Apertured Or Permeable Patents (Class 416/231R)
  • Patent number: 6155783
    Abstract: A runner for a hydraulic turbine or pump includes a hub and a plurality of blades extending from the hub at spaced intervals therearound. Each blade includes an inner edge secured to the hub and a distal outer edge, a leading edge and an opposed trailing edge, and a curved suction surface and an opposed curved pressure surface. At least one of the blades is fabricated from a curved pressure-side member and a curved suction-side member secured together. The pressure-side member includes at least a substantial portion of the curved pressure surface and an opposed first inner surface. The suction-side member includes at least a substantial portion of the curved suction surface and an opposed second inner surface. The first and second inner surfaces face each other, and at least a portion of the first inner surface is spaced from at least a portion of the second inner surface to form a cavity within the blade. A method of making the hollow blade is also disclosed.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 20, 1998
    Date of Patent: December 5, 2000
    Assignee: Voith Siemens Hydro Power Generation, Inc.
    Inventor: James R. Beyer
  • Patent number: 6155784
    Abstract: A propeller for aircraft has a tip-to-tip flex-beam spar and torsionally stiff hollow blades bonded to the spar throughout an outer portion of the blades. The spar has two end caps which are separated from each other at the hub and converge in the outer portion. The blades have an inner region which is not bonded to the spar, allowing an inner portion of the spar to twist during pitch changes. A counterweight is mounted to an arm extending from an inner end cuff of each blade. The counterweight is located out of the plane of rotation. The counterweight is also located on a side of a line opposite from the trailing edge, the line passing through the pivot axis perpendicular to the plane of rotation.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 8, 1998
    Date of Patent: December 5, 2000
    Assignee: Cartercopters, LLC.
    Inventor: Jay W. Carter, Jr.
  • Patent number: 6135715
    Abstract: A turbine airfoil includes a squealer rib extending outwardly from a tip cap to define a tip cavity thereatop. A thermal insulator is disposed in the tip cavity atop the tip cap.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 29, 1999
    Date of Patent: October 24, 2000
    Assignee: General Electric Company
    Inventor: Victor H. S. Correia
  • Patent number: 6123507
    Abstract: A single port pump impeller includes two pump vanes diverging arcuately and radially from a suction eye to form one open expanding chamber, and includes a blocking wall for closing the remaining, opposite expanding chamber. The two vanes are contained within parallel spaced apart shrouds. The shrouds include increased wall thickness regions to dynamically balance the impeller. The blocking wall can include a small aperture for providing a small stream of liquid to flow into the otherwise closed expanding chamber to prevent cavitation at a distal end of an adjacent vane. Alternately, the otherwise blocked expanding chamber can be filled with a solid material having substantially the same weight as the fluid being pumped, e.g., water, to prevent cavitation at the outside edge of one of the adjacent vanes.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 30, 1998
    Date of Patent: September 26, 2000
    Assignee: Smith & Loveless, Inc.
    Inventor: Frank G. Weis
  • Patent number: 6007296
    Abstract: A guide blade for steam turbines, having in the blade interior a cavity (18) to which a vacuum is applied, is provided with an opening (3) for drawing off fluid in the region of the trailing blade edge (4). This opening is provided with a porous cover (7). The cover is dimensioned in such a way that, during operation, all its capillaries are filled with the fluid to be drawn off. It is anchored in the guide blade by a mechanical fastening element (20).The mechanical fastening element (20) is a spring-loaded quick-acting lock and comprises a bush (21) which fixes the cover in the blade opening (3) and projects with its cylindrical part (24) into the blade cavity (18), and a pin (25) which is axially displaceable in the interior of the bush, is equipped with spring means (26) and is provided at its end with a cap (28), which rests on the inner wall of the blade.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 2, 1998
    Date of Patent: December 28, 1999
    Assignee: ABB Research Ltd.
    Inventors: Peter Ernst, Kurt Faller, Reinhard Fried
  • Patent number: 5927946
    Abstract: A gas turbine engine rotor blade includes an airfoil having a concave side wall and a convex side wall joined together at leading and trailing edges. Concave and convex tip walls extend from adjacent the leading edge along the respective concave and convex side walls to adjacent the trailing edge and are spaced apart to define a tip cavity therebetween. A hole or channel is disposed in a trailing edge tip region connecting the tip cavity to the trailing edge for channeling cooling fluid through the trailing edge tip region.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 29, 1997
    Date of Patent: July 27, 1999
    Assignee: General Electric Company
    Inventor: Ching-Pang Lee
  • Patent number: 5924842
    Abstract: A turbine, adaptable to enhance the levels of dissolved gas such as oxygen in water flowing therethrough, includes a rotating shaft and a runner secured to the shaft. The runner includes a crown, a band and a plurality of runner blades. Each blade is defined by an inner edge and a distal outer edge, a leading edge and a trailing edge separated by a water directing surface. At least one of the blades includes a leading blade portion with a first slot along a rear edge thereof and a trailing blade portion with a second slot along a front edge thereof. The leading and trailing blade portions are fixedly secured together along their front and rear edges so that the first and second slots cooperate to form an integral gas passage in the at least one blade. The at least one blade further includes a means for discharging gas from the channel to a location adjacent the trailing edge.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 17, 1996
    Date of Patent: July 20, 1999
    Assignee: Voith Hydro, Inc.
    Inventors: James R. Beyer, Richard K. Fisher, Jr., Robert G. Grubb, Christian G. Cabou
  • Patent number: 5690473
    Abstract: A gas turbine engine turbine blade and method of manufacture includes an airfoil having pressure and suction sides joined together at leading and trailing edges. The airfoil further includes a supply channel for receiving compressed air, and has an elongate recess disposed in at least one of the pressure and suction sides which is separated from the supply channel by a partition. The partition includes a plurality of spaced apart flow metering holes disposed in flow communication with the supply channel. A transpiration strip is fixedly joined to the airfoil in the recess and spaced from the partition to define a plenum for receiving the compressed air from the metering holes. The transpiration strip is pervious for channeling the compressed air from the plenum in a blanket of film cooling boundary layer air therefrom.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 25, 1992
    Date of Patent: November 25, 1997
    Assignee: General Electric Company
    Inventor: David Max Kercher
  • Patent number: 5664944
    Abstract: A vane assembly defining a flow passage for gas moving in a flow direction has at least one spin vane in the flow passage, positionable at an angle with respect to the flow direction. The vane is made of-sheet material and has a leading portion which is perforated. This reduces pressure drop across the vane while still maintaining spin of the gas.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 15, 1996
    Date of Patent: September 9, 1997
    Assignee: The Babcock & Wilcox Company
    Inventors: George B. Watson, Woodrow A. Fiveland
  • Patent number: 5545003
    Abstract: A gas turbine component that includes a very thin wall. The gas turbine component being of a single-piece, single-cast structure. In one form of the gas turbine component it is formed of a superalloy composition and is capable of withstanding gases impinging upon the walls at temperatures greater than 4000.degree. F.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 25, 1994
    Date of Patent: August 13, 1996
    Assignee: Allison Engine Company, Inc
    Inventors: Kurt F. O'Connor, James P. Hoff, Donald J. Frasier, Ralph E. Peeler, Heidi Mueller-Largent, Floyd F. Trees, James R. Whetstone, John H. Lane, Ralph E. Jeffries
  • Patent number: 5375972
    Abstract: A turbine stator vane structure is described which comprises an airfoil having a pressure side and a suction side and at least one duct of preselected size defined through the airfoil from the pressure side to the suction side thereof with preselected orientation with respect to the camberline of the airfoil for directing a predetermined portion of the turbine engine gas flow through the airfoil whereby the gas flow angle and momentum at the rotor inlet plane of the engine is selectively altered. A rotatable slotted sleeve may be included within each duct for selectively throttling flow therethrough.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 16, 1993
    Date of Patent: December 27, 1994
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the Secretary of the Air Force
    Inventor: Robert E. Gray
  • Patent number: 5257902
    Abstract: A blower includes a plurality of rotatable impeller vanes operable to impel air. The impeller vanes create an air pressure differential thereacross when rotated, and each of the impeller vanes has a porous central portion made of sintered resin material. The porous central portion has a plurality of pores therein which permit a portion of air to pass through the porous central portion from a relatively high air pressure side to a relatively low air pressure side of the impeller vanes. Each of the impeller vanes also has a non-porous portion surrounding the porous central portion. The non-porous portion is made of a solid resin material which prevents air from passing therethrough.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 19, 1992
    Date of Patent: November 2, 1993
    Assignee: Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Masahiro Atarashi, Kiyoshi Sano, Shotaro Ito
  • Patent number: 5253976
    Abstract: A steam or air-cooled combined cycle gas turbine includes first and second turbine stages and a second nozzle stage disposed about a spacer between the turbine stages. Cooling steam is passed through the nozzle vanes radially inwardly and through the seal between the spacer and the nozzle stage into a pair of chambers. Inlet ports are carried by the first and second-stage turbines for conducting the steam through both single and multi-pass circuits in the turbine blades to cool the blades. Steam is inlet along the axis of the turbine for mixing with the steam inlet past the nozzle stage and spacer seal. Air is inlet adjacent the axis of the turbine and a valve selectively opens and closes an air inlet for admitting air into the chambers. When the turbine is in a start-up mode or steam is not available, the valve is open to admit air into the chambers to supply cooling air to the turbine blades. When steam is available, the valve is closed and the turbine blades are steam cooled.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 19, 1991
    Date of Patent: October 19, 1993
    Assignee: General Electric Company
    Inventor: Francisco J. Cunha
  • Patent number: 5244349
    Abstract: An air fan includes a plurality of fan blades each fan blade drilled with a plurality of perforations in the fan blade for reducing weight of each fan blade for reducing the electric energy required for driving the fan motor of the air fan. Each fan blade may be reinforced by at least a rib on a surface of each fan blade for enhancing its strength and preventing its deformation.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 24, 1992
    Date of Patent: September 14, 1993
    Inventor: Sui-Mu Wang
  • Patent number: 5224821
    Abstract: A water pump is comprised of a housing having therein a pumping portion and a bearing portion, a shaft rotatbly supported by the bearing portion, an impeller fixedly mounted on one end of the shaft and having a frontward side and a rearward side, a plurality of equally pitched vanes in the circumferential direction, and a hole device penetrating the impeller with making an angle relative to the rotation direction thereof.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 26, 1992
    Date of Patent: July 6, 1993
    Assignee: Aisin Seiki Kabushiki Kaisha
    Inventor: Yasuo Ozawa
  • Patent number: 5176499
    Abstract: Cooling passages are accurately formed along the faying surfaces of a pair of diffusion bonded members such as a pair of half sections used to fabricate an airfoil. A particularly advantageous application of the invention is the photoetching of cooling air grooves into the opposed surfaces of a diffusion bonding foil used to form a diffusion bond between the faying surfaces of a trailing edge portion of a turbine blade or turbine vane. Such grooves may be made extremely small and in high numbers to promote efficient cooling of the trailing edge portions of these airfoils.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 24, 1991
    Date of Patent: January 5, 1993
    Assignee: General Electric Company
    Inventors: Nicholas Damlis, James A. Martus, Edward H. Goldman
  • Patent number: 5143513
    Abstract: The present invention is directed to a two chamber dishwasher pump wherein the pumping noise associated with recirculation is substantially lowered by reducing the intake area to the recirculation impeller thereby interrupting air pockets formed in the fluid while recirculating. In addition the noise associated with fluid drainage is minimized by an aperture between the drain chamber inlet and the drain outlet which allows fluid to flow from the inlet to the outlet thereby interrupting air pockets in the drain line which create the noise. In addition, fluid flows through the aperture in an opposite direction to that described above in order to relieve excessive pressure in the drain line during recirculation.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 14, 1990
    Date of Patent: September 1, 1992
    Assignee: Maytag Corporation
    Inventors: David I. Ellingson, Herbert E. Scott, James E. Sparks
  • Patent number: 5073033
    Abstract: A mixer incorporating a shaft having one end which is adapted to be received into the chuck of a drill and the other end which includes a specially shaped mixing blade. The blade includes triangular end portions that are both angled up relative to the general plane of the blade. Rotation of the blade in one direction causes fluid to be pushed down and to the side. Reversing the blade direction causes the fluid to be pushed upward and to the side.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 15, 1989
    Date of Patent: December 17, 1991
    Inventor: Stanley J. Klepeis
  • Patent number: 4971521
    Abstract: An airfoil blade for a fan impeller, includes one blade surface portion formed by extrusion molding. A plurality of ribs are integrally formed with the one blade surface portion to extend upwardlyf rom it in generally a vertical direction and having heights as will provide a curve line for the other curved blade surface portion when end faces of the ribs are connected to each other. A sheet material is applied onto the ribs along their end faces to provide the other curved blade surface portion so as to form a blade configuration of the airfoil blade having a leading edge and a trailing edge and including hollow portions in it.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 27, 1989
    Date of Patent: November 20, 1990
    Assignee: Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Masahiro Atarashi, Shotaro Ito, Kiyoshi Sano, Kazuaki Yamamoto
  • Patent number: 4795319
    Abstract: A quiet hair dryer comprises:(a) an air blowing rotor comprising open cell foam,(b) a motor connected in driving relation with the rotor, and(c) a housing to confine the rotor and forming air inlet and discharge passages to pass air to the rotor for passage through the rotor open cell foam as the rotor rotates, and to deliver the air from the rotor in a hair drying stream.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 17, 1986
    Date of Patent: January 3, 1989
    Inventors: John M. Popovich, Roc V. Fleishman
  • Patent number: 4780051
    Abstract: An apparatus for aerating water discharging from a hydraulic turbine comprises an air distribution apparatus secured to the trailing edges of a turbine runner. The air distribution apparatus comprises a manifold which contains a bounded air channel extending the length of the runner blade trailing edge. A plurality of holes are formed along the mainfold extending between the channel and the turbine interior. The channel is in air flow communication with a source of oxygen.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 24, 1986
    Date of Patent: October 25, 1988
    Assignee: Voith Hydro, Inc.
    Inventor: Richard K. Fisher, Jr.
  • Patent number: 4714408
    Abstract: A radiator fan is disclosed which comprises a plurality of blades, each having formed therethrough a number of passages each of which extends in such a direction as not to be influenced by dynamic pressure which the blade is subject to.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 5, 1986
    Date of Patent: December 22, 1987
    Assignee: Nissan Motor Co., Ltd.
    Inventor: Takeshi Abe
  • Patent number: 4669951
    Abstract: An air operated motor for driving a pump, such as a solvent pump, the motor including a rotor formed from a body of porous material provided with a central opening, wherein a jet of compressed air is directed against the periphery of the rotor for rotating same, the air is caused to successively penetrate through the body of porous material for discharge from the central opening, thereby resulting in a high starting torque, low airflow loss and noiseless operation.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 4, 1986
    Date of Patent: June 2, 1987
    Inventor: Leif E. Stern
  • Patent number: 4480956
    Abstract: A high-temperature, extremely high-speed ceramet composite blade comprising a ceramic blade jacket seated from above on a metallic core having a crossweb near its upper end for securing the jacket on the core by one or more metallic retaining pins extending through the crossweb and secured to the core. A head on each bolt is located within a chamber formed above the cross-web and surrounded by the radially projecting end of the blade jacket. A porous abradable coating is secured to the head of the bolt and substantially fills the chamber. The coating projects slightly beyond the end of the blade jacket and is supplied and permeated with cooling air via a cooling duct extending through the retaining pin and metallic core.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 26, 1983
    Date of Patent: November 6, 1984
    Assignee: Mortoren-und Turbinen-Union
    Inventors: Wolfgang Kruger, Werner Huther
  • Patent number: 4451207
    Abstract: A turbine rotor for a flow meter comprises a cylindrical rotor disk having a rotor axis, a plurality of rotor vanes extending radially from the rotor disk and a flat surface between the bases of each of the vanes. This construction permits the efficient start-up of the turbine rotor at flows of low viscosity.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 1, 1982
    Date of Patent: May 29, 1984
    Assignee: Hydrotechnik GmbH
    Inventor: Helmuth Hoffmann
  • Patent number: 4445817
    Abstract: A propeller formed from pliable sheet material with each blade being of looped configuration in plan view. An end segment of each blade is turned inwardly and attached to an inner segment of an adjacent blade at a point offset from the propeller hub portion. A blade root of each blade is of reduced width and extends between a blade inner segment and the propeller hub portion which is apertured to receive a motor output shaft having frictionally engaged disks thereon which oppositely abut the hub portion for shaft attachment purposes.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 6, 1981
    Date of Patent: May 1, 1984
    Inventor: Richard J. Wethern
  • Patent number: 4284278
    Abstract: A flying toy of the boomerang type having at least three airfoils, or wings, equiangularly spaced about a central vertical axis and extending horizontally outward from a center portion. Each wing carries at its outer end an annular-shaped wing stabilizer having a circular, horizontally-disposed, outer edge whose diameter is approximately twice the horizontal width of the wing at the juncture of the wing and the wing stabilizer, and having a circular inner edge which is disposed in the same horizontal plane as the outer edge, and which defines a center opening through the stabilizer. The stabilizer has a convex top annular surface and a concave bottom annular surface extending between the inner and outer peripheries. During flight, the stabilizers serve simultaneously as airfoils, wing stabilizers, and a gyroscope for the flying toy.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 18, 1980
    Date of Patent: August 18, 1981
    Inventor: Joseph Bradford
  • Patent number: 4270883
    Abstract: Improved structure and method for an internally cooled, laminated stator or turbine blade for turbomachinery includes internal cooling passage configurations within each lamina which promote different forms of cooling of the internal or external surfaces of the blade.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 5, 1979
    Date of Patent: June 2, 1981
    Assignee: The Garrett Corporation
    Inventor: Charles E. Corrigan
  • Patent number: 4221539
    Abstract: Improved structure and method for an internally cooled, laminated stator or turbine blade for turbomachinery includes internal cooling passage configurations within each lamina which promote different forms of cooling of the internal or external surfaces of the blade.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 20, 1977
    Date of Patent: September 9, 1980
    Assignee: The Garrett Corporation
    Inventor: Charles E. Corrigan
  • Patent number: 4197053
    Abstract: A hub is provided defining an axis of intended rotation to be disposed generally parallel to the direction of wind movement and the hub is hollow and include opposite ends spaced along the aforementioned axis. One end of the hub is closed and the other end is open to receive therein the wind incident upon the hub. The hub includes a plurality of elongated hollow propeller blades supported therefrom including root and tip ends as well as leading and trailing edges. The blades have their root ends supported from the hub at points spaced thereabout with the root ends opening into the interior of the hub inwardly of the open end thereof and the tip ends of the blades extending outwardly from the hub.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 2, 1978
    Date of Patent: April 8, 1980
    Inventor: Elmer E. Reinke
  • Patent number: 4102600
    Abstract: A blade ring of high circumferential speed for thermal axially passed through turbines, especially for the last stage of condensing steam turbines, having at least the radially outer portion of its blades lying within the range of transsonic flow or within the range of supersonic flow. Each blade of the blade ring changes from the profile at the foot portion of the blade toward the tip of the blade into a profile defined to a major extent by straight lines or by only slightly curved lines. This profile is about one half of its length at its upper region provided with a slot along the longitudinal axis of the blade. This profile which thus has two sections has one of these sections with its exit edge turned relative to the other section by an angle corresponding to the post-expansion of the supersonic flow into such a direction that the profile part with the exit edge lies in the flow-off direction.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 8, 1976
    Date of Patent: July 25, 1978
    Assignee: Maschinenfabrik Augsburg-Nurnberg Aktiengesellschaft
    Inventor: Gunter Schwab
  • Patent number: 4067662
    Abstract: A thermally highly stressed, cooled component, more particularly, a blade for turbine engines, and a method for manufacturing the blade. A component of the above-mentioned type in which a central supporting core formed of a solid material has connected thereto several short, radially outwardly projecting ridges which, in turn, carry an outer shroud concentrically encompassing the supporting core, and which is made of a through-porous material, whereby the supporting core, ribs, and outer shroud are cast in a single piece.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 21, 1976
    Date of Patent: January 10, 1978
    Assignee: Motoren- und Turbinen-Union Munchen GmbH
    Inventor: Axel Rossmann
  • Patent number: 4045146
    Abstract: Torsional oscillations of helicopter rotor blades are reduced with stall, otherwise leading to such torsional oscillations, precluded consistent with allowable high angle of attack, by sucking air from the boundary layer on the upper surface of the blade near the leading edge thereof at a radial location of 80-90% maximum radius thereof and pumping the sucked boundary layer air, utilizing the inherent centrifugal pumping capability of the blade by establishing an exhaust of the centrifugal pumping passage within the blade which allows adequate pumping for the torsional oscillation reduction purpose consistent with the required rate flow of air.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 17, 1976
    Date of Patent: August 30, 1977
    Assignee: Avco Corporation
    Inventor: Peter Crimi
  • Patent number: 4022542
    Abstract: An improved transpiration cooled turbine blade has a porous wall for the passage of coolant fluid therethrough; the wall comprising an outer porous layer, a second layer with relatively large holes, and a third layer with metering holes for the cooling fluid. There is provision for the direct passage of coolant to the edges of the blade, which edges are single layered. Slots near the trailing edge of the blade direct a portion of the cooling fluid outwardly at a right angle to the blade's concave surface to reduce drag losses due to flow separation under conditions of high blade loading.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 23, 1974
    Date of Patent: May 10, 1977
    Assignee: Teledyne Industries, Inc.
    Inventor: Dennis E. Barbeau
  • Patent number: 4004056
    Abstract: A porous laminated sheet adapted to be cooled by air flowing through the sheet from a rear face to a front face and to discharge the air through outlets in the front face at an angle to the normal to the surface. It is particularly adapted for use as a wall of a combustion liner. The sheet has a front layer with grooves leading to outlets from the front layer and has a rear layer defining channels from the exposed face of the rear layer into the grooves.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 24, 1975
    Date of Patent: January 18, 1977
    Assignee: General Motors Corporation
    Inventor: Charles D. Carroll
  • Patent number: 3992491
    Abstract: A rotating gas diffuser for shearing fine gas bubbles from the surface thereof when the diffuser is immersed in a body of liquid and rotated therein. The rotatable shaft of the diffuser may carry a plurality of main rigid structural spokes and an equal number of rigid hollow gas feed conduits positioned alternately around the shaft. A plurality of plates, each in the form of a section of an annulus with its lateral edges radially positioned with respect to the circular rotating gas diffuser, is supported either on the top or the bottom of the diffuser, or on both, near its perimeter. Each porous plate is carried by a plate holder that has a shape similar to its associated porous plates, and with those plates defines a gas plenum having an area substantially equal in extent to, but no greater than, the area of the plates.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 30, 1975
    Date of Patent: November 16, 1976
    Assignee: FMC Corporation
    Inventors: David C. Ihrig, Jack L. Cooley, Michael W. Boex
  • Patent number: 3950113
    Abstract: An air-cooled turbine blading whose blade consists of a blade core provided with longitudinal ribs and cross ribs and of a blade jacket abutting against the ribs; the jacket is provided with air discharge apertures for the discharge of the cooling air out of the hollow spaces formed by the respective longitudinal and cross ribs; the cross ribs are provided with apertures for the flow of air which are constructed as throttling places.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 9, 1970
    Date of Patent: April 13, 1976
    Assignee: Daimler-Benz Aktiengesellschaft
    Inventor: Gunther Albrecht
  • Patent number: 3950114
    Abstract: A turbine blade having a porous hollow sheet metal airfoil and a base defining a platform, stalk, and root. The airfoil portion is integral with an extension which lies within the blade stalk, the base being cast around this extension. The cast metal lies around the blade wall and also through tubes welded from wall to wall of the extension. The stalk also includes an opening to admit air to the interior of the blade for transpiration through the blade wall.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 23, 1968
    Date of Patent: April 13, 1976
    Assignee: General Motors Corporation
    Inventor: Harold E. Helms