Superplastic Patents (Class 420/902)
  • Patent number: 8844281
    Abstract: A heat engine includes a first rotatable pulley and a second rotatable pulley spaced from the first rotatable pulley. A shape memory alloy (SMA) element is disposed about respective portions of the pulleys at an SMA pulley ratio. The SMA element includes a first wire, a second wire, and a matrix joining the first wire and the second wire. The first wire and the second wire are in contact with the pulleys, but the matrix is not in contact with the pulleys. A timing cable is disposed about respective portions of the pulleys at a timing pulley ratio, which is different than the SMA pulley ratio. The SMA element converts a thermal energy gradient between the hot region and the cold region into mechanical energy.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 30, 2011
    Date of Patent: September 30, 2014
    Assignees: GM Global Technology Operations LLC, Dynalloy, Inc, The Regents of the University of Michigan
    Inventors: Alan L. Browne, Nancy L. Johnson, John Andrew Shaw, Christopher Burton Churchill, Andrew C. Keefe, Geoffrey P. McKnight, Paul W. Alexander, Guillermo A. Herrera, James Ryan Yates, Jeffrey W. Brown
  • Patent number: 7300708
    Abstract: An erosion resistant protective structure for a turbine engine component comprises a shape memory alloy. The shape memory alloy includes nickel-titanium based alloys, indium-titanium based alloys, nickel-aluminum based alloys, nickel-gallium based alloys, copper based alloys, gold-cadmium based alloys, iron-platinum based alloys, iron-palladium based alloys, silver-cadmium based alloys, indium-cadmium based alloys, manganese-copper based alloys, ruthenium-niobium based alloys, ruthenium-tantalum based alloys, titanium based alloys, iron-based alloys, or combinations comprising at least one of the foregoing alloys. Also, disclosed herein are methods for forming the shape memory alloy onto turbine component.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 16, 2004
    Date of Patent: November 27, 2007
    Assignee: General Electric Company
    Inventors: Michael Francis Xavier Gigliotti, Jr., Canan Uslu Hardwicke, Liang Jiang, John William Short, Don Mark Lipkin, Jonathan Paul Blank, Krishnamurthy Anand
  • Patent number: 6428634
    Abstract: A method of processing a Ni—Ti—Nb based alloy which contains from about 4 to about 14 atomic percent Nb and in which the ratio of atomic percent Ni to atomic percent Ti is from about 3.8 to 1.2, comprising working the alloy sufficient to impart a textured structure to the alloy, at a temperature below the recrystallisation temperature of the alloy. Preferably, the alloy is worked at least 10%, by a technique such as rolling or drawing, or another technique which produces a similar crystal structure. The alloy has increased stiffness compared with Ni—Ti binary alloys with superelastic properties.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 24, 1997
    Date of Patent: August 6, 2002
    Assignee: Ormco Corporation
    Inventors: Petrus A. Besselink, Rohit C. L. Sachdeva
  • Patent number: 6063210
    Abstract: A superplastically formable, aluminum alloy product which consists essentially of about 2-10 wt. % magnesium; at least one dispersoid-forming element selected from the group consisting of: up to about 1.6 wt. % manganese, up to about 0.2 wt. % zirconium, and up to about 0.3 w. % chromium; at least one nucleation-enhancing element for recrystallization selected from: up to about 1.0 wt. % silicon, up to about 1.5 wt. % copper, and combinations thereof. Said alloy product has greater than about 300% elongation at a strain rate of at least about 0.0003/sec and a superplastic forming temperature between about 1000-1100.degree. F. due, in part, to the preferred thermomechanical processing steps subsequently applied thereto. A related method of manufacture is also disclosed herein.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 28, 1997
    Date of Patent: May 16, 2000
    Assignee: Aluminum Company of America
    Inventors: Dhruba J. Chakrabarti, Roger D. Doherty
  • Patent number: 6056835
    Abstract: The present invention relates to a process for producing a superplastic aluminum alloy capable of being used for plastic working such as extrusion, forging and rolling. An object of the present invention is to provide an ingot-made high speed superplastic aluminum alloy in which superplasticity is developed at a strain rate higher than that of conventional static recrystallization type superplastic aluminum alloys, and a process for producing the same. The superplastic aluminum alloy of the invention has structure which is obtained by adding to a basic alloy containing from at least 4.0 to 15% by weight of Mg and from 0.1 to 1.0% by weight of one or more elements selected from the group consisting of Mm, Zr, V, W, Ti, Ni, Nb, Ca, Co, Mo and Ta, and further selective elements of Sc, Cu. Li, Sn, In and Cd, which contains from 0.1 to 4.0% by volume fraction of spheroidal precipitates of intermetallic compounds having a particle size from 10 to 200 nm, and which has a mean grain size from 0.1 to 10 .mu.m.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 25, 1994
    Date of Patent: May 2, 2000
    Assignee: Toyota Jidosha Kabushiki Kaisha
    Inventors: Yoshiharu Miyake, Tetsuya Suganuma
  • Patent number: 5620537
    Abstract: A method of superplastic extrusion is provided for fabricating large, complex-shaped, high strength metal alloy components, such as large, thin cross section, closed-box panels or integrally "T-stiffened" aircraft skin panels. Superplastic extrusion is similar to conventional extrusion except that strain rate and temperature are carefully controlled to keep an ultra-fine grain high strength metal alloy within the superplastic regime where deformation occurs through grain boundary sliding. A high strength, heat treatable metal alloy is first processed, such as by equal channel angular extrusion (ECAE), to have a uniform, equiaxed, ultra-fine grain size in thick section billet form. Temperature and strain rate are controlled during superplastic extrusion of the ultra-fine grained billet so that the stresses required for metal flow are much lower than those needed in conventional extrusion.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 28, 1995
    Date of Patent: April 15, 1997
    Assignee: Rockwell International Corporation
    Inventor: Clifford C. Bampton
  • Patent number: 5540791
    Abstract: An aluminum-alloy rolled sheet is cold preformed and then superplastically formed by: providing a composition which consists of from 2.0 to 8.0% of Mg, from 0.0001 to 0.01% of Be, and at least one element selected from the group consisting of from 0.3 to 2.5% of Mn, from 0.1 to 0.5% of Cr, from 0.1 to 0.5% of Zr, and from 0.1 to 0.5% of V, less than 0.2% of Fe as impurities, as well as aluminum and unavoidable impurities in balance; providing an unrecrystallized structure formed by annealing at a temperature of from 150.degree. to 240.degree. C. for 0.5 to 12 hours or at a temperature of from 250.degree. to 340.degree. C. for 0 to 5 minutes; providing draft of final cold-rolling amounting to 50% or more; and, providing 7% or more of elongation at normal temperature.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 24, 1994
    Date of Patent: July 30, 1996
    Assignee: Sky Aluminum Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Mamoru Matsuo, Tsutomu Tagata
  • Patent number: 5490885
    Abstract: A method of treating a blank of an aluminium base alloy comprising a combination of heat treatments and cold forming operations to produce a highly recovered semi-fabricated wrought product that is not statically recrystallized and that is inherently non-superplastic and is capable of superplastic deformation only after an initial non-superplastic deformation to achieve dynamic recrystallization.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 3, 1994
    Date of Patent: February 13, 1996
    Assignee: Alcan International Limited
    Inventors: William S. Miller, Roger Grimes
  • Patent number: 5456774
    Abstract: A thermo mechanical treatment method for providing super-plasticity to Al--Li alloy being a kind of light and high strength alloys. The thermo mechanical treatment method according the invention comprises steps of, homogenizing Al--Li alloy consisting of Al--Cu--Li--Mg--Zr at a temperature of 500.degree.-500.degree. C. for 10-30 hours, and controlled rolling the alloy at a temperature of 300.degree.-500.degree. C., a rolling speed of 2-20 m/min and a draft percentage per pass of 2-18%. The thermo mechanical treatment of the invention has a wide industrially applicable range and thus an excellent operation efficiency. The thermo mechanical treatment exhibits excellent super-plasticity at a higher strain speed as compared with known treatments.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 25, 1994
    Date of Patent: October 10, 1995
    Assignee: Korea Institute of Science and Technology
    Inventors: In Ge Moon, Jong Woo Park, Jae Eun Yoo
  • Patent number: 5447580
    Abstract: A method for heat treatment of nonferrous metals and alloys is described which comprises the steps of providing a billet of material comprising nonferrous metal or alloy; rapidly heating the billet to a temperature higher than the transus or solvus temperature of the material whereby a microstructure of uniform single phase grains is formed in a surface layer of preselected depth or other selected region in the billet with the starting microstructure of the material central of the billet; and cooling the billet to room temperature to preserve in the billet surface the high temperature single phase microstructure or a transformation product thereof.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 23, 1994
    Date of Patent: September 5, 1995
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the Secretary of the Air Force
    Inventors: Sheldon L. Semiatin, Douglas R. Barker
  • Patent number: 5419788
    Abstract: The present invention relates to a method for increasing the useful life of a shape memory alloy (SMA) actuator, wherein the SMA element contracts on heating and elongates on cooling under an applied stress and that property is used as an actuating technique. More specifically, the present invention relates to the cooling aspect of the cycle and maintaining a martensite strain on the actuator SMA element at less than about 3% by limiting the upper stress on the element. In the most preferred embodiment, the element is a ribbon actuator prepared from a nickel-titanium SMA alloy.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 10, 1993
    Date of Patent: May 30, 1995
    Assignee: Johnson Service Company
    Inventors: Paul E. Thoma, Ming-Yuan Kao, Dwight M. Schmitz
  • Patent number: 5413649
    Abstract: A method for inducing superplasticity in a composite including a non-transforming phase and a transforming phase by cycling the composite material through a phase transformation of the transforming phase while applying an external stress to the composite material is provided as is a method for inducing superplasticity in a titanium/titanium carbide composite. Also provided is a method for forming a part from a composite material including a transforming phase and a non-transforming phase by cycling the composite through a phase transformation of the transforming phase and shaping the composite material by applying an external stress to the composite material while the transforming phase is undergoing a phase transformation to form a finished article.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 29, 1993
    Date of Patent: May 9, 1995
    Assignee: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
    Inventors: David C. Dunand, Cynthia M. Bedell
  • Patent number: 5405462
    Abstract: A superplastic aluminum-based alloy material consisting of a matrix formed of aluminum or a supersaturated aluminum solid solution, whose average crystal grain size is 0.005 to 1 .mu.m, and particles made of a stable or metastable phase of various intermetallic compounds formed of the main alloying element (i.e., the matrix element) and the other alloying elements and/or of various intermetallic compounds formed of the other alloying elements and distributed evenly in the matrix, the particles having a mean particle size of 0.001 to 0.1 .mu.m. The superplastic aluminum-based alloy material is produced from a rapidly solidified material consisting of an amorphous phase, a microcrystalline phase or a mixed phase thereof by optionally heat treating at a prescribed temperature for a prescribed period of time and then subjecting to a single or combined thermo-mechanical treatment. The superplastic aluminum-based alloy material of the present invention is suited for to superplastic working.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 23, 1994
    Date of Patent: April 11, 1995
    Assignees: Tsuyoshi Masumoto, Akihisa Inoue, Kenji Higashi, Yoshida Kogyo K.K.
    Inventors: Tsuyoshi Masumoto, Akihisa Inoue, Kenji Higashi, Katsumasa Ohtera, Makoto Kawanishi
  • Patent number: 5358796
    Abstract: Composite parts of Ni-Ti alloys joined to a different metal have a melt forged structure obtained through the reactive fusion of both metals, initiated by the fusion of at least one metal bordering on the joint interface and the application of pressure; a hot forged structure of Ni-Ti alloy obtained through softening the alloy at high temperature and applying pressure on the Ni-Ti alloy side of the joint; and a hot forged structure of the different metal obtained by softening the metal at high temperature and applying pressure on the different metal side of the joint.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 15, 1993
    Date of Patent: October 25, 1994
    Assignees: The Furukawa Electric Co., Ltd., Masunaga Menlo Park Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Masayuki Nakamura, Kaisuke Shiroyama, Satoru Masunaga, Kazuo Murata
  • Patent number: 5332456
    Abstract: A superplastic aluminum-based alloy material consisting of a matrix formed of aluminum or a supersaturated aluminum solid solution, whose average crystal grain size is 0.005 to 1 .mu.m, and particles made of a stable or metastable phase of various intermetallic compounds formed of the main alloying element (i.e., the matrix element) and the other alloying elements and/or of various intermetallic compounds formed of the other alloying elements and distributed evenly in the matrix, the particles having a mean particle size of 0.001 to 0.1 .mu.m. The superplastic aluminum-based alloy material is produced from a rapidly solidified material consisting of an amorphous phase, a microcrystalline phase or a mixed phase thereof by optionally heat treating the material at a prescribed temperature for a prescribed period of time and then subjecting it to a single or combined thermomechanical treatment. The superplastic aluminum-based alloy material of the present invention is suited for superplastic working.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 25, 1992
    Date of Patent: July 26, 1994
    Assignees: Tsuyoshi Masumoto, Akihisa Inoue, Kenji Higashi, Yoshida Kogyo K.K.
    Inventors: Tsuyoshi Masumoto, Akihisa Inoue, Kenji Higashi, Katsumasa Ohtera, Makoto Kawanishi
  • Patent number: 5328530
    Abstract: A method for hot forging coarse grain materials to enhance hot workability and to refine microstructure is described which comprises the steps of imposing minimum initial deformation at low strain rate to effect initial dynamic recrystallization and grain refinement without fracture, and thereafter increasing the deformation rate to recrystallize the material and further refine grain structure. Depending on the deformation required to achieve full recrystallization at a given rate, deformation rate can be increased a number of times to further refine grain structure.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 7, 1993
    Date of Patent: July 12, 1994
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the Secretary of the Air Force
    Inventors: Sheldon L. Semiatin, Paul A. McQuay
  • Patent number: 5236525
    Abstract: Optimum strengthening of a superplastically formed aluminum-lithium alloy structure is achieved via a thermal processing technique which eliminates the conventional step of solution heat-treating immediately following the step of superplastic forming of the structure. The thermal processing technique involves quenching of the superplastically formed structure using static air, forced air or water quenching.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 3, 1992
    Date of Patent: August 17, 1993
    Assignee: Rockwell International Corporation
    Inventor: Claire E. Anton
  • Patent number: 5217548
    Abstract: A process for working .beta. titanium alloy comprises the steps of first elongating the alloy at a temperature not higher than a .beta. transus temperature and at a working ration of 30% or more. Next, conducting a subsequent aging treatment. Then, elongating the alloy at a temperature not higher than the aging treatment temperature and at a working ratio of 70% or more when combined with that in the first step for elongating. Then a recrystallization treatment is carried out at a treating temperature not higher than the .beta. transus temperature or isothermal working is carried out within a temperature range of the .beta. transus temperature minus 200.degree. C. to the .beta. transus.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 5, 1991
    Date of Patent: June 8, 1993
    Assignee: Seiko Instruments Inc.
    Inventors: Isao Kuboki, Kenzo Kato, Yutaka Wakabayashi
  • Patent number: 5215600
    Abstract: A sheet of Ti 6-2-2-2-2 alloy having a starting thickness of between approximately 0.040 inches and 0.187 inches is thermomechanically treated at a temperature of between approximately 1500 degrees F. and 1750 degrees F. at a mechanical strain rate in the range of between approximately 1.times.10.sup.-4 and 1.times.10.sup.-2 inch per inch per second to produce a formed part having a tensile strength which is approximately 33% greater than untreated rolled Ti 6-2-2-2-2 alloy sheet or plate.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 22, 1991
    Date of Patent: June 1, 1993
    Assignee: Rohr, Inc.
    Inventors: Mark S. Bertolini, Brian Norris, Michael J. Waring
  • Patent number: 5181969
    Abstract: Provided is a superplastic forming aluminum alloy in rolled form which exhibits superplasticity and has improved corrosion resistance, weldability, and strength and fatigue property after superplastic forming, eliminating a need for heat treatment after superplastic forming. Preferred alloys have an excellent outer appearance of grey to black color after anodization. The alloy consists essentially of, in % by weight, 2.0-8.0% of Mg, 0.3-1.5% of Mn, 0.0001-0.01% of Be, an optional element selected from C, V, and Zr, an optional grain refining agent of Ti or Ti and B, less than 0.2% of Fe and less than 0.1% of Si as impurities, and the balance of Al, wherein intermetallic compounds have a size of up to 20 .mu.m, and the content of hydrogen present is up to 0.35 cc/100 grams. Particularly when a minor amount of Ti or Ti and B grain refining agent is contained, Mn precipitates have a size of 0.05 .mu.m or larger, and the Si content in entire precipitates is less than 0.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 6, 1991
    Date of Patent: January 26, 1993
    Assignee: Sky Aluminum Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Toshio Komatsubara, Tsutomu Tagata, Mamoru Matsuo
  • Patent number: 5171374
    Abstract: A rapidly solidified aluminum base lithium containing alloy is subjected to at least one overaging treatment and a plurality of rolling passes. Upon completion of the process, the alloy is comprised of grains having an ultrafine grain size. A predominant number of the grains have grain boundaries pinned by the precipitation of Al.sub.3 Zr phase. The alloy has an elongation greater than 500% at temperature above about 500.degree. C. and a strain rate above about 4.times.10.sup.-2 /s.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 28, 1988
    Date of Patent: December 15, 1992
    Assignee: Allied-Signal Inc.
    Inventors: Nack J. Kim, Eui W. Lee
  • Patent number: 5135582
    Abstract: The present invention is directed to a method for producing a diaphragm for highly brittle metals used in loudspeakers, comprising a step of making a laminated plate by stacking a plate of superplastic material on a plate of highly brittle metal. The laminated plate is arranged on a mould, and the laminated plate is heated to a predetermined range of temperatures, determined according to the highly brittle metal. Subsequently, the laminated plate is deformed by pressuring the laminated plate in the mould, at the range of temperatures. Thus, a diaphragm can be formed from a plate of highly brittle metals, without causing brittle fracture or generating internal or surface defects.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 31, 1991
    Date of Patent: August 4, 1992
    Assignee: Yamaha Corporation
    Inventors: Osamu Mochizuki, Toshiharu Hoshi
  • Patent number: 5122196
    Abstract: The sheet metal which has recrystallized as fine grains and has superplastic characteristics consists of a work-hardenable, age-hardenable AlMgZn alloy. After continuous casting, the alloy containing 3-5.5% of magnesium, 2-8% of zinc, 0.4% of copper, 0-1% of manganese, 0-0.5% of iron, 0-0.4% of chromium, 0-0.4% of molybdenum, 0-0.4% of zirconium, 0-0.3% of silicon and 0-0.05% of titanium, the remainder being aluminium of commercial purity, is homogenized and rolled off hot. After an optional intermediate annealing, the strip is rolled off cold to the final thickness using a high degree of cold rolling, recrystallized, using rapid heating to effect softening, and cooled.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 4, 1991
    Date of Patent: June 16, 1992
    Assignee: Alusuisse-Lonza Services Ltd.
    Inventor: Philippe Fernandez
  • Patent number: 5078806
    Abstract: A complex part composed of rapidly solidified magnesium base metal alloy is produced by superplastic forming at a temperature ranging from 160.degree. C. to 275.degree. C. and at a rate ranging from 0.00021 m/sec to 0.00001 mm/sec, to improve the formability thereof and allow forming to be conducted at lower temperature. The rapidly solidified magnesium based alloy has a composition consisting essentially of the formula Mg.sub.bal Al.sub.a Zn.sub.b X.sub.c, wherein X is at least one element selected from the group consisting of manganese, cerium, neodymium, praseodymium and yttrium, "a" ranges from 0 to about 15 atom percent, "b" ranges from 0 to about 4 atom percent and "c" ranges from about 0.2 to 3 atom percent, the balance being magnesium and incidental impurities, with the proviso that the sum of aluminum and zinc present ranges from about 2 to 15 atom percent. Such an alloy contains fine grain size and finely dispersed magnesium-, aluminum- rare earth intermetallic phases.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 20, 1990
    Date of Patent: January 7, 1992
    Assignee: Allied-Signal, Inc.
    Inventors: Santosh K. Das, Chin-Fong Chang, Derek Raybould
  • Patent number: 5064478
    Abstract: A method for producing a selectively surface hardened cast iron part includes uniformly heating the surface of the part by immersion into a molten metallic bath until a desired thickness of surface austenite is produced, and thereafter quenching the heated cast iron part in a liquid quenching bath which is maintained at a temperature of between about 450.degree. to about 800.degree. F. for about 10 minutes to about 4 hours. The resultant selectively surface hardened cast iron part is surface hardened with the bulk of the body of the part remaining untempered. An apparatus for performing this process includes a molten metal bath chamber for containing the molten metal and a molten salt bath quenching chamber for quenching the cast iron parts with a conveyor means extending between the molten metal bath and the molten salt bath chambers. A second conveyor means removes the parts from the molten salt bath chamber.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 4, 1989
    Date of Patent: November 12, 1991
    Assignee: Applied Process
    Inventors: Bela V. Kovacs, John R. Keough, Douglas M. Pramstaller
  • Patent number: 5055257
    Abstract: Superplastic forming of aluminum work stock is improved by including therein about 0.05% to about 10% or 15% scandium together with up to 0.2 or 0.25% zirconium. In preferred practices, soluble elements such as magnesium are also included in the aluminum alloy. One or more of the elements from the group of scandium, yttrium, gadolinium, holminum, dysprosium, erbium, ytterbium, lutetium, and terbium, may be included in addition to or in lieu of scandium. Heat treatable aluminum alloys such as 7XXX alloys and 2XXX alloys can be made superplastic by including scandium and zirconium to provide very high strength in superplastically formed products.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 29, 1989
    Date of Patent: October 8, 1991
    Assignee: Aluminum Company of America
    Inventors: Dhruba J. Chakrabarti, James T. Staley, Stephen F. Baumann, Ralph R. Sawtell, Philip E. Bretz, Craig L. Jensen
  • Patent number: 5055143
    Abstract: A superplastically formed and diffusion bonded structure formed with two or more sheets and upset forging the material at the perimeter to provide the expulsive material between the inner most sheets so as to close the entrance angle formed between the expanded sheets at the line where the surfaces of the split forming fixture engage and the method of producing this structure. The upset forged material insures the structural integrity of the outside perimeter structure after removal of the flange which is normally present as a result of the holding fixture.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 26, 1990
    Date of Patent: October 8, 1991
    Assignee: McDonnell Douglas Corporation
    Inventors: Max R. Runyan, Carolyn Salmon, Scott D. Silliman
  • Patent number: 5053084
    Abstract: The present invention provides high-strength, heat resistant aluminum alloys having a composition represented by the general formula:Al.sub.a M.sub.b X.sub.d or Al.sub.a M.sub.b Q.sub.c X.sub.e(wherein M is at least one metal element selected from the group consisting of Cu, Ni, Co and Fe; Q is at least one metal element selected from the group consisting Mn, Cr, Mo, W, V, Ti and Zr; X is at least one metal element selected from the group consisting of Nb, Ta, Hf and Y; and a, b, c, d and e are atomic percentages falling within the following ranges: 45.ltoreq.a.ltoreq.90, 5.ltoreq.b.ltoreq.40, 0<c.ltoreq.12, 0.5.ltoreq.d.ltoreq.15 and 0.5.ltoreq.e.ltoreq.10, the aluminum alloy containing at least 50% by volume of amorphous phase.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 30, 1990
    Date of Patent: October 1, 1991
    Assignees: Yoshida Kogyo K.K., Tsuyoshi Masumoto
    Inventors: Tsuyoshi Masumoto, Akihisa Inoue, Katsumasa Odera, Masahiro Oguchi
  • Patent number: 5019183
    Abstract: A process for enhancing the physical properties of superplastically formed and solution heat treated Aluminum-Lithium workpieces entails stretching near-net parts by from 2 to 10 percent at a specified temperature, followed by controlled aging.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 25, 1989
    Date of Patent: May 28, 1991
    Assignee: Rockwell International Corporation
    Inventor: Gardner R. Martin
  • Patent number: 4992110
    Abstract: A method is provided for producing a wrought aluminum eutectic composite characterized by improved physical properties. The method resides in forming a casting of an aluminum alloy characterized metallographically by the presence of a eutectic structure, and then heat treating the casting at a temperature related to the eutectic-forming temperature of said alloy casting, that is just below its incipient melting point. The heat treatment is continued for a time at least sufficient to convert the morphology of the eutectic to dispersed fine particles of reinforcing phase(s), following which the alloy is physically worked to reduce the cross section thereof and provide a wrought aluminum eutectic composite characterized by improved physical properties.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 9, 1989
    Date of Patent: February 12, 1991
    Inventors: John M. Tartaglia, Thomas B. Cox, Daniel J. Adenis
  • Patent number: 4952331
    Abstract: Composite magnetic compacts having good conductivity and excellent mechanical and magnetic properties and their forming methods. The composite magnetic compacts are basically made by forming mixtures consisting essentially of 1 to 50 percent by weight of a magnetic powder and the remaining percentage of a powder of superplastic Zn-22A1 alloy. A drop in the strength of the compacts that occurs when the mixing percentage of the magnetic powder increases is made up for by the impregration of plastic in the compacts or the simpler addition of a plastic power to the mixture of the powders of magnetic material and superplastic Zn-22A1 alloy. The forming methods of the composite magnetic compacts are carried out at different temperatures and under different conditions depending on the composition of the powder mixtures and so on.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 16, 1987
    Date of Patent: August 28, 1990
    Assignee: Agency of Industrial Science and Technology
    Inventors: Kunio Okimoto, Tomio Sato, Toshio Yamakawa, Nanao Horiishi
  • Patent number: 4943326
    Abstract: An ornament is disclosed, which is characterized in that a metallic alloy wire provided with a characteristic to show the superelastic effect at room temperature by making the metallic texture Austenite phase is overlapped on both ends and formed into an approximately circular ring shape to form a wound ring. A method of manufacturing the same claimed is that a prime wire of Ni--Ti type alloy is submitted to the cold processing rating from 20 to 50% to form a round or angular wire rod, said wire rod is wound up around a stick or pipe with a fixed outer diameter and submitted to the heat treatment at 300.degree. to 600.degree. C. under restraint of both ends of wire rod to form a wound ring of approximately circular ring shape and simultaneously the superelastic effect is given to said ring at room temperature by making the metallic texture thereof Austenite phase.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 20, 1988
    Date of Patent: July 24, 1990
    Assignees: The Furukawa Electric Co., Ltd., Yamaguchi Pearl, Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Kazuhiro Ozawa, Etsuo Nakajima, Isao Yamaguchi
  • Patent number: 4938809
    Abstract: A complex part composed of rapidly solidified magnesium base metal alloy is produced by superplastic forming at a temperature ranging from 160.degree. C. to 275.degree. C. and at a rate ranging from 0.00021 m/sec. to 0.00001 m/sec., to improve the formability thereof and allow forming to be conducted at lower temperatures. The rapidly solidified magnesium based alloy has a composition consisting essentially of the formula Mg.sub.bal Al.sub.a Zn.sub.b X.sub.c, wherein X is at least one element selected from the group consisting of manganese, cerium, neodymium, praseodymium and yttrium, "a" range from 0 to about 15 atom percent, "b" ranges from 0 to about 4 atom percent and "c" ranges from about 0.2 to 3 atom percent, the balance being magnesium and incidental impurities, with the proviso that the sum of aluminum and zinc present ranges from about 2 to 15 atom percent. Such an alloy contains fine grain size and finely dispersed magnesium-, aluminum- rare earth intermetallic phases.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 23, 1988
    Date of Patent: July 3, 1990
    Assignee: Allied-Signal Inc.
    Inventors: Santosh K. Das, Chin-Fong Chang, Derek Raybould
  • Patent number: 4935069
    Abstract: An hard ornamental alloy can be obtained by subjecting a nickel-base alloy to cold working, warm working or both workings at a working reduction of 35% or above and then subjecting it to hot working at 800.degree. to 1000.degree. C. and at a strain rate of from 10.sup.-5 S.sup.-1 to 10.degree.S.sup.-1.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 7, 1988
    Date of Patent: June 19, 1990
    Assignee: Seiko Instruments Inc.
    Inventors: Isao Kuboki, Kenzo Kato, Shunji Watanabe
  • Patent number: 4935068
    Abstract: A method of treating a sample of an alloy which is capable of transforming between martensitic and austenitic phases, to render the alloy pseudoelastic, the method comprising:(a) annealing the alloy at a temperature which is greater than the stress relaxation temperature (T.sub.SR) of the alloy and less than the temperature at which the alloy is fully recrystallized (T.sub.x); and(b) deforming the sample at a temperature which is greater than about the maximum temperature at which the alloy can be made to transform from its austenitic phase to its martensitic phase by the application of stress (M.sub.d), and less than the stress relaxation temperature.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 23, 1989
    Date of Patent: June 19, 1990
    Assignee: Raychem Corporation
    Inventor: Thomas W. Duerig
  • Patent number: 4874578
    Abstract: An aluminium alloy suitable as a material for superplastic forming contains0.8-2.5% or iron,3.5-6.0% of magnesium,0.1-0.6% of manganese,0.05-0.5% of zirconium,at most 6.0% of zinc,at most 3.0% of copper,at most 0.3% of silicon,at most 0.05% of titanium andat most 0.05% of chromium,the remainder being aluminium of commercial purity.The alloy can be processed to give superplastically formable sheets without separate thermomechanical pretreatment.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 20, 1988
    Date of Patent: October 17, 1989
    Assignee: Swiss Aluminium Ltd.
    Inventors: Heinrich Homberger, Jurgen Timm, Pedro Rodriques
  • Patent number: 4874440
    Abstract: Superplastic forming of aluminum work stock is improved by including therein about 0.05% to about 10% or 15% scandium. In preferred practices, soluble elements such as magnesium are also included in the aluminum alloy. One or more of the elements from the group of scandium, yttrium, gadolinium, holminum, dysprosium, erbium, ytterbium, lutetium, and terbium, may be included in addition to or in lieu of scandium.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 14, 1987
    Date of Patent: October 17, 1989
    Assignee: Aluminum Company of America
    Inventors: Ralph R. Sawtell, Philip E. Bretz, Craig L. Jensen
  • Patent number: 4867807
    Abstract: A high-strength low-ductility material is formed by a method which comprises treating a bulk or powder of the material thereby converting coarse grains thereof into hyperfine grains capable of manifesting superplasticity when the strain rate is higher than 5.times.10.sup.-3 s.sup.-1, enclosing the treated material with a metallic insulating member, heating the material to a temperature for manifestation of superplasticity, and forging the material by the use of a die in a state heated to a temperature beyond which the die yields to heat.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 5, 1986
    Date of Patent: September 19, 1989
    Assignee: Agency of Industrial Science & Technology, Ministry of International Trade & Industry
    Inventors: Yasunori Torisaka, Masahito Katoh, Yoshinori Nakawawa
  • Patent number: 4867805
    Abstract: Improved superplastic aluminum alloys are formulated to contain less than 0.05 weight percent each of iron and silicon based on the total weight of the superplastic aluminum alloy. Advantageously these two elements are present at levels of 0.03 weight percent or below, preferably 0.01 weight percent or below. Advantageous superplastic forming properties are achieved with these low iron, low silicon alloys. Further advantageous superplastic forming properties are achieved by subjecting aluminum alloys to a thermomechanical treatment followed by a rapid recrystallization-anneal treatment as, for instance, a recrystallization-anneal treatment utilizing a molten salt bath. When these formulations and processes are practiced alone, in combination with each other or together with cavitation supression improvements in superplastic forming of component parts are achieved.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 3, 1988
    Date of Patent: September 19, 1989
    Inventors: Suphal P. Agrawal, Bennie R. Ward
  • Patent number: 4861391
    Abstract: A method for thermally treating an article made from an aluminum alloy having a first temperature at which solute atoms cluster to yield nuclei for the formation and growth of strengthening precipitates, and a second higher temperature at which the strengthening precipitates dissolve. The method comprises: heating the article to allow substantially all soluble alloy components to enter into solution; rapidly cooling the article in a quenching medium; and precipitation hardening the article by aging at or below the first temperature for a few hours to several months; then aging above the first temperature and below the second temperature until desired strength is achieved. A method for imparting improved combinations of strength and fracture toughness to a solution heat treated-article which includes an aluminum-lithium alloy is also disclosed. This method comprises aging the article at one or more temperatures at or below a first temperature of about 93.degree. C. (200.degree. F.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 14, 1987
    Date of Patent: August 29, 1989
    Assignee: Aluminum Company of America
    Inventors: Roberto J. Rioja, Edward L. Colvin, Asuri K. Vasudevan, Brian A. Cheney
  • Patent number: 4849032
    Abstract: An orthodontic coil spring is made of a shape-memory alloy wire which is wound into a coil and heat treated into a superelastic state. The coil spring imparts a predetermined spring force within a superelastic zone of deflection.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 17, 1988
    Date of Patent: July 18, 1989
    Assignee: Tomy, Inc.
    Inventor: Kozo Kawaguchi
  • Patent number: 4830682
    Abstract: A process for improving the properties of an aluminum-lithium product formed from a slab, such as an ingot or billet, of an aluminum-lithium alloy. Improved properties include superplastic response, reduced edge cracking during rolling, and reduced formation of stains during annealing. The process includes heating the slab to an elevated temperature to solutionize its soluble constituents, holding the slab at the elevated temperature to allow its soluble constituents to go into solution, cooling the slab to a rolling initiation temperature above about 650.degree. F. (343.degree. C.), and hot/warm rolling the slab to a desired gauge.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 25, 1988
    Date of Patent: May 16, 1989
    Assignee: Reynolds Metals Company
    Inventors: Richard F. Ashton, Bennie R. Ward
  • Patent number: 4814025
    Abstract: A method for improving mechanical properties of superplastically formed alloy by healing the cavities formed as result of a superplastic forming process is disclosed. The alloy, such as an aluminum alloy, is superplastically formed and is then placed in an autoclave and hot isostatically pressed at a pressure ranging from about 10,000 psi to 30,000 psi for a time and temperature sufficient to heal cavities.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 4, 1988
    Date of Patent: March 21, 1989
    Assignee: Northrop Corporation
    Inventors: Suphal P. Agrawal, Gregory V. Scarich
  • Patent number: 4811766
    Abstract: A method of superplastically forming aluminum alloy composites employs explosive bonding to produce strong, consistent bonds and annealing treatment to produce a fine microstructure in the bonded alloy sheets. The bonded alloy sheets having the fine microstructure can then be formed by superplastic methods to produce complex parts and structural elements.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 8, 1987
    Date of Patent: March 14, 1989
    Assignee: McDonnell Douglas Corporation
    Inventors: Shankar M. Sastry, Richard J. Lederich
  • Patent number: 4806305
    Abstract: Disclosed is a series of silicon rich nickel-base alloys that have a high degree of ductility and hot working properties. The alloys have the corrosion resistant characteristics comparable to cast HASTELLOY.RTM. alloy D (Ni - 9 Si - 3 Cu). The alloys have good tensile strength at temperatures up to 600.degree. C. comparing favorably with Alloy IN 718. In addition, the alloys may be produced by super plastic forming (isothermal forging). The nickel-base alloy typically contains 7 to 14% silicon, 0.5 to 6% vanadium, plus a number of optional modifying elements.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 1, 1987
    Date of Patent: February 21, 1989
    Assignee: Haynes International, Inc.
    Inventor: Warren C. Oliver
  • Patent number: 4797164
    Abstract: In a process for manufacturing a fine-grained recrystallized sheet of heat-treatable i.e. age-hardenable aluminum alloy containing an addition of at least one of the elements Ti, Zr, Hf, V, Nb, Ta, Cr, Mo, W amounting in total to 0.08-1.50%, the alloy is brought into a condition A in which the alloying elements that lead to age-hardening and the above mentioned additive elements are, at least for the greater part, in solid solution, following which in step B the incoherent hardening phases are precipitated out in a temperature range between the solvus T.sub.gps and the solvus T.sub.s, and in a subsequent step C the aluminides of the above mentioned elements are precipitated as a very dense uniform dispersion by heating in a temperature range between 300.degree. C. and T.sub.s -30.degree. C., whereby any deformation by rolling may take place between condition A and step C at temperatures not higher than T.sub.s -30.degree. C., and in which process the temperature of the sheet below a thickness or 2.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 22, 1987
    Date of Patent: January 10, 1989
    Assignee: Swiss Aluminum Ltd.
    Inventors: Gunter Hollrigl, Pedro Rodrigues
  • Patent number: 4770848
    Abstract: A rapidly-solidified aluminum alloy powder having a nominal composition of 7% Zn, 2.5% Mg, 2% Cu, 0.3% Zr, and 0.3% Cr is used to make a high forming-rate, superplastic, high-strength aluminum alloy. The powder is outgassed, consolidated, and extruded, thereby developing a wide range of particle size distribution of dispersoids in the process, containing respectively zirconium and chromium dispersoids, as well as age hardening precipitates. The consolidated powder is then rolled to 85% reduction to provide a sheet material which is superplastically formed at a temperature in the range of 450.degree. C. to 490.degree. C. and at a rate between 5.times.10.sup.-3 to 5.times.10.sup.-2 per second.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 17, 1987
    Date of Patent: September 13, 1988
    Assignee: Rockwell International Corporation
    Inventors: Amit K. Ghosh, Chimata Gandhi
  • Patent number: 4747884
    Abstract: Novel Al-Li-Zr alloys of the formula Al.sub.bal Li.sub.b Zr.sub.c wherein "b" is about 1.9 through about 4.5 weight percent and "c" is about 0.70 through about 4.0 weight percent are disclosed. These alloys can be formed by mixing Al alloy, Li alloy and Zr alloy, heating to high temperatures and rapidly cooling, followed by heat treatment.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 3, 1985
    Date of Patent: May 31, 1988
    Assignee: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
    Inventors: Frank W. Gayle, John B. Vander Sande
  • Patent number: 4731129
    Abstract: A zinc/aluminum alloy feedstock containing 18-30% by weight Al, 0.003-0.2% by wt. Mg, 0.5-2.5% by wt. Cu, 0.02-0.5% by wt. Fe, 0-0.1% by wt. Si, Zn balance (including any impurities) is capable of achieving high plasticity at temperatures of 240.degree. C. or above after being subjected to a multistage heat treatment including an extrusion step.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 22, 1986
    Date of Patent: March 15, 1988
    Assignee: BNF Metals Technology Centre
    Inventor: Charles G. Purnell
  • Patent number: 4722754
    Abstract: Superplastically formable aluminum alloys and composite materials are prepared from rapidly solidified, coarse aluminum powder of a precipitation hardenable alloy, processed to have a low oxide and contaminant content. The powder is mixed, together with reinforcement in the case of the composite material, and then consolidated and extruded at a high extrusion ratio to promote microstructural uniformity and to break up the surface oxide present on the particles. The extrusion is then thermomechanically processed to impart a recrystallized fine-grain aluminum microstructure which is suitable for use in superplastic forming. The unreinforced powder alloy exhibits uniform elongations of over 800 percent at a strain rate of 2.times.10.sup.-4 per second, and a composite having 0.10 volume fraction silicon carbide reinforcement exhibits uniform elongations of over 450 percent at the same strain rate.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 10, 1986
    Date of Patent: February 2, 1988
    Assignee: Rockwell International Corporation
    Inventors: Amit K. Ghosh, Murray W. Mahoney