocarbons from contaminated soil in the vadose zone. Persistent hydrocarbons are thermally desorbed by direct heating of the contaminated zone through combustion of fuel and air in a burner underneath the contaminated soil zone. The generated soil vapors are collected and treated by soil vapor extraction techniques.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 18, 1996
    Date of Patent: June 23, 1998
    Assignee: Southern California Gas Company
    Inventor: Masood S. Hosseini