Involving Dielectric Heating Or Passage Of Electric Current Through Food Material Patents (Class 426/244)
  • Patent number: 5356646
    Abstract: A cooking apparatus and method supplies a source of electrons to food contained in a vessel or in contact with a grill and cooked by thermal processes to reduce the carcinogenic effect of electron-depleted food which results from thermal excitation and oxidation of thermal cooking processes.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 7, 1992
    Date of Patent: October 18, 1994
    Inventors: Branimir Simic-Glavaski, Michael G. Simic
  • Patent number: 5334402
    Abstract: A method and apparatus are provided for the rapid heat treatment of products, and especially gas-permeable, water-containing products such as bread dough. Baking of dough involves placing the dough within an enclosed oven or zone (1) and subjecting the dough to dielectric (e.g. radio-frequency or microwave) heating using appropriate generators (6, 7, 7a, 8a). Radiant heat from an appropriate source (9) and hot oven gases are simultaneously applied for crust formation. During at least a portion of the baking cycle, the gas pressure within the zone (1) is selectively elevated by steam addition (10) in response to the rise in gas pressure within the dough resulting from vaporization of water therein. In this way, the pressure differential between the dough interior and the ambient environment is minimized, and the dough may be rapidly baked without fear of significant dough disruption. Cooling is effected by gradually reducing the zone pressure, through use of a vacuum pump (12).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 22, 1993
    Date of Patent: August 2, 1994
    Assignee: Kansas State University Research Foundation
    Inventor: David Ovadia
  • Patent number: 5290583
    Abstract: Provided herein is a method for electroheating liquid egg. Also provided herein is an apparatus specifically designed for heating and cooling materials and preferably liquid egg and apparatus for pasteurizing liquid egg by electroheating.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 2, 1992
    Date of Patent: March 1, 1994
    Inventors: David Reznik, Aloysius Knipper
  • Patent number: 5288471
    Abstract: The method includes the steps of: preheating a selected volume of product to a temperature proximate to the maximum temperature of the treatment; irradiating the product with an alternating electromagnetic field in order to heat the product to approximately 50.degree. C.; maintaining the product at a substantially constant temperature for a set time; cooling the product to a temperature close to the packaging temperature. An apparatus for performing the above method includes a pair of facing emitting surfaces connected to the terminals of an oscillator operating below 1 GHz and set to heat the product to a maximum temperature of approximately 50.degree. C. The apparatus also includes a thermally insulated region to maintain the product at the maximum temperature of the treatment for a selected time adapted to ensure the complete destruction of the bacterial and sporal loads.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 13, 1992
    Date of Patent: February 22, 1994
    Assignee: Officine de Cartigliano S.p.A.
    Inventor: Antonio Corner
  • Patent number: 5282940
    Abstract: A method for the reduction or elimination of microbes in liquid or food products whereby the passage of a waveform, such as a DC square-wave, of a specific amplitude, duty cycle and current through the liquid or food product for a specific time period, allows for the elimination of microbes such as Salmonella Typhimurium from a variety of substances, including water, milk and solid food products.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 20, 1992
    Date of Patent: February 1, 1994
    Assignee: The Board of Trustees of the University of Arkansas
    Inventors: Carl L. Griffis, Michael F. Slavik, Phillip V. Engler, Yanbin Li
  • Patent number: 5156869
    Abstract: An apparatus for processing food which includes an insulated container having a conductive lining. A negative electron generator is coupled to the conductive lining for transmitting negative electrons to the lining thus creating a condition of high humidity inside the container.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 1, 1991
    Date of Patent: October 20, 1992
    Inventor: Tatsukiyo Otsuki
  • Patent number: 5069920
    Abstract: The invention relates to a method of electrical conduction cooking of food in a package. The package includes two electrodes including a raised portion of the bottom wall and a planar top electrode and wherein the recessed area between the raised portion of the bottom wall and the sidewall of the package defines a peripheral reservoir. The food is cooked by passing electrical current through the food and allowing the drainage and accumulation of exuded products from the food product being cooked so as to prevent contamination of the bottom electrode.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 23, 1990
    Date of Patent: December 3, 1991
    Inventor: Victor F. Hildebrand
  • Patent number: 5034236
    Abstract: The present invention relates to a process for thawing food. More particularly, the present invention relates to a process for applying negative electron to food by the high voltage induced electrostatic method in order to thaw it rapidly at a low temperature in the range of -3.degree. C.-3.degree. C. According to the process of the present invention, general bacteria observed in the food thawed can be maintained negative and the weight loss caused by drip can be suppressed to a very low level.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 15, 1990
    Date of Patent: July 23, 1991
    Inventor: Tatsukiyo Ohtsuki
  • Patent number: 5015489
    Abstract: The present invention relates to the production of cookies which exhibit a cookie crumb-like structure and structural integrity using a cooker extruder to mix and heat ingredients comprising flour and oil to promote browning and flavor development. The dough-like mixture produced in the extrusion cooker is leavened and further browned using post-extrusion baking, such as microwave, dielectric radio frequency, infrared conductive, or convection baking, frying, or a combination thereof. The shortening or fat content of the dough-like mixture may be from about 12% by weight to about 40% by weight, preferably from about 20% by weight to about 30% by weight, based upon the weight of the dough-like mixture. Separation of oil from the remaining mass and extruder surging and starch gelatinization are avoided preferably by admixing water into heat-treated ingredients comprising flour and oil after and during substantial cooling of the heat-treated ingredients.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 7, 1989
    Date of Patent: May 14, 1991
    Assignee: Nabisco Brands, Inc.
    Inventors: Bernhard Van Lengerich, Cathryn C. Warren
  • Patent number: 4980530
    Abstract: A heating device, particularly for food products, includes a housing containing at least a pair of electrodes connected to supply dielectric high frequency heating. The product, contained within a tray, is positioned between the electrodes being connected to a high frequency alternating current. At least one electrode on which the tray with product can be placed may include a number of rod-shaped electrodes. In another embodiment, one or both electrodes are positionable in the tray interior in intimate contact with the product.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 31, 1989
    Date of Patent: December 25, 1990
    Assignee: I. K. International B. V.
    Inventor: Lucas A. Butot
  • Patent number: 4971819
    Abstract: In order to prepare foods by utilizing electric heating, a container (1) having an open upper surface is prepared, with a moisture permeable film body (8) disposed inside the container in such a manner that two outer surfaces (9) of the film body face two mutually opposing inner surfaces (4) of the container, and with a pair of electrodes (5) disposed in the gaps between these inner and outer surfaces. A food material (A), a suitable amount of an electrolyte and a suitable mount of water (B) are placed within the moisture permeable film body, and they are then cooked by being subjected to warming or heating by supplying electricity to the electrodes so that current flows therebetween.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 19, 1990
    Date of Patent: November 20, 1990
    Assignee: Dowa Co., Ltd.
    Inventor: Kingo Miyahara
  • Patent number: 4910371
    Abstract: A process for heating by dielectric hysteresis a product (11) containing at least a proportion of ice enabling to heat and/or at least to form molecules of liquid water in said product practically without heating the liquid water obtained, consisting in subjecting the product to an electric field created between two electrodes (5, 6) to which is applied an alternating voltage of a frequency having a value in the range from one kilohertz to six megahertz.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 27, 1988
    Date of Patent: March 20, 1990
    Inventors: Eric Brun, Jean-Michel Panel
  • Patent number: 4851236
    Abstract: A method of accelerating the ripening of cheese is disclosed wherein cheese is placed in an electric field during part of the ripening process. During the ripening process, the direction of the electric field is changed at a constant or varying frequency during the entire course of the ripening process.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 10, 1987
    Date of Patent: July 25, 1989
    Inventors: Jann Hau, Otto M. Poulsen
  • Patent number: 4753810
    Abstract: An electroplasmolyzer for processing vegetable stock comprises a housing which accommodates therein electrodes provided with a plane surface of contact with vegetable stock being processed, said electrodes connected to a power supply. Adjacent electrodes in each pair thereof are connected to different phases of the power supply. The use of the herein disclosed electroplasmolyzer in a production line for primary processing of vegetable stock results in an increased efficiency of pressing equipment and higher yield of juice from vegetable stock.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 14, 1986
    Date of Patent: June 28, 1988
    Assignee: Institut Prikladnoi Fiziki Akademii Nauk Moldav-Shoi SSR
    Inventors: Jury A. Scheglov, Nikolai P. Koval, Leonid A. Furer, Sergei Y. Zargarian, Anatoly A. Skimbov, Vladimir G. Belik, Boris N. Zharik, Andrei Y. Papchenko, Filipp G. Ryabinsky, Alexandr S. Sergeev, deceased
  • Patent number: 4739140
    Abstract: Apparatus and a method for food processing wherein an AC electrical current at a frequency exceeding mains frequencies is caused to pass through a food product producing direct resistance heating of the food product, the frequency being selected to preclude substantial electrolysis of the food product.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 14, 1985
    Date of Patent: April 19, 1988
    Inventor: David Reznik
  • Patent number: 4684529
    Abstract: The present invention relates to a process of the preparation of ionizable calcium composition powder by powdering oyster shells and decomposing the powder. Oyster shells are dried and then powdered. This oyster shell powder is forced from a tubular feeding zone including a screw conveyor into a tubular processing zone, and during the passage through the tubular processing zone the powder is thermally and electrically treated. The processing zone has an electric heater arranged around the passage thereof, and a pair of electrodes arranged on opposite sides of the passages. The oyster shell powder, when it is passed through the processing zone, is heated by the heater and is exposed to an electric discharge by applying a high voltage between the pair of the electrodes, and as a result of this discharge treatment the product powder is highly ionizable.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 11, 1985
    Date of Patent: August 4, 1987
    Assignee: Kabushiki Kaisha Fuji Kikaku
    Inventor: Toshio Ueno
  • Patent number: 4642847
    Abstract: A sausage mold comprises a non-conductive, heat-resistant tube having opposed conductive pistons slidably mounted therein and connected as electrodes to a dual frequency power supply. Meat paste is extruded into a mold cavity defined between the pistons through a supply line having a valve mounted in the face of one of the pistons. The meat paste is cured within the mold and a coagulated skin is formed thereon by the application of electrical currents of 60 hertz and 4,000 to 10,000 hertz, respectively. A plurality of molds are arranged in a cluster to form a configuration resembling the shape of the package into which the sausages are to be placed.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 8, 1985
    Date of Patent: February 17, 1987
    Inventor: Henry M. Ross
  • Patent number: 4612199
    Abstract: A method of and an apparatus for producing processed foodstuffs by passing an electric current to foodstuff materials including a container of insulating material open at opposite sides for receiving a foodstuff material suitably permeated with a salt solution which is placed in the container and held between a pair of electrode members located at the opposite open sides of the container. An annular coil is arranged around the container. As electric currents are passed simultaneously through the annular coil and between the pair of electrode members, Joule heat is generated in the foodstuff material to thermally treat and sterilize the foodstuff material while lines of magnetic force are produced and applied to the foodstuff material in such a manner that an AC magnetic field exerts influences on the electric current flowing through the foodstuff material, to render substantially uniform the temperature distribution in the foodstuff material and increase the amount of inosinic acid or glutamic acid therein.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 25, 1985
    Date of Patent: September 16, 1986
    Assignee: Dowa Co., Ltd.
    Inventor: Kingo Miyahara
  • Patent number: 4608920
    Abstract: An electroplasmolyzer for processing vegetable stock comprises a housing which accommodates therein electrodes provided with a plane surface of contact with vegetable stock being processed, said electrodes connected to a power supply. Adjacent electrodes in each pair thereof are connected to different phases of the power supply. The use of the herein disclosed electroplasmolyzer in a production line for primary processing of vegetable stock results in an increased efficiency of pressing equipment and higher yield of juice from vegetable stock.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 3, 1983
    Date of Patent: September 2, 1986
    Inventors: Jury A. Scheglov, Nikolai P. Koval, Leonid A. Furer, Sergei Y. Zargarian, Anatoly A. Skimbov, Vladimir G. Belik, Boris N. Zharik, Andrei Y. Papchenko, Filipp G. Ryabinsky, Alexandr S. Sergeev, deceased, by Galina A. Sergeeva, administrator
  • Patent number: 4592273
    Abstract: Apparatus in accordance with the invention includes an endless belt conveyor having an insulated bottom belt and a pair of insulated, opposite side belts having longitudinally spaced apart, transverse slots therein for receiving removable electrically conductive plates adapted to form opposite sides of a series of moving baking compartments on the belt. Each compartment is adapted for holding a mass of dough in contact with a pair of plates on opposite sides of the dough mass and an electric current source is interconnected to make contact with the conductive plates on opposite sides of each moving compartment to pass an electric current through the dough mass contained in the compartment for baking the dough as it moves along with the conveyor until baking is complete and the plates are removed from the conveyor.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 4, 1984
    Date of Patent: June 3, 1986
    Assignee: Newly Weds Foods, Inc.
    Inventor: Masayuki Yonezawa
  • Patent number: 4522834
    Abstract: A method of and an apparatus for producing a processed foodstuff by passing a current to a raw food material wherein the raw food material placed in an insulating container open on upper and lower sides is held between an upper electrode member and a lower electrode member serving concurrently as a juice receiver located on opposite sides of the raw food material through respective salt water containing contact members which are resiliently connected together by resilient connection means in an insulated condition. A current is passed between the upper and lower electrode members through a plug having a probe to heat the raw food material to a predetermined temperature to sterilize it. Juices given off by the raw food material collect in a juice trap. The insulating container containing the raw food material may be placed on a worktable in the front thereof and moved to the rear of the worktable.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 17, 1984
    Date of Patent: June 11, 1985
    Assignee: Dowa Co., Ltd.
    Inventor: Kingo Miyahara
  • Patent number: 4496594
    Abstract: A method of and an apparatus for producing a packed food, wherein a sheet of packing film of heat resisting and insulating material formed with a multiplicity of minuscule current passing apertures is placed on an insulating container open at the top and the bottom and having an electrode plate and a salt solution impregnated electrical contact member placed thereon which are positioned at the lower open end, and forced into the container in such a manner that the minuscule current passing apertures are in a horizontal plane in contact with the salt solution impregnated electrical contact member. Then a charge of unprocessed foodstuff is filled in the packing film, and an electrode plate is brought, through a salt solution impregnated electrical contact member, into contact with the minuscule current passing apertures and the unprocessed foodstuff positioned thereagainst.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 14, 1983
    Date of Patent: January 29, 1985
    Assignee: Dowa Company, Ltd.
    Inventor: Kingo Miyahara
  • Patent number: 4457221
    Abstract: A process and apparatus for killing organisms in situ within a host by means of successive short-duration high-current-density pulses of electricity of alternately opposite polarity. These pulses are passed through the host and concomitantly the organisms for a period of a few seconds. The cellular structure of the host is not destroyed, nor is the temperature thereof appreciably elevated. The current is conveyed to the host from electrodes immersed with the host in a weak electrolyte. The pulses are formed by phase-controlled thyristors.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 8, 1983
    Date of Patent: July 3, 1984
    Inventor: David K. Geren
  • Patent number: 4434197
    Abstract: A flexible multi-layer structure having at least one layer pigmented with a color and/or an energy absorber with the outer two layers consisting of pure polytetrafluoroethylene to provide a food contacting surface.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 25, 1982
    Date of Patent: February 28, 1984
    Assignee: N. F. Industries, Inc.
    Inventors: John V. Petriello, Michael N. La Torra
  • Patent number: 4434357
    Abstract: An apparatus for heating an electrically conductive fluid ohmically by passing an electric current through the fluid between electrodes spaced along a pipe through which the fluid flows. The pipe has an electrically insulating internal liner and is cooled, e.g. by cooling water flowing through a cooling jacket between inner and outer skins of the pipe. The inner skin supports the liner and is perforated to allow intimate cooling of the liner. The cooling prevents heating of the fluid in a layer immediately adjacent the internal liner to such a temperature that the medium would foul the liner.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 13, 1981
    Date of Patent: February 28, 1984
    Assignee: The Electricity Council
    Inventors: David P. Simpson, Robert Stirling
  • Patent number: 4417132
    Abstract: A heater for liquid foodstuffs has a pipe through which the foodstuff flows and electrodes spaced along the pipe to drive a heating current through the foodstuff. In the embodiment, the electrode is a platinum coated cylinder arranged transversely in an enlarged part of the pipe so that electric current flows to the electrode only over a smooth surface portion, entirely within the edges of the exposed electrode surface.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 14, 1981
    Date of Patent: November 22, 1983
    Assignee: The Electricity Council
    Inventor: David P. Simpson
  • Patent number: 4386110
    Abstract: An electrical treatment method for soybean protein is performed in such a manner that a mixture of soybean protein and solvent is set in a first electrolytic tank having a cathode and solvent is set in a second electrolytic tank which is separated from above electrolytic tank by a diaphram or a salt bridge and is provided with an anode and DC voltage is given between the two electrodes for electrolytic treatment for soybean protein. The soybean protein's quality can be significantly improved.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 8, 1982
    Date of Patent: May 31, 1983
    Assignee: Hiroshima Prefecture
    Inventors: Minoru Komeyasu, Yoshisuke Miura, Hiroyoshi Sakai
  • Patent number: 4374714
    Abstract: The susceptibility to color and flavor loss of liquid containing comestibles due to oxidative deterioration during storage is reduced by placing the comestible in the cathode compartment of an electrochemical cell in which the compartments of the cell containing the anode and cathode are separated by a cation permeable membrane and the anode compartment contains a highly dissociatable, non-oxidizable inorganic acid electrolyte, and thereafter subjecting the comestible to a high density current for a short period of time sufficient to generate hydrogen at the cathode to remove oxygen from the comestible but insufficient to effect a substantial chemical change in the comestible. The deoxidized comestible is then stored in a hermetically sealed container in which air is substantially absent.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 15, 1982
    Date of Patent: February 22, 1983
    Assignee: Continental Packaging Company, Inc.
    Inventor: Ihab M. Hekal
  • Patent number: 4343821
    Abstract: A meat product having reduced shrinkage upon cooking is prepared by treating meat with an aqueous solution of an edible chloride salt present at at least about 0.2 molal. The solution is first electrolyzed by passage of a direct current through it to prepare an electrolyzed moisturizing solution having moisturizing activity. The electrolyzed moisturizing solution is cooled to a temperature of no higher than about 30.degree. F., while maintaining its moisturizing activity, to form an electrolyzed moisturizing composition. While maintaining moisturizing activity, the electrolyzed moisturizing composition and meat are thereafter combined and maintained in contact until moisturized meat is formed, and the moisturized meat is then recovered.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 28, 1980
    Date of Patent: August 10, 1982
    Inventor: Peter W. Rose
  • Patent number: 4343822
    Abstract: A cooked meat product having reduced shrinkage after refrigeration is prepared by treating hot meat with an aqueous solution of an edible chloride salt present at at least about 0.5 weight percent. The solution is first electrolyzed by passage of a direct current through it to prepare an electrolyzed moisturizing solution having moisturizing activity. The electrolyzed moisturizing solution is cooled to a temperature of no higher than about 30.degree. F., while maintaining its moisturizing activity, to form an electrolyzed moisturizing composition. The electrolyzed moisturizing composition and hot meat are thereafter combined and maintained in contact until the external meat temperature is lowered to about 70.degree.-110.degree. F. to form externally cooled meat which is refrigerated and then recovered.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 19, 1981
    Date of Patent: August 10, 1982
    Inventor: Peter W. Rose
  • Patent number: 4320276
    Abstract: A dielectric heating device for heating a dielectric sandwiched between a pair of electrodes is disclosed in which an oscillation circuit is made up of the above-mentioned electrodes, a coil connected in series with the electrodes, a first capacitor connected in parallel with a series circuit made up of the electrodes and the coil, another series circuit connected in parallel with the first capacitor and made up of second and third capacitors and a field effect transistor having source and drain electrodes connected respectively to one and the other electrodes of the second capacitor and a gate electrode connected to a junction point for connecting the first and third capacitors.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 25, 1980
    Date of Patent: March 16, 1982
    Assignee: Hitachi, Ltd.
    Inventors: Takashi Takeuchi, Yoichi Kaneko, Hisato Owatari
  • Patent number: 4293577
    Abstract: Baked pastry product is obtained with the use of crystalline fructose and consists of a wheat flour-based, cellular matrix which is soft, leavened under baking conditions, and of a moisture content of 17 to 22% by weight. The starting dough is rich in water and contains 50 to 80 parts by weight of starch, 15 to 25 parts by weight of gluten, 40 to 60 parts by weight of powdered, skimmed milk and 50 to 100 parts by weight of egg solids for every 100 parts by weight of flour. A solution of crystalline fructose in water is prepared first in which the egg solids are emulsified, whereupon only addition of flour, starch, gluten and powdered milk is effected.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 27, 1980
    Date of Patent: October 6, 1981
    Assignee: P. Ferrero & C. S.p.A.
    Inventor: Renzo Cillario
  • Patent number: 4276313
    Abstract: Meat having minimal shrinkage upon cooking is prepared by treating meat with an aqueous solution of an edible chloride salt present at at least about 0.2 molal. The solution is first electrolyzed by passage of a direct current through said solution until at least 25 coulombs per liter of solution have passed therethrough. The meat and electrolyzed solution are then combined and maintained in contact until moisturized meat is formed, and the moisturized meat then recovered. The minimally shrinkage meat food product and an apparatus for its production are also disclosed.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 7, 1980
    Date of Patent: June 30, 1981
    Inventor: Peter W. Rose
  • Patent number: 4265922
    Abstract: An elongated treating chamber in the form of a cylindrical metallic barrel is rotatable about an inclined longitudinal axis. The food material to be processed is introduced into the inlet or higher end of the barrel through the agency of a rotary valve and is removed or discharged through a nozzle at the other or lower end. In one embodiment two solenoid-type induction coils encircle longitudinal portions of the barrel, being energized with alternating current power so as to inductively heat the barrel. The heat is induced throughout the thickness of the wall of the barrel and is then transmitted into the food material as the food material passes therethrough. The temperature of the barrel's outer surface is sensed at two longitudinally spaced locations as the barrel rotates and each of the two induction coils is individually controlled in accordance with the temperature that is desired.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 31, 1979
    Date of Patent: May 5, 1981
    Assignee: General Mills, Inc.
    Inventors: Takuzo Tsuchiya, Jin-Liou Fang, Glen Rasmussen
  • Patent number: 4264631
    Abstract: A process for preparing ground meat by providing a supply of meat chunks, and an aqueous solution of sodium chloride; passing a direct electric current through the solution until the resulting solution pH is raised to at least 8.5; combining, admixing and agitating the meat chunks and resulting solution while the resulting solution pH is at least about 8.5 and until the resulting solution is sorbed by said meat chunks; and then grinding said meat chunks.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 12, 1980
    Date of Patent: April 28, 1981
    Inventor: Peter W. Rose
  • Patent number: 4264632
    Abstract: A process for preparing ground meat by providing a supply of meat chunks, and an aqueous solution of an edible chloride salt; passing a direct electric current through the solution until the resulting solution pH is raised to at least about 8; combining, admixing and agitating the meat chunks and resulting solution while the resulting solution pH is at least about 8 and until the resulting solution is sorbed by said meat chunks; and then grinding said meat chunks.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 14, 1980
    Date of Patent: April 28, 1981
    Inventor: Peter W. Rose
  • Patent number: 4244284
    Abstract: Cooking apparatus for preparing meats to suit individual tastes of different consumers. The meat is subjected to electric current heating to cook the meat and to radiant broiling to char its surface. The cooking current passing through the meat is regulated in response to a comparison of an input corresponding to the desired degree of cooking and an indication of the interior temperature of the meat as it is being cooked. The apparatus are particularly suited to handle effectively a variety of individual orders at substantially the same time.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 29, 1979
    Date of Patent: January 13, 1981
    Assignee: Three Rivers Development Corporation
    Inventors: David B. Flavan, Jr., Merrill M. E. Jenkins, Sr., James S. White, James E. Pate
  • Patent number: 4208440
    Abstract: A beverage base and other products are made from cocoa powder, soy flour, dried whey, corn flour, pea powder, or pea flour by blending the powder or flour with a quantity of water to make a paste that is retained between a pair of metal screens (preferably stainless steel screens) or plates which serve as electrodes. The paste is subjected to a difference of electrical potentional until separated into three fractions having different pH's.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 25, 1979
    Date of Patent: June 17, 1980
    Inventor: Edward D. Schmidt
  • Patent number: 4108052
    Abstract: A new and improved process and apparatus for producing alcohol from cereal grains or starch materials is disclosed. The process involves cooking or mashing very rapidly by electric means to prevent any form of hydrolysis of the starch prior to enzymatic hydrolysis by malt. Specific over-all process steps include milling of the grain in a manner to improve the wetting of the grain; electric cooking or mashing; malting of the mash; fermentation and recovery by distillation. The apparatus principally comprises an electric cooking or mashing unit having a central electrode positioned within an electrically conductive outer wall with a suitable electric power source being provided across the central electrode and conductive wall. In accordance with the invention the mash is heated to a predetermined temperature in a matter of seconds without the addition of condensate.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 21, 1977
    Date of Patent: August 22, 1978
    Inventor: Newton T. Cunningham
  • Patent number: 4089982
    Abstract: A salt-containing unprocessed foodstuff is charged in a wrapping tube unit comprising a cylindrical body, end plate means comprising members bonded to open opposite ends of the cylindrical body, and a pair of electrical contact members previously impregnated with a salt solution and fitted in the end plate means to provide a wrapped material foodstuff. The end plate means may be of any shape and is formed with a multitude of apertures, at least one of the members having cuts made therein to permit charging of the unprocessed foodstuff in the cylindrical body which may be deformed to conform to the shape of the end plate means.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 10, 1976
    Date of Patent: May 16, 1978
    Assignee: Dowa Co., Ltd.
    Inventor: Kingo Miyahara
  • Patent number: 4073951
    Abstract: Method for agglomerating finely divided particulate solid materials which are capable of agglomerating by intersurface moisture for inter-particle adherence. A mass of the particulate material in a cool atmosphere in an agglomeration zone is simultaneously agitated and subjected to electromagnetic radiation to cause the free moisture contained within the particles to appear in liquid state at the surfaces of the particles so that, with the agitation causing random particle-to-particle contact, agglomeration by inter-particle adherence occurs in the same manner as if extraneous moisture had been introduced. Advantageously, radio frequency energy is employed to accomplish dielectric heating of the moisture within the particle, the moisture escaping to the surface of the particle but persisting there in liquid state because the solid matter of the particle is not heated to a temperature such as to cause unduly rapid vaporization of the moisture.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 25, 1976
    Date of Patent: February 14, 1978
    Inventor: Ralph G. Sargeant
  • Patent number: 4065582
    Abstract: A method for automatically peeling fruit whereby a cutter blade is moved toward and away from the fruit as a function of the sensed impedance between the cutter blade and ground through the fruit so that substantially all of the peel is removed. In the preferred embodiment, a horizontal assembly presents a fruit to each of a plurality of fruit holders mounted on a vertical assembly so that each one of the presented fruit is impaled on a different spike of the vertical assembly. A plurality of cutter assemblies each mounting a cutter blade are moved toward and away from the fruit as it is rotated and moved upward to remove the peel. A control circuit includes a counter incremented by pulses from Hall Effect Switches which are energized by magnets mounted on the vertical and horizontal assemblies and controls movement of the assemblies to carry out a predetermined cycle.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 7, 1976
    Date of Patent: December 27, 1977
    Assignee: Webbs Machine Design
    Inventors: John Webb, Alan Houghton
  • Patent number: 4056638
    Abstract: A proteinaceous mass of fungal mycelial fibers is treated by rapid dielectric heating to reduce the moisture content by from 8 to 40 weight percent to give a product with a solids level of 30 to 70 weight percent, and preferably a solids level of 40 to 60 weight percent. The initial proteinaceous mass may be pretreated such as by aqueous thermal shock to reduce the nucleic acid content, before it is formed into fiber bundles of from 0.2 to 1.0 mm. in diameter, and having an average length to diameter ratio of greater than 20. These bundles are interconnected by groups of hyphae or by single hyphal with average diameter of from 0.004 to 0.01 mm. and length to diameter ratio of from 10 to 1000. The dielectric heating process puffs and crosslinks (heat sets) the product which then may be further dried such as in a hot air oven to reduce the moisture content of the mass to the desired level below 10 weight percent. The product is rehydratable to 1 to 5 and preferably 1.5 to 3.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 6, 1976
    Date of Patent: November 1, 1977
    Assignee: E. I. Du Pont de Nemours and Company
    Inventors: Hua-Feng Huang, Richard Alan Yates
  • Patent number: 4054672
    Abstract: Frozen foodstuffs are defrosted under an atmospheric pressure between about 2 atm. and 5 atm. using a liquid or gaseous environment at a defrosting temperature, thereby retaining the cellular structure, texture and appearance of the foodstuffs during defrosting. When the liquid is water, the foodstuffs may be maintained under pressure by immersing them to a depth in excess of 10m, while the medium is preferably a non-oxidizing gas or a gas capable of excluding atmospheric oxygen, preferably carbon dioxide, nitrogen, helium or argon. The defrosting temperature is preferably provided by internal heating of the foodstuffs, e.g. by high frequency dielectric heating, inductive heating or resistive heating.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 11, 1972
    Date of Patent: October 18, 1977
    Assignee: Inoue-Japax Research (IJR) Inc.
    Inventors: Kiyoshi Inoue, Yoshinori Shima
  • Patent number: 4035515
    Abstract: A new and improved process and apparatus for producing alcohol from cereal grains or starch materials is disclosed. The process involves cooking or mashing very rapidly by electric means to prevent any form of hydrolysis of the starch prior to enzymatic hydrolysis by malt. Specific over-all process steps include milling of the grain in a manner to improve the wetting of the grain; electric cooking or mashing; malting of the mash; fermentation and recovery by distillation. The apparatus principally comprises an electric cooking or mashing unit having a central electrode positioned within an electrically conductive outer wall with a suitable electric power source being provided across the central electrode and conductive wall. In accordance with the invention the mash is heated to a predetermined temperature in a matter of seconds without the addition of condensate.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 4, 1975
    Date of Patent: July 12, 1977
    Inventor: Newton T. Cunningham
  • Patent number: 3997678
    Abstract: In the process of preparing deep-fried potato products such as chips or French fries, the conventional blanching step comprising washing and pre-heating before the actual cooking in oil is replaced by novel blanching step. In this process step, the cut potato products are submersed in water and subjected to the passage of electric current of 50-60 cycles per second supplied to the water bath by means of electrodes immersed therein, during which treatment the potato products are heated to a suitable high temperature such as the boiling point.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 24, 1975
    Date of Patent: December 14, 1976
    Assignee: Electro-Food AB
    Inventor: Knut Birger Vigerstrom
  • Patent number: 3996385
    Abstract: The present invention relates to a method and device for the processing of organic substances, particularly the preparation of comestibles such as potatoes, with direct passage of electric current in an electrolyte. The method is distinguished in that the electric characteristics of the current passage processing, e.g. the voltage applied, are varied during the processing period and that the processing is divided into a number of stages with mutually dissimilar electric characteristics.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 19, 1974
    Date of Patent: December 7, 1976
    Assignee: Electro-Food AB
    Inventor: Knut Birger Vigerstrom
  • Patent number: 3935321
    Abstract: Products having at least an outer layer of a hot semi-liquid material which crystallizes and hardens upon cooling are placed on a conveyor and transported through a cooling tunnel. Within the cooling tunnel, the product is initially subjected to a high voltage field producing a corona current to accelerate initial cooling. The product is moved out of the field while the surface is still semi-liquid and subjected only to the cool air environment of the tunnel while the surface crystallizes and hardens. The product is then moved into a second high voltage field producing a corona current to remove heat from the inner regions of the material to inhibit remelting of the surface after the product exits the cooling tunnel.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 11, 1974
    Date of Patent: January 27, 1976
    Assignee: Nabisco, Inc.
    Inventors: Stephen Allen Sakler, Samuel Joseph Porcello, Jack L. Rossen