With Means Moving Working Fluid Deflecting Working Member Part During Operation (e.g., Aileron, Etc.) Patents (Class 416/23)
  • Patent number: 6984110
    Abstract: Disclosed is a wind power generating apparatus in which windmill blades are mounted in a multi-stage fashion to a rotating shaft while being spaced apart from one another to efficiently generate wind power. Each windmill blade includes blade bodies mounted to the rotating shaft, and provided with wind pressure adjusting holes, wind pressure adjusting plates coupled to each blade body, and connected together to a wire, each wind pressure adjusting plate being slidable along guides respectively arranged at opposite sides of the associated wind pressure adjusting hole to adjust an opening degree of the wind pressure adjusting hole, elastic members each adapted to connect one end of the associated wire to the associated blade body, and winches each adapted to connect the other end of the associated blade body, the winches being mounted to a single shaft to simultaneously wind or unwind all wire.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 18, 2002
    Date of Patent: January 10, 2006
    Inventor: Keun-Suk Jang
  • Patent number: 6966758
    Abstract: A wind turbine rotor blade (10) comprising one or more means (4) secured to the blade (10) for changing the profile thereof depending on the atmospheric temperature. The means comprises at least one laminate having at least two layers of materials with differing thermal expansion coefficients.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 17, 2002
    Date of Patent: November 22, 2005
    Assignee: LM Glasfiber A/S
    Inventors: Peter Grabau, Ib Frydendal
  • Patent number: 6942455
    Abstract: A rotor blade assembly system includes a trim tab assembly which utilizes relatively thick resilient members bonded between a trim tab and the two trim tab doublers. Spanwise segmenting of the tab and the use of thick resilient member isolates the trim tab from normal strain. Because the trim tab is made of aluminum, the tab can be readily adjusted the field using a conventional tool.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 12, 2003
    Date of Patent: September 13, 2005
    Assignee: Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation
    Inventors: David N. Schmaling, James B. Carleton
  • Patent number: 6902370
    Abstract: A wind turbine blade made of a fixed blade section with an integral mounting flange for attachment to a wind turbine hub. A moveable blade section is attached to the fixed blade section and is free to move in a longitudinal direction relative to the fixed blade section. A positioning device controllably positions the moveable blade section to vary the overall length of the blade. This allows the wind turbine's rotor diameter to be adjusted. The rotor diameter can be increased in order to provide high power output in low wind conditions and it can be decreased in order to minimize loads in high wind conditions.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 4, 2002
    Date of Patent: June 7, 2005
    Assignee: Energy Unlimited, Inc.
    Inventors: Mark H. Dawson, Jack A. Wallace
  • Patent number: 6816823
    Abstract: Process for designing flight controllers, in which first for the rigid airplane and then for the elastic airplane the damping and the phase delay for each excitation frequency is determined, and the flight controller is adapted in such a manner that the structural responses to each excitation frequency for both the rigid airplane and the elastic airplane in the open control circuit outside two design fields, applicable to the elastic airplane, are laid around the instability points in the data field comprising damping and phase delay, whereby for the design of the elastic airplane between the phase delays of −270 degrees and −495 degrees, a damping exceeding −6 dB is allowed.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 15, 2001
    Date of Patent: November 9, 2004
    Assignee: EADS Deutschland GmbH
    Inventor: Juergen Becker
  • Patent number: 6776580
    Abstract: A variable edge rotor blade adapted to be driven by the rotor hub includes an airfoil section; a movable edge section coupled to the airfoil section, and an actuator device operating independently of the hub, disposed in the blade proximate the movable edge section, fixed to the airfoil section and coupled to the movable edge section for oscillating it between an increased lift and decreased lift position.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 21, 2001
    Date of Patent: August 17, 2004
    Assignee: Diversified Technologies, Inc.
    Inventors: David Allen Fink, Marcel Pierre Joseph Gaudreau
  • Publication number: 20040057827
    Abstract: An air moving apparatus for generating cooling airflow is provided that includes a noise reduction system for reducing noise generated by a fan. The air moving apparatus includes a fan having a rotatable hub and a plurality of blades mounted to the hub for rotating about an axis of rotation to provide pressurized airflow. A sensor is situated on a surface of at least one fan blade for sensing airflow characteristics of the air flowing over the fan blade. An actuator, also situated on the surface of the fan blade, changes the characteristic of the airflow over the fan blade in response to the sensed airflow characteristic.
    Type: Application
    Filed: September 19, 2002
    Publication date: March 25, 2004
    Applicant: Motorola, Inc.
    Inventor: Debabrata Pal
  • Patent number: 6666648
    Abstract: An elastomeric coupler assembly having a helical elastomeric bearing movably supports an active slat relative to a main element. An inner elastomeric coupler assembly and an outer elastomeric coupler assembly support the slat therebetween. Centrifugal force operates to drive the slat to a first position and an actuator rod operates in tension to pull upon the inner elastomeric coupler assembly to drive the slat in opposition to the centrifugal force to a second position. The helical elastomeric bearing is layered such that it defines a section of a circular helix. The circular helix provides a coupling, which converts a linear input parallel to a virtual hinge axis into a rotary output to pitch the slat. In operation, centrifugal force operates to slide the slat outboard toward the blade tip such that the attached slat moves elastomerically along the helical arc of the helical elastomeric bearing to rotate the slat nose down.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 17, 2002
    Date of Patent: December 23, 2003
    Assignee: Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation
    Inventors: Andreas P. F. Bernhard, Michael S. Torok, Robert C. Moffitt, Peter F. Lorber, Geoffrey C. R. Davis, William Arthur Welsh, Brian E. Wake
  • Patent number: 6663345
    Abstract: Rotor blade for a helicopter having an aerodynamic control flap, particularly a camber flap, is integrated essentially in the contour of the blade profile. The camber flap is swivellably arranged on an axis of rotation and is linked to a control rod of a control device outside the axis of rotation, for converting a linear movement into a swivelling movement of the control flap. The control device is disposed by way of roller bearings and bolts aligned in the span direction. Devices are provided which absorb by way of the control flap centrifugal forces of the control device resulting from the rotation of the rotor blade.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 20, 2001
    Date of Patent: December 16, 2003
    Assignee: EADS Deutschland GmbH
    Inventors: Thomas Lorkowski, Frank Hermle
  • Publication number: 20030215332
    Abstract: A multi-element rotor blade includes a main element and an active slat movable relative to the main element. The slat rotates and translates relative to the main element from a base position. The base position provides a compromise between minimum coefficient of drag CD and maximum coefficient of lift CLmax. In the advancing blade, since the airspeed thereof is significantly greater than the retreating blade, the slat is positively rotated from the base position to minimizes drag at low angles of attack. In the retreating blade, since the airspeed thereof is significantly lower than the advancing blade, the slat is negatively rotated and translated to maximize the coefficient of lift CLmax.
    Type: Application
    Filed: May 17, 2002
    Publication date: November 20, 2003
    Inventors: Michael S. Torok, Robert C. Moffitt, Peter F. Lorber, Geoffrey C.R. Davis, Andreas P.F. Bernhard, William Arthur Welsh, Brian E. Wake
  • Publication number: 20030215333
    Abstract: An elastomeric coupler assembly having a helical elastomeric bearing movably supports an active slat relative to a main element. An inner elastomeric coupler assembly and an outer elastomeric coupler assembly support the slat therebetween. Centrifugal force operates to drive the slat to a first position and an actuator rod operates in tension to pull upon the inner elastomeric coupler assembly to drive the slat in opposition to the centrifugal force to a second position. The helical elastomeric bearing is layered such that it defines a section of a circular helix. The circular helix provides a coupling, which converts a linear input parallel to a virtual hinge axis into a rotary output to pitch the slat. In operation, centrifugal force operates to slide the slat outboard toward the blade tip such that the attached slat moves elastomerically along the helical arc of the helical elastomeric bearing to rotate the slat nose down.
    Type: Application
    Filed: May 17, 2002
    Publication date: November 20, 2003
    Inventors: Andreas P.F. Bernhard, Michael S. Torok, Robert C. Moffitt, Peter F. Lorber, Geoffrey C.R. Davis, William Arthur Welsh, Brian E. Wake
  • Patent number: 6648599
    Abstract: A force transmitting linkage connects a piezoelectric actuator to a flap that is pivotably connected to a helicopter rotor blade. In a flap actuation control arrangement and method, a force transducer senses the force being transmitted through the linkage and generates a corresponding actual force signal, a flap position sensor senses the position of the flap and generates a corresponding actual flap position signal, a first controller receives a desired flap position signal and the actual flap position signal and responsively thereto generates a reference signal, and a second controller receives the reference signal and the actual force signal and responsively thereto generates a control signal that is provided to the piezoelectric actuator. This provides a real time flap actuation control with respect to highly dynamic forces as well as friction forces acting on the flap.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 1, 2002
    Date of Patent: November 18, 2003
    Assignee: Eurocopter Deutschland GmbH
    Inventor: Dieter Preissler
  • Patent number: 6644919
    Abstract: A rotor blade arrangement includes a rotor blade with a hollow blade chamber therein, and a flap module removably arranged and secured in the blade chamber. The flap module includes a module housing received in the blade chamber, an actuator arranged in the housing, a flap pivotably arranged at an edge of the housing, and a power transmission linkage connecting the actuator to the flap. The module housing is inserted through an opening into the blade chamber, so that the flap protrudes and forms a continuation of the aerodynamic contour of the blade. The flap may be a trailing edge flap at the trailing edge or a leading edge nose flap at the leading edge of the blade. The flap module does not change the center of gravity of the blade. The entire flap module can be easily removed from the blade for adjustment, inspection, maintenance, repair or replacement.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 11, 2001
    Date of Patent: November 11, 2003
    Assignee: Eurocopter Deutschland GmbH
    Inventors: Markus Bauer, Ulrich Denecke, Gerald Kuntze-Fechner, Christine Mueller, Hermann Sahlstorfer, Alois Wagner
  • Publication number: 20030123983
    Abstract: The present invention is an oscillating wing system like lifting surface featuring a symmetrical profile mounted free to rotate over a fixation point located ahead neutral point and self-trimming at angle of attack in the flow by adjustment of a trailing edge elevon, and whose the system is actuated by linear lateral or vertical movement allowing to produce electrical energy with the wind flow or water flow of a deep river or at flood/ebb tide.
    Type: Application
    Filed: January 3, 2002
    Publication date: July 3, 2003
    Inventor: Maxime Lambert Bolduc
  • Publication number: 20030091436
    Abstract: The invention relates to a method and a device for regulating the airflow around a blade of a windmill. The device comprise a spoiler, which is provided with a cavity. The spoiler is mounted to a surface of the blade in connection with an another flow regulating unit, and the spoiler can change the airflow around the blade by assuming 12 different forms. When the spoiler is in a deactivated form no particular changes of the airflow takes place, as the spoiler runs continually and follows the contour of the blade. When the spoiler is in an activated form the airflow, however, is changed in that the spoiler no longer follows the contours of the blade and creates a discontinuity or at least changes the profile of the blade in such way that the airflow conditions are changed. In particular the airflow conditions can be changed so the effect of the second flow regulating unit completely or partly is eliminated.
    Type: Application
    Filed: July 22, 2002
    Publication date: May 15, 2003
    Inventor: Henrik Stiesdal
  • Patent number: 6544000
    Abstract: A magnetostrictive rod subject to a magnetic field generated by an electrical activating coil within a pocket of a propeller blade is held in abutment with the body of the blade to effect its deflection causing change in shape involving a variation in blade camber in accordance with electrically powered adjustment control.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 26, 2001
    Date of Patent: April 8, 2003
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the Secretary of the Navy
    Inventors: Stuart D. Jessup, Joseph P. Teter
  • Publication number: 20030026696
    Abstract: Rotor blade for a helicopter having an aerodynamic control flap, particularly a camber flap, is integrated essentially in the contour of the blade profile. The camber flap is swivellably arranged on an axis of rotation and is linked to a control rod of a control device outside the axis of rotation, for converting a linear movement into a swivelling movement of the control flap. The control device is disposed by way of roller bearings and bolts aligned in the span direction. Devices are provided which absorb by way of the control flap centrifugal forces of the control device resulting from the rotation of the rotor blade.
    Type: Application
    Filed: July 20, 2001
    Publication date: February 6, 2003
    Inventors: Thomas Lorkowski, Frank Hermle
  • Patent number: 6508439
    Abstract: A flap actuator system for an airfoil structure including a flap member for controlling the airfoil structure; a bearing member interconnected with the flap member and airfoil structure; and an electromagnetic motor segment integral with the flap member and airfoil structure for rotating the flap member about the axis of the bearing member relative to the airfoil structure and including a field circuit integral with one of the flap member and airfoil structure and an armature circuit integral with the other; the bearing member may be a tension member which is attached to the airfoil structure at a first point and to the flap member at a second point spaced from the first point.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 1, 2000
    Date of Patent: January 21, 2003
    Assignee: Diversified Technologies, Inc.
    Inventors: David Allan Fink, Marcel Pierre Joseph Gaudreau, Stephen Mark Carson
  • Patent number: 6481964
    Abstract: A rotor blade for a helicopter has a blade root for a fastening in the area of the rotor mast and a radially exterior blade tip. An aerodynamic control flap is integrated essentially in the contour of the blade profile is swivellably disposed in the rotor blade between the blade root and the blade tip. The control flap is disposed at its two ends in each case by way of roller bearings on bearing bolts aligned in the span direction of the rotor blade. The bearing of the control flap which is radially on the outside has devices which provide a support with respect to the centrifugal forces of the control flap upon the rotor blade resulting from the rotation of the rotor blade.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 20, 2001
    Date of Patent: November 19, 2002
    Assignee: EADS Deutschland GmbH
    Inventors: Thomas Lorkowski, Frank Hermle
  • Patent number: 6478541
    Abstract: An active control device for reducing blade-vortex interactions (BVI) noise generated by a rotorcraft, such as a helicopter, comprises a segmented trailing edge flap located near the tip of each of the rotorcraft's rotor blades. The various flap segments may be independently actuated according to flap deflections schedules which are tailored to address a particular operating regime with maximum efficiency and effectiveness. Through the careful azimuth-dependent independent actuation of the flap segments, blade tip vortices which are the primary source for BVI noise are (a) made weaker and (b) pushed farther away from the rotor disk (that is, larger blade-vortex separation distances are achieved), resulting in lower BVI noise.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 16, 2001
    Date of Patent: November 12, 2002
    Assignee: The Boeing Company
    Inventors: Bruce D. Charles, Ahmed A. Hassan, Hormoz Tadghighi, Ram D. JanakiRam
  • Patent number: 6474184
    Abstract: A tilt and swivel positioning device for positioning a servo flap in a rotor blade. The device contains a tilt element and a bearing element. The tilt element is swivellably attached to the bearing element. The bearing arrangement has a convex roll-off surface resting against a concave roll-off surface. The radius of the concave roll-off surface exceeds the radius of the convex roll-off surface.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 25, 2001
    Date of Patent: November 5, 2002
    Assignee: Eads Deutschland GmbH
    Inventor: Peter Jänker
  • Patent number: 6474945
    Abstract: A flap hinge mechanism has a blade-secured portion secured to blade, a flap-secured portion secured to flap, and a coupling portion which couples the blade-secured portion and the flap-secured portion so as to permit angular displacement. The blade-secured portion, coupling portion, and flap-secured portion are formed of fibers which serve as composite material. The fibers of the blade-secured portion and flap-secured portion are impregnated with matrices, and the fibers of the coupling portion are not impregnated with a matrix. Such constitution permits attainment of smooth flap motion in spite of large centrifugal forces, making the achievement of thin, light designs possible.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 15, 2000
    Date of Patent: November 5, 2002
    Assignee: Advanced Technology Institute of Commuter Helicopter, Ltd.
    Inventors: Eiichi Nakasato, Noriaki Katayama, Tetsuya Hori, Asao Kakinuma
  • Patent number: 6461106
    Abstract: The present invention relates to a method for reducing the blade-vortex interaction noise of rotary wings. According to the invention: at least one value &PSgr;o of the azimuth of the blades (1) is determined, for which value said blades shed tip vortices giving rise to a peak intensity of noise; a trailing edge flap (2) is disposed on each blade (1), the former generating an auxiliary vortex (11), parallel to the tip vortex (10) and attached to a blade section (8) lying between the blade section (7) around which the speed circulation is a maximum and the tip section (3) of said blade; and a deflection is applied to each of said flaps (2) such that, for said value &PSgr;o, the speed circulation around said blade section (8) is a specified fraction of the maximum speed circulation.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 10, 2001
    Date of Patent: October 8, 2002
    Assignee: ONERA (Office National d'Etudes et de Recherches Aerospatiales)
    Inventor: Gilles Rahier
  • Publication number: 20020141867
    Abstract: A force transmitting linkage connects a piezoelectric actuator to a flap that is pivotably connected to a helicopter rotor blade. In a flap actuation control arrangement and method, a force transducer senses the force being transmitted through the linkage and generates a corresponding actual force signal, a flap position sensor senses the position of the flap and generates a corresponding actual flap position signal, a first controller receives a desired flap position signal and the actual flap position signal and responsively thereto generates a reference signal, and a second controller receives the reference signal and the actual force signal and responsively thereto generates a control signal that is provided to the piezoelectric actuator. This provides a real time flap actuation control with respect to highly dynamic forces as well as friction forces acting on the flap.
    Type: Application
    Filed: April 2, 2002
    Publication date: October 3, 2002
    Applicant: EUROCOPTER DEUTSCHLAND GmbH
    Inventor: Dieter Preissler
  • Patent number: 6454207
    Abstract: A flap support mechanism for attachment of a flap to a rotor blade so as to permit angular displacement with respect thereto has a tension-torsion member disposed coaxial with a hinge axis of the flap. One end at the blade root side of the tension-torsion member is secured to the rotor blade. The other end at the blade tip side of the tension-torsion member is secured to the flap. The tension-torsion member is placed such that it passes through a narrow cavity formed at the interior of the rotor blade. Such construction permits smooth flap motion in spite of a large centrifugal force.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 1, 2000
    Date of Patent: September 24, 2002
    Assignee: Advanced Technology Institute of Commuter-Helicopter, Ltd.
    Inventors: Eiichi Yamakawa, Noriaki Katayama, Tetsuya Hori
  • Publication number: 20020076325
    Abstract: A variable edge rotor blade adapted to be driven by the rotor hub includes an airfoil section; a movable edge section coupled to the airfoil section, and an actuator device operating independently of the hub, disposed in the blade proximate the movable edge section, fixed to the airfoil section and coupled to the movable edge section for oscillating it between an increased lift and decreased lift position.
    Type: Application
    Filed: September 21, 2001
    Publication date: June 20, 2002
    Inventors: David Allen Fink, Marcel Pierre Joseph Gaudreau
  • Publication number: 20020021965
    Abstract: A rotor blade for a helicopter has a blade root for a fastening in the area of the rotor mast and a radially exterior blade tip. An aerodynamic control flap is integrated essentially in the contour of the blade profile is swivellably disposed in the rotor blade between the blade root and the blade tip. The control flap is disposed at its two ends in each case by way of roller bearings on bearing bolts aligned in the span direction of the rotor blade. The bearing of the control flap which is radially on the outside has devices which provide a support with respect to the centrifugal forces of the control flap upon the rotor blade resulting from the rotation of the rotor blade.
    Type: Application
    Filed: July 20, 2001
    Publication date: February 21, 2002
    Inventors: Thomas Lorkowski, Frank Hermle
  • Patent number: 6322324
    Abstract: A system for quasi-statically correcting tracking of rotor blades of a helicopter rotor during operation includes a trim tab mounted on each rotor blade and deflectable relative to the rotor blade so as to change a tracking path of the rotor blade, and a rotor track and balance analyzer that includes sensors for acquiring rotor tracking and balance information and is operable to process the rotor tracking and balance information so as to predetermine a new tab position to which the trim tab should be deflected for bringing the tracking path of a mistracking rotor blade into alignment with a reference path. The trim tab is deflected by an actuator mounted to the rotor blade, the actuator having an actuating element coupled with the trim tab and formed of a smart material such that the actuating element deforms proportional to a stimulus applied to the actuating element.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 3, 2000
    Date of Patent: November 27, 2001
    Assignee: The Boeing Company
    Inventors: Dennis K. Kennedy, Friedrich K. Straub, Ahmed A. Hassan
  • Patent number: 6273681
    Abstract: An actuator and first to fourth links constitute a first displacement magnifying mechanism. An input shaft which is fixed in a basal end of the first and second links, a support shaft which is fixed in a basal end of the third and fourth links, and a displacement magnifying lever constitute a second displacement magnifying mechanism. In the displacement magnifying lever, an intermediate portion is angularly displaceably coupled to a tip end of the support shaft, a tip end of the input shaft is angularly displaceably coupled to one end, and an output rod is angularly displaceably coupled to another end. The expansion and contraction of the actuator are magnified by the first and second displacement magnifying mechanisms so as to drive a flap angularly via output rod. According to this configuration, the displacement of the actuator can be largely magnified so that the flap can be sufficiently angularly displaced in the vertical direction and in a reciprocal manner.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 2, 2000
    Date of Patent: August 14, 2001
    Assignee: Advanced Technology Institute of Commuter-Helicopter, Ltd.
    Inventors: Eiichi Yamakawa, Tatsuro Hongu
  • Patent number: 6231013
    Abstract: An airfoil member, especially a rotor blade for a helicopter, includes an airfoil body and a servo-actuated flap tiltably connected to the airfoil body so as to form at least a portion of the trailing edge of the airfoil member. At least one piezoelectric actuator is arranged inside the airfoil member, and connected to the servo-flap via a transmission mechanism and a connecting rod linkage so as to tiltingly deflect the servo-flap as needed. Preferably, two counter-acting piezoelectric actuators are connected to the flap via respective transmission mechanisms and connecting rod linkages. An elongation of the piezoelectric actuators in the span width direction of the airfoil member is converted or redirected into an actuating motion in the chord length direction of the airfoil member by the transmission mechanisms.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 16, 1999
    Date of Patent: May 15, 2001
    Assignee: DaimlerChrysler AG
    Inventor: Peter Jaenker
  • Patent number: 6168379
    Abstract: A helicopter rotor blade includes a main airfoil body (12) and a movable control flap (3) incorporated in the trailing edge profile of the airfoil body. The flap (3) is movably connected to the main airfoil body (12) by a flexibly bendable junction element (4), and is actuated by a piezoelectric actuator unit (5) via a push/pull rod (6) and a lever arm (7), whereby the control flap is deflected relative to the main airfoil body. The junction element (4) is preferably a continuous integral fiber-reinforced composite component having a flexible bending portion (42) with a reduced thickness in comparison to the adjoining portions, whereby the reinforcing fibers extend continuously through the joint in the direction of the connection between the main airfoil body and the flap.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 1, 1999
    Date of Patent: January 2, 2001
    Assignee: Eurocopter Deutschland GmbH
    Inventor: Karl Bauer
  • Patent number: 6152692
    Abstract: The blade includes at least one trailing edge swivelling air flow control flap, swivelling on the blade around an axis directed substantially along the span of the blade and the control flap, the swivelling of the control flap being controlled by an actuator gear mounted on the blade and including an actuator. The actuator includes a first rotating motor, the rotational speed of which corresponds to a frequency of swivelling of the control flap, and a second rotating motor which moves relative to each other two eccentrics mounted in series around the shaft of the first motor, the second motor rotating with one of the eccentrics, and a ring freely rotating around the eccentrics is driven in movements transmitted by a flexible arm transmission to the control flap. The frequency and amplitude controls of the swivelling of the air flow control flap are thus separated.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 4, 1998
    Date of Patent: November 28, 2000
    Assignee: Eurocopter
    Inventor: Jacques Antoine Aubry
  • Patent number: 6139268
    Abstract: A turbine blade having an extensible tail is described. The extensible tail is selectively positionable during engine operation, enabling fine-tuning for maximum power and efficiency during engine operation. During periods of operation exhibiting low Reynolds number flows, the extensible tail is projected out from the trailing edge of the turbine blade, into the gas path. As Reynolds number flows increase, the extensible tail is retracted back into the turbine blade, maximizing turbine engine efficiency.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 19, 1999
    Date of Patent: October 31, 2000
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the Secretary of the Air Force
    Inventors: Christopher G. Murawski, Rolf Sondergaard
  • Patent number: 6135713
    Abstract: An actively controlled helicopter rotor blade includes a trailing edge flap actuated by a fast-acting actuator. A lightweight, rugged, fast-acting actuator suitable for use as the flap actuator comprises a pair of column actuators composed of a smart material such as piezoelectric, magnetostrictive, shape memory alloy or other material that exhibits a shape change when subjected to an external stimulus. Each of the column actuators is composed of multiple piezoelectric ceramic actuator elements bonded together to form the individual columns. Each of the column actuators engages the base of an actuator tube that, in turn, is urged against the column actuators by a tension member. Differential voltage applied to the columns causes a differential elongation of the column actuators, which causes the actuator tube to pivot about an axis proximal the tips of the column actuators. The movement of the actuator tube is coupled by a linkage to the rotor blade flap.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 19, 1999
    Date of Patent: October 24, 2000
    Assignee: The McDonnell Douglas Helicopter Company
    Inventors: David B. Domzalski, Friedrich K. Straub, Dennis K. Kennedy
  • Patent number: 6109870
    Abstract: A flap is attached to a rear end of a blade so as to be angularly displaceable. Displacement magnifying means magnifies the amount of displacement from an actuator to drive the flap. An input portion to which the displacement is applied from the actuator is expandably and contractibly supported by bellows. Likewise, an output portion to which the input amount of displacement is magnified is expandably and contractibly supported by a bellows. Consequently, displacement magnifying means is realized in which, compared with a existing piston with O ring which slides on the cylinder inner wall, no deterioration in response characteristic due to high friction occurs when the actuator is displaced at high speed, and no fluid leakage due to deterioration or wear of the O ring occurs. According to this structure, a rotor blade flap driving apparatus is obtained which has displacement magnifying means with fast response and no fluid leakage.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 29, 1999
    Date of Patent: August 29, 2000
    Assignee: Advanced Technology Institute of Commuter-Helicopter, Ltd.
    Inventors: Eiichi Yamakawa, Tatsuro Hongu, Mitsumasa Sato, Shun-ichi Bandoh
  • Patent number: 6065934
    Abstract: A rotary actuator (18) is provided, including an actuator assembly (20). The actuator assembly includes a torque tube (24) formed of a shape memory alloy, a super elastic NiTinol return spring (26) having a proximal end (46) and a distal end (44), and a torque tube heating element (30) positioned near the torque tube. The torque tube (24) includes a proximal end (32) and a distal end (34). The return spring and torque tube are connected at their ends, with the torque tube being pretwisted while in a martensitic state relative to the spring. Activation of the heating element causes the torque tube to enter an austenitic state in which it returns to its previous untwisted configuration. Removal of heat allows the torque tube to return to a martensitic state, further allowing the return spring to retwist the torque tube. Further provided is a unique locking assembly (22) for use with the actuator assembly.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 27, 1998
    Date of Patent: May 23, 2000
    Assignee: The Boeing Company
    Inventors: Arthur Dean Jacot, Gerald J. Julien, Dan J. Clingman
  • Patent number: 6033180
    Abstract: A rotor blade is provided with rotary spoilers rotatably supported in recesses formed in a blade body, respectively, so that the upper surface of each rotary spoiler serves as a portion of the wind surface of the rotor blade. Each rotary spoiler is turned so as to protrude from the wing surface of the blade body to make the rotary spoiler exercise its function when the rotor blade is turned to an appropriate rotary angular position to control noise and vibrations by changing the lift of the rotor blade. Each rotary spoiler is driven for turning by a driving mechanism having a driving member made of a piezoelectric material, and the operation of the driving mechanism is controlled by a controller.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 13, 1998
    Date of Patent: March 7, 2000
    Assignee: Fuji Photo Kabushiki Kaisha
    Inventor: Shigeru Machida
  • Patent number: 5934609
    Abstract: A propeller blade fabricated from composite material having a plurality of pper layers, each upper layer being flexible and having fibers oriented in a first direction. The material further includes a plurality of lower layers, each lower layer being flexible and having fibers oriented in a second direction which is different than the first direction of the fibers of the upper layers. A flexible layer of resistive heating material is disposed between the upper and lower layers. A control and power supply are provided for controlling the amount of electricity delivered to the layer of resistive heating material. The composite material changes its shape upon changing the temperature of the layer of resistive heating material by manipulating the controller.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 1, 1997
    Date of Patent: August 10, 1999
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the Secretary of the Navy
    Inventor: Robert Kuklinski
  • Patent number: 5934873
    Abstract: A helicopter includes a rotor tip jet engine which combines ram compression and centrifugal compression to increase the thrust. A first flow of fuel is dispersed in the ram air and is carried into a combustion area of the engine. A separate flow of fuel is injected into the centrifugally compressed air before the fuel air mixture enters the combustion area. For helicopters and other applications, the ram jet engine combines ram air and a separate mass of compressed air which is directed into the combustion area for increased thrust. A regulator or control mechanism is also provided for regulating the quantity of compressed air which is added. The regulator or control mechanism may also be used to cut off or stop the addition of the separate mass of compressed air.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 29, 1997
    Date of Patent: August 10, 1999
    Assignee: Safe Flight Instrument Corporation
    Inventor: Leonard M. Greene
  • Patent number: 5730581
    Abstract: A rotor blade made of fiber-reinforced synthetic resin has a profile which, at least in the region of the blade tip is designed so as to be twistable by actuators about the rotor blade longitudinal axis. The torsion skin of the rotor blade in the region of the blade tip is designed anisotropically in the sense of a tension/torsion coupling and a controllable actuator, which acts in a longitudinal direction of the rotor blade upon the rotor blade tip, is disposed in the rotor blade spar. To achieve anisotropy, the torsion skin is a uni-directional winding having a winding angle of less than 45.degree. relative to the rotor blade longitudinal axis. The winding angle is dependent upon the force-to-displacement ratio of the actuator and may lie between 18.degree. and 40.degree.. In the region of the blade tip, the anisotropic torsion skin is disposed resting loosely on the rotor blade spar.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 2, 1996
    Date of Patent: March 24, 1998
    Assignee: Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fur Luft-und Raumfahrt e.V.
    Inventors: Andreas Buter, Matthias Piening
  • Patent number: 5639215
    Abstract: A blade of the rotor is attached to a main rotor shaft, and is rotated counterclockwise at a high speed when viewed from above. In the vicinity of the blade tip, a flap having a wing shape in section is pivotally supported with a hinge so as to be angularly displaceable and at the end a part of the rear end of the blade is cut out. A hinge line which indicates the center of the angular displacement of the hinge is formed so as to be parallel to a straight line passing through the rotation center of the rotor and the center of gravity of the flap. A helicopter rotor equipped with flaps is provided in which the influence of the centrifugal force acting on the center of gravity of a blade can be largely reduced, and a flap control mechanism can be reduced in size and weight.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 26, 1996
    Date of Patent: June 17, 1997
    Assignee: Advanced Technology Institute of Commuter-Helicopter, Ltd.
    Inventors: Eiichi Yamakawa, Noboru Kobiki, Eiji Shima
  • Patent number: 5570859
    Abstract: A spoiler flap is pivotably mounted to the rearward portion of a wind turbine blade or wing to control or influence air flow over the surface of the blade or wing. The spoiler flap has forward and rearward edges. The spoiler flap can be pivoted to simultaneously raise the forward edge (into low pressure flow) and lower the rearward edge of the spoiler flap (into high pressure flow). The extent to which the spoiler flap is pivoted determines the extent to which the air flow over the surface of the blade or wing is influenced. When the spoiler flap is fully deployed or pivoted, it serves as a braking device. When it is only partially pivoted, it serves the function of power modulation.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 9, 1995
    Date of Patent: November 5, 1996
    Inventor: Gene A. Quandt
  • Patent number: 5527151
    Abstract: An advanced aileron configuration for wind turbine rotors featuring an aileron with a bottom surface that slopes upwardly at an angle toward the nose region of the aileron. The aileron rotates about a center of rotation which is located within the envelope of the aileron, but does not protrude substantially into the air flowing past the aileron while the aileron is deflected to angles within a control range of angles. This allows for strong positive control of the rotation of the rotor. When the aileron is rotated to angles within a shutdown range of deflection angles, lift-destroying, turbulence-producing cross-flow of air through a flow gap, and turbulence created by the aileron, create sufficient drag to stop rotation of the rotor assembly.The profile of the aileron further allows the center of rotation to be located within the envelope of the aileron, at or near the centers of pressure and mass of the aileron.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 4, 1992
    Date of Patent: June 18, 1996
    Assignee: Northern Power Systems, Inc.
    Inventors: Clint Coleman, Theresa M. Juengst, Michael D. Zuteck
  • Patent number: 5527152
    Abstract: An advanced aileron configuration for wind turbine rotors featuring an independent, lift generating aileron connected to the rotor blade. The aileron has an airfoil profile which is inverted relative to the airfoil profile of the main section of the rotor blade. The inverted airfoil profile of the aileron allows the aileron to be used for strong positive control of the rotation of the rotor while deflected to angles within a control range of angles. The aileron functions as a separate, lift generating body when deflected to angles within a shutdown range of angles, generating lift with a component acting in the direction opposite the direction of rotation of the rotor. Thus, the aileron can be used to shut down rotation of the rotor. The profile of the aileron further allows the center of rotation to be located within the envelope of the aileron, at or near the centers of pressure and mass of the aileron.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 4, 1994
    Date of Patent: June 18, 1996
    Assignee: Northern Power Systems, Inc.
    Inventors: Clint Coleman, Theresa M. Juengst, Michael D. Zuteck
  • Patent number: 5503525
    Abstract: A cross flow wind turbine comprising a rotor mounted for rotation about a vertical axis and a plurality of blade assemblies mounted on the rotor. Each blade assembly comprises a blade of aerofoil section mounted vertically for pivotal movement about a vertical shaft. The turbine also includes a device for measuring the direction of the apparent fluid velocity, a shaft encoder for measuring the blade angle and a control system to set the blade angle such that the lift component of the aerodynamic forces on the blade contributes positively to the driving torque on the rotor.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 28, 1994
    Date of Patent: April 2, 1996
    Assignee: The University of Melbourne
    Inventors: Kenneth C. Brown, Peter J. Meikle
  • Patent number: 5456579
    Abstract: A wind turbine blade with governor for maintaining optimum rotational speeds comprising, in combination: a main body portion with a linear leading edge and a trailing edge, a trailing edge, a tip end and an axis end, the leading edge being linear and fixed and the trailing edge being formed at an angle with respect to the leading edge over the majority of its central extent, the trailing edge being formed with a rectangular recess; and an aileron formed within the recess of the trailing edge of the main body portion with a pivot pin extending through a central extent thereof, the aileron coupled to the main body portion adjacent to the opposed edges of the recess for rotation thereof about an axis parallel with the trailing edge of the main body portion.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 31, 1994
    Date of Patent: October 10, 1995
    Inventor: Timothy G. Olson
  • Patent number: 5387083
    Abstract: In a servoflap system for helicopters, angular positions of the helicopter's servoflaps are controlled by actuators located near the tips of the helicopter blades. Each actuator contains a pump for circulating a lubricant onto the actuator's gears when blade pitch is being changed. The pump is built into the actuator's mechanical stops.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 23, 1992
    Date of Patent: February 7, 1995
    Assignee: AlliedSignal Inc.
    Inventors: Lowell V. L. Larson, Mark Trutanich
  • Patent number: 5314308
    Abstract: Higher harmonic control (hereinafter HHC) of helicopter rotor blade vibrations is provided by an actively controlled, rotatable, slotted cylinder which is mounted at an outboard section of each blade. Continuous rotation of each cylinder about its longitudinal axis produces a periodic aerodynamic force on the blade at a frequency of twice the rotational frequency of the cylinder. The amplitude of force is controlled by the size of a slot opening in the cylinder while the rotational speed of the cylinder is synchronized to run at a multiple of the speed of a rotor blade drive shaft. The amplitude and phase of the HHC force is regulated, either manually or by active feedback control, to minimize any vibratory load transmitted to the airframe through the rotor blade drive shaft. A significant advantage offered by this concept relative to other HHC methods, such as high-frequency blade pitch motions actuated either by the swash plate or by moveable tabs at the blade trailing edge, is its low power requirement.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 11, 1992
    Date of Patent: May 24, 1994
    Assignee: Dynamic Engineering, Inc.
    Inventor: Wilmer H. Reed, III
  • Patent number: 5314301
    Abstract: Conventionally gas turbine engine compressors have fixed inlet guide vanes to give a predetermined swirl to incoming air at an engine design speed, so that air enters the compressor at an optimum angle. At speeds much lower, for example, than the design speed the guide vane is less efficient. The guide vanes are thereby made variable in camber. Each vane comprises a number of spanwise hinged members which can be moved relative one to another to vary the vane camber.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 12, 1993
    Date of Patent: May 24, 1994
    Assignee: Rolls-Royce plc
    Inventor: Mark J. Knight
  • Patent number: 5269652
    Abstract: A wing for a wind rotor of a windmill has a main part and a turnable part that serves as an aerodynamic brake. The main part of the wing has an outer end spaced radially inward from the wing tip and a notched partial-chord edge portion extending radially inward from the outer end for part of its length. The turnable part includes a first section and a second section. The first section is a full-chord outer tip portion of the wing that extends radially outward from the outer end of the main part of the wing. The second section is a partial-chord portion that extends radially inward from the first section in the notched region of the main part of the wing. Hinges located at the outer end and at the radially inner extent of the notched edge portion of the main part connect the second section of the turnable part to the main part for turning about a pivot line between a stowed position and a deployed position.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 1, 1991
    Date of Patent: December 14, 1993
    Inventor: Helge Petersen