Including Means Separating And Conveying Crystals To A Melting Zone Patents (Class 422/251)
  • Publication number: 20120108857
    Abstract: PROBLEM An object of the present invention is to provide a crystallization unit capable of producing a purified acrylic acid having high purity efficiently. SOLUTION The present invention provides a crystallization unit to separate an acrylic acid-containing solution into a mother liquid and a purified acrylic acid, wherein the crystallization unit comprises a crystallizer having an exit to take out the mother liquid and the purified acrylic acid alternately; a supply line to supply the acrylic acid-containing solution to the crystallizer; and a recovery line to recover the mother liquid and the purified acrylic acid alternately from the crystallizer which is connected to the exit, and wherein the recovery line is equipped with an opening and closing unit consisting of a ball valve or a gate valve.
    Type: Application
    Filed: June 24, 2010
    Publication date: May 3, 2012
    Inventors: Kazuhiko Sakamoto, Koji Ueno, Yoshitake Ishii, Masatsugu Kitaura
  • Publication number: 20110166368
    Abstract: A process for recovering solid reaction products during partial oxidation of hydrocarbons in a liquid solvent as a reaction medium by multi-stage evaporative crystallization includes determining a final temperature of the multi-stage evaporative crystallization based on a melting point of the solvent. The pressure and temperature of the solvent is reduced in steps via successive crystallization stages until the final temperature is reached. Each of the crystallization stages includes a compressor configured to perform the reducing of the pressure and to withdraw vapors formed. The vapors from the compressor of a lower expansion pressure crystallization stage are introduced into a vapor discharge conduit of a next successive higher expansion pressure crystallization stage upstream of the compressor of the higher expansion pressure crystallization stage.
    Type: Application
    Filed: August 13, 2009
    Publication date: July 7, 2011
    Applicant: LURGI GMBH
    Inventors: Thomas Gutermuth, Robert Szabo
  • Patent number: 7915152
    Abstract: A boule formed by high rate vapor phase growth of Group III-V nitride boules (ingots) on native nitride seeds, from which wafers may be derived for fabrication of microelectronic device structures. The boule is of microelectronic device quality, e.g., having a transverse dimension greater than 1 centimeter, a length greater than 1 millimeter, and a top surface defect density of less than 107 defects cm?2. The Group III-V nitride boule may be formed by growing a Group III-V nitride material on a corresponding native Group III-V nitride seed crystal by vapor phase epitaxy at a growth rate above 20 micrometers per hour. Nuclear transmutation doping may be applied to an (Al,Ga,In)N article comprises a boule, wafer, or epitaxial layer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 2, 2010
    Date of Patent: March 29, 2011
    Assignee: Cree, Inc.
    Inventors: Robert P. Vaudo, Jeffrey S. Flynn, George R. Brandes, Joan M. Redwing, Michael A. Tischler
  • Patent number: 7815732
    Abstract: The invention relates to a device for the partial crystallization of a phase in a solution, comprising at least one pump for circulation of the solution in a circuit of a heat exchanger formed from at least one tube in contact with a cooling circuit, characterized in that the circuit of the exchanger includes static means to mix the solution, so that the crystallized particles of the phase are continuously mixed with the solution during the circulation of said solution. The invention also relates to an assembly including several devices according to the invention or several parts of such a device. The invention also relates to a method to use such a device.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 5, 2005
    Date of Patent: October 19, 2010
    Assignee: Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS)
    Inventor: Alain Michel Daniel Le Bail
  • Patent number: 7655197
    Abstract: A boule formed by high rate vapor phase growth of Group III-V nitride boules (ingots) on native nitride seeds, from which wafers may be derived for fabrication of microelectronic device structures. The boule is of microelectronic device quality, e.g., having a transverse dimension greater than 1 centimeter, a length greater than 1 millimeter, and a top surface defect density of less than 107 defects cm?2. The Group III-V nitride boule may be formed by growing a Group III-V nitride material on a corresponding native Group III-V nitride seed crystal by vapor phase epitaxy at a growth rate above 20 micrometers per hour.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 19, 2003
    Date of Patent: February 2, 2010
    Assignee: Cree, Inc.
    Inventors: Robert P. Vaudo, Jeffrey S. Flynn, George R. Brandes, Joan M. Redwing, Michael A. Tischler
  • Patent number: 7179435
    Abstract: The invention relates to an apparatus for the purification of a substance from a solution, a suspension or a mixture of liquids by crystallization, preferably in a continuous manner. The apparatus comprises a first crystallizer (1c) comprising an input (1) for receiving a liquid comprising the substance and an output (4) for discharging a slurry of liquid and crystals. The apparatus comprises also a first separator (1s) connected to the output 4 of the first crystallizer (1c) having a product output (2), and being with a residue output (5) connected to an input of a second crystallizer (2c), and a second separator (2s) being with an input connected to an output (6) of the second crystallizer (2c), a crystal output (7) of the second separator (2s) being connected to an input of the first crystallizer (1c).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 10, 2003
    Date of Patent: February 20, 2007
    Assignee: Niro Process Technology B.V.
    Inventors: Ray Sircy Ruemekorf, Reinhard Uwe Scholz
  • Patent number: 6916455
    Abstract: A kit for prescreening protein concentration for crystallization includes a multiplicity of vials, a multiplicity of pre-selected reagents, and a multiplicity of sample plates. The reagents and a corresponding multiplicity of samples of the protein in solutions of varying concentrations are placed on sample plates. The sample plates containing the reagents and samples are incubated. After incubation the sample plates are examined to determine which of the sample concentrations are too low and which the sample concentrations are too high. The sample concentrations that are optimal for protein crystallization are selected and used.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 14, 2002
    Date of Patent: July 12, 2005
    Assignee: The Regents of the University of California
    Inventors: Brent W. Segelke, Heike I. Krupka, Bernhard Rupp
  • Patent number: 6767520
    Abstract: A system for the solid phase polymerization of polymers wherein cold amorphous polymer is introduced to one or more crystallizers and heated to crystallize the polymer. The crystallized polymer is discharged to a reactor for polymerization of the polymer, and the hot polymer product of the reactor is discharged to a fluid bed cooler. The fluid bed cooler includes an inlet for the hot polymer and inlets for the gas used for agitating the polymer. Outlets for the polymer and for the off-gas are also provided. At least one spray nozzle is located in the cooler at a position adjacent the upper level of the polymer and water is introduced through the nozzle for contact with the polymer to achieve cooling of the polymer as a result of the vaporization of the water.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 22, 2001
    Date of Patent: July 27, 2004
    Assignee: Hosokawa Bepex Corporation
    Inventor: Ilya Pikus
  • Patent number: 6703479
    Abstract: A process and apparatus is disclosed for heating or cooling polymer solids in a dispensing section of a solid-state polycondensation reactor. Gas is delivered to the dispensing section of the reactor in which it cools polymer solids in the dispensing section by direct heat exchange. Part of the gas is withdrawn at a point proximate to the dispensing section of the reactor and is cooled. The rest of the gas ascends through a reactive section of the reactor and purges polymer solids of impurities. The gas withdrawn from the reactive section of the reactor is oxidized of impurities and dried and then combined with the gas withdrawn proximate to the dispensing section of the reactor. To achieve uniform heating or cooling of the polymer solids in the dispensing section, a preferred ratio of mass flow rate of gas to the mass flow rate of solids is recommended.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 3, 2001
    Date of Patent: March 9, 2004
    Assignee: UOP LLC
    Inventors: James F. McGehee, Giuseppina R. Boveri, Paul A. Sechrist
  • Patent number: 6355218
    Abstract: A crystallizer comprising an elongate housing with a drivable shaft extending in the longitudinal direction of the housing, at least one cooling element being placed astride on the shaft, which cooling element to that end has a slotted recess, the cooling element being swept clean by a sweeping element rotating along with the shaft.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 10, 2000
    Date of Patent: March 12, 2002
    Assignee: Goudsche Machinefabriek B.V.
    Inventors: Rene Jan Zorge, Albertus Nicolaas De Moet, Theodorus Gijsbertus Ravensberg
  • Patent number: 6315967
    Abstract: A process for crystallizing a thermoplastic preform or container which utilizes a preheated plug to provide the sole upright support for a workpiece in the crystallizing process. The preheated plug aids in the crystallization process by applying heat to the interior surface of the finish area while heat is also applied to the exterior surface of the finish area to crystallize the finish area. The thermoplastic preform or container is then cooled and removed from the plug.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 13, 2000
    Date of Patent: November 13, 2001
    Assignee: Schmalbach-Lubeca AG
    Inventors: Terry C. Potter, Peter J. Hatas, Liguo Zhao, Timothy J. Boyd, Brian C. McPike
  • Patent number: 6310239
    Abstract: This invention relates to a process for manufacturing terephthalic acid and more particularly, to a process for manufacturing and recovering the highly purified terephthalic acid, in accordance with the practice of this invention comprising the following procedurses: alkali weight-reduction waste water discharged from weight-reduction process in a polyester textile dyeing complex is dissolved in water, adsorbed to remove impurities, and through acid-neutralization, terephthalic acid of this invention may be obtained.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 29, 1998
    Date of Patent: October 30, 2001
    Assignee: Sunkyong Industries Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Hang-Duk Roh, Dongmok Bae
  • Patent number: 6139811
    Abstract: A new EFG (Edge-defined Film-fed Growth) crucible/die configuration is provided which (a) overcomes the tendency for silicon feed material to form a solid mass near the center hub region in the hot-zone during the crystal growth and (b) prevent the crucible/die unit from fracturing its supporting susceptor during cool-down.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 25, 1999
    Date of Patent: October 31, 2000
    Assignee: ASE Americas, Inc.
    Inventors: Jeffrey X. Cao, Robert M. Giancola, Charles G. Caprini, David Garcia
  • Patent number: 6080374
    Abstract: An apparatus for performing centrifugal crystallization of organics, which unifies all the individual steps for the removal of impurities into a single operation. The apparatus consists of two coaxial rotors and stationary parts. A crystallizable feed stock is mixed under pressure with a suitable refrigerating solvent and injected into a rotating liquid ring of the process materials. A faster drum-shaped outer rotor rotates the process materials while a slower frame-shaped inner rotor distributes the combined feed, collects refined product and recycles crystal fines as seeds. Advantage is taken of the centrifugal force and of the radial pressure gradient for gradual adiabatic evaporation of the solvent and simultaneous crystallization of the substance to be purified, as well as for the separation of phases, counter-current crystal washing with its own melt, followed by product melting by external heat, and withdrawal of a product from the apparatus.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 14, 1998
    Date of Patent: June 27, 2000
    Inventor: Vratislav Nenicka
  • Patent number: 5961935
    Abstract: A method and apparatus for purifying crude terephthalic acid from a liquid dispersion thereof also containing impurities selected from unreacted starting materials, solvents, products of side reactions and/or other undesired materials is provided. The method comprises the steps of filtering the dispersion to form a crude terephthalic acid filter cake, dissolving the filter cake in a selective crystallization solvent at an elevated temperature to form a solution, crystallizing purified terephthalic acid from the solution in the crystallization solvent by reducing the temperature of the solution, and separating the crystallized purified terephthalic acid from the solution. According to the invention, the selective crystallization solvent is non-aqueous, non-corrosive and essentially non-reactive with terephthalic acid. Preferably, the selective crystallization solvent is N-methyl pyrrolidone.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 7, 1998
    Date of Patent: October 5, 1999
    Assignee: HFM International, Inc.
    Inventors: Fu-Ming Lee, Wei-Teh Wade Shang
  • Patent number: 5830418
    Abstract: A flowable material, such as a supercooled melt or supersaturated solution, is dispensed onto a take-up member such as a belt or drum. Either prior to, or after being dispensed onto the take-up member, the material is exposed to ultrasound to promote the crystallization of solid substances in the material. All of the material or only a portion of the material can be exposed to ultrasound. If only a portion is exposed, it is later combined with the rest of the material prior to being dispensed onto the take-up member.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 15, 1996
    Date of Patent: November 3, 1998
    Assignee: Santrade Ltd.
    Inventors: Axel Konig, Joachim Ulrich
  • Patent number: 5700435
    Abstract: The crystalliser (70) has an inlet (77) for the crystal medium to be fractionated and an outlet (84) from which the mother liquor followed by the molten crystals can be withdrawn at the end of the crystallisation process. During the crystallisation process, a number of tubes (75) closed at the top can be supplied from above with a trickling film of liquid mixture. The tubes are internally supplied with a trickling film of a liquid heat exchange medium used for cooling. The liquid heat exchange medium is supplied via a riser (87), and a medium distributor (92) guides the flow of medium heat exchange under the distribution tray (81). The pressure of the evaporating coolant in the medium chamber (80), to which the inner space of the tubes also belongs, is controlled, thus controlling the temperature of the wall of the tubes where crystallisation takes place. In order to melt the crystals, gaseous heat exchange medium is introduced through a spigot (96) into the crystalliser under controlled pressure.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 4, 1995
    Date of Patent: December 23, 1997
    Assignee: Sulzer Chemtech AG
    Inventor: Rudolf Bischof
  • Patent number: 5662870
    Abstract: A system for the solid phase polymerization of polymers wherein cold amorphous polymer is introduced to a crystallizer and heated to crystallize the polymer, the crystallized polymer is discharged to a reactor to achieve polymerization of the polymer, and the hot polymer product of the reactor is discharged to a fluid bed cooler for cooling of the polymerized product. The fluid bed cooler includes an inlet for the hot polymer and an inlet for the cooling gas, and the cooled polymer and the heated gas are discharged from the cooler after contact of the gas with the polymer. The cooler includes a bed portion through which the polymer moves while in contact with the cooling gas, and an upper chamber which collects the heated gas.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 27, 1995
    Date of Patent: September 2, 1997
    Assignee: Hosokawa Bepex Corporation
    Inventor: John J. Walsh
  • Patent number: 5593496
    Abstract: A surface-cooled fluid bed crystallizer apparatus and method are disclosed wherein submerged heat exchanger surfaces (typically heat exchanger tubes or plates through which a coolant is passed) are bathed with a stream of gas bubbles (preferably air). The gas bubbles increase localized velocity at the heat exchanger surfaces, improves heat transfer, reduces crystallization on the heat exchanger surfaces and gently keeps the crystals in suspension, thereby avoiding unwanted nucleation as is characterized by the use of mechanical circulation devices. By continuously removing the depleted magma and crystals, the crystallizer can be operated in a continuous mode.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 2, 1995
    Date of Patent: January 14, 1997
    Assignee: Swenson Process Equipment, Inc.
    Inventor: Martin B. Schranz
  • Patent number: 5523064
    Abstract: A surface-cooled fluid bed crystallizer apparatus and method are disclosed wherein submerged heat exchanger surfaces (typically heat exchanger tubes or plates through which a coolant is passed) are bathed with a stream of gas bubbles (preferably air). The gas bubbles increase localized velocity at the heat exchanger surfaces, improves heat transfer, reduces crystallization on the heat exchanger surfaces and gently keeps the crystals in suspension, thereby avoiding unwanted nucleation as is characterized by the use of mechanical circulation devices. By continuously removing the depleted magma and crystals, the crystallizer can be operated in a continuous mode.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 2, 1994
    Date of Patent: June 4, 1996
    Assignee: Swenson Process Equipment, Inc., a Delaware Corp.
    Inventor: Martin B. Schranz
  • Patent number: 5500189
    Abstract: Adiabatic self-evaporation cooling of a refrigerant is performed in a crystallizer for a treated organic matter which contains the refrigerant and is fed into the crystallizer. Crystals produced by the adiabatic self-evaporation cooling are withdrawn from the crystallize. An evaporated vapor is introduced from the crystallizer into an absorber so as to be contacted with a concentrated solution transformed from a generator for condensation in the absorber. A condensate is introduced from the absorber into the generator, the refrigerant is evaporated in the generator, an evaporated vapor is introduced from the generator to the condenser, the evaporated vapor is condensed in the condenser, a condensate is supplied from the condenser to the crystallizer and the concentrated solution is circulated between the absorber and the generator by returning the concentrated solution, in which the concentration of an absorbent is increased by the generator to the absorber.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 6, 1995
    Date of Patent: March 19, 1996
    Assignee: Tsukishima Kikai Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Minoru Morita, Keizo Takegami
  • Patent number: 5338519
    Abstract: A process is provided for the separation of substances by melt crystallization. The organic mixtures which are difficult to crystallize are heated to a temperature sufficient to obtain a melt with the melt then being moved through a three-dimensional crystallization matrix having a large specific area. The melt is slowly cooled over a temperature range so as to achieve a selective crystallization from the supersaturated melt in the carrier matrix. A deposited crystal phase is thereafter melted and separated from the carrier matrix and removed by centrifugation. The carrier matrix may have a crystallization-promoting microstructure surface and may consist of an openpored foam.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 24, 1993
    Date of Patent: August 16, 1994
    Assignee: Sulzer Brothers Limited
    Inventors: Slobodan Jancic, Evangelos Sakellariou
  • Patent number: 5230769
    Abstract: A process is provided for the separation of substances by melt crystallization. The organic mixtures which are difficult to crystallize are heated to a temperature sufficient to obtain a melt with the melt then being moved through a three-dimensional crystallization matrix having a large specific area. The melt is slowly cooled over a temperature range so as to achieve a selective crystallization from the supersaturated melt in the carrier matrix. A deposited crystal phase is thereafter melted and separated from the carrier matrix and removed by centrifugation. The carrier matrix may have a crystallization-promoting microstructure surface and may consist of an openpored foam.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 10, 1991
    Date of Patent: July 27, 1993
    Assignee: Sulzer Brothers Limited
    Inventors: Slobodan Jancic, Evangelos Sakellariou
  • Patent number: 5178840
    Abstract: A wafer chuck is used to support a circular silicon wafer, which was formed from a single wafer casting process, in order to perform monocrystalline silicon regrowth. The cast wafer, having a monocrystalline silicon seed, located at its center, rests atop raised portions of the chuck and is held in place by vaccum at the center and the perimeter. The rest of the underside of the wafer is physically separated from the chuck surface by pressurized gas. An annular laser beam is then used to melt the silicon from the seed outward to grow the wafer into a monocrystalline form.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 10, 1992
    Date of Patent: January 12, 1993
    Assignee: Sematech, Inc.
    Inventor: Franz T. Geyling
  • Patent number: 5133829
    Abstract: A wafer chuck is used to support a circular silicon wafer, which has formed from a single wafer casting process, in order to perform monocrystalline silicon regrowth. The cast wafer, having a monocrystalline silicon seed, located at its center, rests atop raised portions of the chuck and is held in place by vacuum at the center and the perimeter. The rest of the underside of the wafer is physically separated from the chuck surface by pressurized gas. An annular laser beam is then used to melt the silicon from the seed outward to grow the wafer into a monocrystalline form.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 28, 1991
    Date of Patent: July 28, 1992
    Assignee: Sematech, Inc.
    Inventor: Franz T. Geyling
  • Patent number: 5089082
    Abstract: Silicon ingots, in particular, with diameters of approximately 75 mm and greater, can be produced by zone pulling with an oxygen content comparable to crucible-pulled material if a flat quartz element is brought into contact with the molten cap during the pulling operation. A quartz ring which is arranged concentrically beneath the induction heating coil and can be lowered from a rest position into its working position on the molten cap is suitable as a flat element. The ingot material obtained in this manner and also the silicon wafers produced therefrom combine the purity advantages of zone-pulled silicon with the beneficial gettering and hardening action of the incorporated oxygen which otherwise distinguishes only crucible-pulled silicon.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 2, 1990
    Date of Patent: February 18, 1992
    Assignee: Wacker-Chemitronic Gesellschaft fur Elektronik-Grundstoffe mbH
    Inventors: Peter Dreier, Wilfried von Ammon, Heinz Winterer
  • Patent number: 5034199
    Abstract: The improved zone-melt recrystallization apparatus is comprised of a port system for providing a thermal barrier between the recrystallization chamber and the loader assembly. A bellows system is used to lift a plurality of pins that support a silicon wafer being recrystallized. Flexure supports are designed to constrain the motion of the pins within the desired direction of motion of the wafer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 13, 1987
    Date of Patent: July 23, 1991
    Assignee: Kopin Corporation
    Inventors: Paul M. Zavracky, Kevin J. O'Connos
  • Patent number: 4978509
    Abstract: A crystallizer which incorporates a lamella settler and which is particularly applicable for use in batteries and power cells for electric vehicles or stationary applications. The lamella settler can be utilized for coarse particle separation or for agglomeration, and is particularly applicable to aluminum-air batteries or power cells for solving the hydrargillite (aluminum-hydroxide) removal problems from such batteries. This invention provides the advantages of very low energy consumption, turbulence, shear, cost and maintenance. Thus, due to the low shear and low turbulence of this invention, it is particularly effective in the control of aluminum hydroxide particle size distribution in the various sections of an aluminum-air system, as well as in other electrochemical systems requiring separation for phases of different densities.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 13, 1987
    Date of Patent: December 18, 1990
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the United States Department of Energy
    Inventor: Arturo Maimoni
  • Patent number: 4891191
    Abstract: An improved countercurrent solid-liquid contacting apparatus, and more particularly an improved counter-current crystallizer column is disclosed. The present invention embraces the discover that column efficiency and product purity can be substantially enhanced by reducing axial liquid back-mixing by using stationary solid beds and transport means at spaced intervals along the column length.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 1, 1985
    Date of Patent: January 2, 1990
    Assignee: Monsanto Company
    Inventors: Don E. Carter, Yung C. Hsu, Jason J. Tang
  • Patent number: 4891190
    Abstract: An incrustation resistive crystallizer apparatus is disclosed. The crystallizer housing has conduit means for ingress of solution to be crystallized, separate conduit means for ingress and egress of cooling fluid, means for recovery of mother liquor and product crystals either together or separately. A plurality of essentially horizontal perforated plates substantially conforming to the interior shape of the housing are vertically spaced along the housing length. A support member capable of translational movement along the housing length holds the plates in the above-described position. A plurality of mobile bodies are disposed on the upper surface of the plates. A heat transfer conduit disposed substantially parallel to the coaxial support member penetrates through apertures in the horizontal plates. A compound excitation device adapted to produce two waveforms is attached to the support member. The first waveform causes translational plate movement for scraping the surface of the heat transfer conduit.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 29, 1985
    Date of Patent: January 2, 1990
    Assignee: Monsanto Company
    Inventors: Don E. Carter, Yung C. Hsu
  • Patent number: 4806318
    Abstract: An apparatus for purifying crystals comprises a crystal purifying tower having a transverse cross-section of two partially overlapping circles, stirrers each comprising a rotational shaft passing through the center of each of the circles and having blade members disposed spirally on its surface, a solid-liquid separation plate disposed at the bottom portion of the tower, a liquid take out means disposed below the separation plate, a starting crude crystal feed means disposed above the separation plate, a purified crystal take out means disposed at the upper portion of the tower, heating means disposed in the tower in a multistage manner along the longitudinal direction of the tower, and purified crystal circulation means for cooling a portion of purified crystals taken out from the tower and feeding back the cooled crystals to the tower at at least one portion of the tower.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 13, 1987
    Date of Patent: February 21, 1989
    Assignee: Kureha Kagaku Kogyo Kabushiki Kaisha
    Inventors: Shigeru Saitoh, Masaki Shimada
  • Patent number: 4743434
    Abstract: An apparatus for treating in counter current of suspended particles with a liquid, whereby the particles and the liquid are transferred in opposite directions through a contact zone which, at some places, spaced in axial direction, is stirred in planes perpendicular to the centre line of the contact zone, in which the contact zone is one continuous space and that the volume fraction of the solid matter in the contact zone is maintained at a value between 0.20 and 0.55.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 2, 1986
    Date of Patent: May 10, 1988
    Assignee: Nederlandsche Centrale Organisatie Voor Toegepast Natuurwetenschappelijk Onderzoek
    Inventors: Henricus A. C. Thijssen, Gerardus J. Arkenbout
  • Patent number: 4735781
    Abstract: An apparatus for concentrating a suspension consisting of a hollow cylinder in which one or more tubes of a constant outward diameter extend in axial direction, in the wall of each tube at least one filter being mounted forming the only direct connection between the interior of the tube and the interior of the cylinder. Two or more of such apparatus can be connected in series in order to form a cascade.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 19, 1985
    Date of Patent: April 5, 1988
    Assignee: Nederlandse Centrale Organisatie Voor Toegepast Natuurwetenschappelijk onderzoek Juliana Van Stolberglaan
    Inventors: Henricus A. C. Thijssen, Gerardus J. Arkenbout
  • Patent number: 4727218
    Abstract: Method and apparatus for separating and/or purifying a substance from a molten mixture by crystallization, in which the molten mixture is conducted into an annular space defined by two substantially curvilinearly-shaped surfaces, one of the surfaces being cooled, and at least one of the surfaces rotating. The molten mixture is thereby cooled as the same flows through the annular space with material crystallizing to form a deposit upon the cooled surface. The crystallized deposit is then caused to be contacted by a source of heat, whereby the same is melted. At least part of the melted deposit is then removed from the annular space, to obtain the substance in purified form, while any remaining part of the melted deposit is conducted through the annular space in a direction away from the source of heat. Non-crystallized molten material which contains impurities is also removed from within the annular space.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 3, 1985
    Date of Patent: February 23, 1988
    Assignee: Neste OY
    Inventor: Tomi Heiskanen
  • Patent number: 4711697
    Abstract: A method of observing crystal formation in a transparent specimen (58 of FIG. 5) comprising the steps of melting a portion of the specimen in a heating zone (22 of FIG. 2) freezing the melted portion of the specimen 58 by a cooling zone (20 of FIG. 2) spaced from the heating zone by a gap (42) which is observable by a suitable observing means (30), controlling the temperatures of the heating and cooling zones (22 and 20) to various temperatures to create a variable temperature gradient across the gap (42) so that the freezing isotherm of the specimen (58) always remains in a substantially constant position within the gap (42) where it is observable by the observing means (30), and moving the specimen (58) longitudinally while the temperature gradient is varying.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 21, 1985
    Date of Patent: December 8, 1987
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration
    Inventor: William F. Kaukler
  • Patent number: 4623372
    Abstract: An improved crystallization process is disclosed for separating a crystallizable material and an excluded material which is at least partially excluded from the solid phase of the crystallizable material obtained upon freezing a liquid phase of the materials. The solid phase is more dense than the liquid phase, and it is separated therefrom by relative movement with the formation of a packed bed of solid phase. The packed bed is continuously formed adjacent its lower end and passed from the liquid phase into a countercurrent flow of backwash liquid. The packed bed extends through the level of the backwash liquid to provide a drained bed of solid phase adjacent its upper end which is melted by a condensing vapor.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 11, 1984
    Date of Patent: November 18, 1986
    Assignee: CNG Research Company
    Inventors: Robert J. Adler, William R. Brown, Lun Auyang, Yin-Chang Liu, W. Jeffrey Cook
  • Patent number: 4597768
    Abstract: A method for treating in counter current of suspended particles with a liquid, whereby the particles and the liquid are transferred in opposite directions through a contact zone which, at some places, spaced in axial direction, is stirred in planes perpendicular to the center line of the contact zone, in which the contact zone is one continuous space and that the volume fraction of the solid matter in the contact zone is maintained at a value between 0.20 and 0.55.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 21, 1983
    Date of Patent: July 1, 1986
    Assignee: Nederlandse Centrale Organisatie Voor Toegepast Natuurwetenschappelijk Onderzoek
    Inventors: Henricus A. C. Thijssen, Gerardus J. Arkenbout
  • Patent number: 4588562
    Abstract: Crystals containing a molten liquid at the bottom of a purifying tower are cooled, so that three effects i.e., washing, sweating and recrystallization are improved while maintaining a heat balance within a tower to thereby obtain highly pure crystals.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 16, 1984
    Date of Patent: May 13, 1986
    Assignee: Kureha Kagaku Kogyo Kabushiki Kaisha
    Inventors: Shigeru Saitoh, Masaaki Shimada, Takeshi Imura
  • Patent number: 4481169
    Abstract: A washing column for the continuous separation between a solid chemical fed in a liquid multi-component system, on the one hand, and the mother liquor in which the solid chemical is suspended, on the other. In a cylindrical working space a stationary, straight, plane washing front is maintained in a packed bed of the solid chemical substance between the mother liquor, on the one hand, and a melt of the solid chemical, on the other. According to the invention, the washing column is double-walled to form an enveloping space, which contains a heat insulating medium and can be pressurized to conform to the pressure within the column. This construction permits the use of a relatively thin, glass inner wall of uniform wall thickness and inner surface. This renders the column resistant to corrosive chemicals, reduces the effect of heat exchange with the surroundings, and prevents instabilities in the washing front.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 27, 1982
    Date of Patent: November 6, 1984
    Assignee: Douwe Egberts Koninklijke Tabaksfabriek-Koffiebranderijen-Theehandel N.V.
    Inventor: Bernardus G. M. van der Malen
  • Patent number: 4404244
    Abstract: A membrane of fiberglass-reinforced polyester resin is used as a traffica cover over a compacted backfilled crater and crushed stone base to impart strength to the repair and prevent foreign object damage to aircraft. The membrane cover is usually prefabricated from several fiberglass matting layers of chopped fiberglass strands chemically bonded to woven fiberglass roving and impregnated with a polyester resin; an anchoring system consisting of holes along the cover perimeter and torque set rock bolts are used in conjunction with special steel bushings to secure the cover to airfield pavement surrounding the crater.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 27, 1982
    Date of Patent: September 13, 1983
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the Secretary of the Navy
    Inventor: Preston S. Springston
  • Patent number: 4400189
    Abstract: In a multistage countercurrent crystallization apparatus for multistage crystallization by adiabatic recrystallization and extractive washing comprising a vertical column containing a feed line, a waste material discharge, a purified product discharge, a crystallization zone or chamber at one end and a melter or dissolver at the other end, said vertical column containing a crystallizing liquid, a number of perforated plates subdividing said column into multistages, substantially spherical bodies contacting said perforated plates of a size larger than said perforations and designed to cooperate with the perforations of said perforated plates while in motion with respect to said perforated plates, means for vibrating said perforated plates whereby said substantially spherical bodies vehemently vibrate against said perforated plates, the improvement consisting essentially of reciprocating means to move said crystallizing liquid slowly and periodically with respect to said perforated plates in said column where s
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 16, 1982
    Date of Patent: August 23, 1983
    Assignee: Nederlandse Centrale Organisatie voor Toegepast Natuurwetenschapplijk Onder Zoek
    Inventors: Gerardus J. Arkenbout, Albert van Kuijk, Johannes van der Meer, Leonardus H. J. M. Schneiders
  • Patent number: 4323623
    Abstract: Core sandwich structure comprised of a lightweight core material in the form of a low density thermosetting resin matrix composition containing glass microballoons, particularly an epoxy resin containing glass microballoons, sandwiched between high strength fiber-thermosetting resin matrix outer sheets, particularly woven graphite-epoxy sheets. Employing epoxy resin as the preferred thermosetting resin, the epoxy core material is B-staged, placed between sheets of pre-preg woven graphite-epoxy material, and the assembly co-cured under pressure to form the core sandwich structure.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 27, 1978
    Date of Patent: April 6, 1982
    Assignee: McDonnell Douglas Corporation
    Inventors: Robert O. Ahrens, Jerry L. Merkel
  • Patent number: 4312846
    Abstract: A method for purifying silicon comprises the steps of providing a body of molten silicon-rich material in a vessel having an upwardly removable first bottom therein and extracting heat therefrom to provide a solid phase containing silicon in crystal form and to concentrate impurities in a molten phase. After a desired amount of heat has been extracted, a substantial part of the molten phase is separated from the solid phase. A fraction or portion of the solid phase is remelted for purposes of removing solvent metal, including impurities, from the crystals, and at least one fraction of the remelted material is separated from the crystals. The crystals are removed from the vessel by upwardly withdrawing the removable bottom.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 9, 1980
    Date of Patent: January 26, 1982
    Assignee: Aluminum Company of America
    Inventor: Robert K. Dawless
  • Patent number: 4309878
    Abstract: An apparatus and process for purifying and separating a crystalline compound from its impurities in a slurry containing same, said process comprising introducing said slurry under pressure into a cylindrical pressurized filter-washer having a substantially constant inside diameter which is substantially free of protrusions, said filter-washer having a filter means with a screen contiguous with an internal surface of the cylinder, said screen having a smooth surface sufficient to provide minimum friction so as to allow a moving bed of crystals to move past it and withdraw a filtrate without blinding, filtering the crystals, withdrawing the filtrate, and moving the crystal bed past the filter screen, applying a controlled restraining force on the crystal bed so as to prevent relaxation and channeling and over-compacting of said bed by means of a compression and harvest means substantially contiguous with said inside diameter and located between said filter means and an exit means, said compression and harvest m
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 22, 1980
    Date of Patent: January 12, 1982
    Assignee: Koppers Company, Inc.
    Inventor: Earl D. Brennan
  • Patent number: 4248601
    Abstract: A process for reducing the sodium chloride content of crystalline potassium salts without the use of successive recrystallization. The crystalline potassium salts having a sodium chloride content greater than about 0.8 percent by weight are subjected to compacting and crushing to provide a crystalline product having an average particle diameter less than 1.6 millimeters. The crystalline product is leached with a brine at least about 80 percent saturated with said potassium salt and less than 50 percent saturated with sodium chloride to produce a crystalline potassium salt product containing less than about 0.35 percent by weight of sodiumchloride.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 12, 1979
    Date of Patent: February 3, 1981
    Assignee: Kerr-McGee Chemical Corporation
    Inventors: Eugene R. McGough, Albert Adams
  • Patent number: 4235796
    Abstract: Crystallizable lipid is fractionally crystallized from a fugitive solvent therefor in a crystallization zone wherefrom a washed crystal containing slurry substantially depleted in liquid lipid is withdrawn and the crystals are separated from such washed slurry.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 26, 1978
    Date of Patent: November 25, 1980
    Assignee: SCM Corporation
    Inventor: Fred R. Paulicka
  • Patent number: 4221762
    Abstract: Apparatus for preparing carbides from a powdered charge of carbon and oxygen-containing compounds of elements that can form carbides comprises an inductor for the induction heating of the charge to the reaction temperature with continuous compacting thereof. The powdered charge is heated by inducing in it high-frequency currents uniformly throughout the entire induction volume to the depth of not less than the radius of the charge column. A tubular reactor is enclosed inside the inductor which is a high-frequency generator. The reactor is manufactured out of nonmagnetic material. The reactor has slots in its wall that are filled with a dielectric material. A loading device provided with a pusher is mounted at a top portion of the reactor, and an unloading device provided with a valve and a receptacle is located at the bottom portion of the reactor.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 30, 1978
    Date of Patent: September 9, 1980
    Inventors: Alexandr I. Andrjushin, Sergei A. Kuznetsov, Nikolai P. Galkin, Jury N. Tumanov, Boris A. Kiselev, Ion B. Sorkin, Vladimir I. Dobrovolsky, Jury P. Butylkin