Radio Active Material Containing Patents (Class 429/5)
  • Patent number: 10938045
    Abstract: A radiolytic electrochemical system that comprises a cathode, an anode that comprises a semiconductor, an aqueous electrolyte solution disposed between the cathode and anode, and ionizing radiation, wherein the ionizing radiation splits water molecules via radiolysis and forms solvated free radicals that migrate to the anode or cathode, depending upon a radical's charge, and participate in redox reactions at the anode and cathode thereby producing electrical current capable of performing work when the anode and cathode are electrically connected.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 20, 2019
    Date of Patent: March 2, 2021
    Assignee: The Curators of the University of Missouri
    Inventors: Jae Wan Kwon, Baek Hyun Kim
  • Patent number: 10566638
    Abstract: A radiolytic electrochemical system that comprises a cathode, an anode that comprises a semiconductor, an aqueous electrolyte solution disposed between the cathode and anode, and ionizing radiation, wherein the ionizing radiation splits water molecules and forms solvated free radicals that migrate to the anode or cathode, depending upon a radical's charge, and participate in redox reactions at the anode and cathode thereby producing electrical current capable of performing work when the anode and cathode are electrically connected.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 31, 2014
    Date of Patent: February 18, 2020
    Assignee: The Curators of the University of Missouri
    Inventors: Jae Wan Kwon, Baek Hyun Kim
  • Patent number: 10141566
    Abstract: A lithium secondary battery wherein the cathode layer comprises a cathode active material particle having a coating layer that is on at least a portion of a surface of the cathode active material particle, and a solid electrolyte particle which is in contact with the coating layer, wherein an average particle diameter of the cathode active material secondary particle is in a range of about 3 micrometers to about 10 micrometers, wherein the coating layer is amorphous and contains at least one element selected from metal elements not including nickel, and semi-metal elements, and wherein a mole ratio of the at least one element of the coating layer and all of the metal elements, not including lithium, or semi-metal elements in the cathode active material particle is in a range of about 0.1 mole percent to about 10 mole percent.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 5, 2015
    Date of Patent: November 27, 2018
    Assignee: SAMSUNG ELECTRONICS CO., LTD.
    Inventors: Satoshi Fujiki, Yuichi Aihara
  • Patent number: 10038188
    Abstract: To provide a cathode active material with which a lithium ion secondary battery having favorable cycle characteristics and having a high energy density even when discharged at a high voltage can be obtained; a cathode comprising the cathode active material; and a lithium ion secondary battery having the cathode. A cathode active material comprising a composite oxide (A) containing Li and at least one transition metal element selected from the group consisting of Ni, Co and Mn, and the following particles (B) and the following fluorinated carbon material (C) present on the surface of the composite oxide (A): particles (B): particles containing an oxide of at least one metal element selected from the group consisting of Ti, Sn, Si, Al, Ce, Y, Zr, Co, W, V, Nb, Ta, La and Mg; and fluorinated carbon material (C): a fluorinated carbon material in the form of particles or fibers.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 23, 2015
    Date of Patent: July 31, 2018
    Assignee: SUMITOMO CHEMICAL CO., LTD.
    Inventors: Widjaja Hardiyanto, Chikaya Tamitsuji, Naoki Yoshida, Sadatatsu Ikeda
  • Patent number: 9614221
    Abstract: A lithium-ion secondary battery of the present invention contains: a laminated electrode group formed of a rectangular positive electrode; a rectangular negative electrode; and a separator. In such a laminated electrode group, the positive electrode includes a positive electrode current collector foil, and a positive electrode mixture layer containing a positive electrode active material, the negative electrode includes a negative electrode current collector foil, and a negative electrode mixture layer containing a negative electrode active material. The negative electrode active material includes a silicon-based material, and a carbonaceous material. A mass ratio of the silicon-based material and the carbonaceous material is 20:80 to 80:20. The silicon-based material is a Si alloy or SiOx (0.5?x?1.5). The positive electrode and the negative electrode have a collection terminal protruding from a same side of the laminated electrode group.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 19, 2015
    Date of Patent: April 4, 2017
    Assignee: HITACHI, LTD.
    Inventors: Naoki Kimura, Eiji Seki
  • Publication number: 20150140359
    Abstract: In an aspect, a negative active material, a negative electrode and a lithium battery including the negative active material, and a method of manufacturing the negative active material is provided. The negative active material includes a silicon-based active material substrate; a metal oxide nanoparticle disposed on a surface of the silicon-based active material substrate. An initial irreversible capacity of the lithium battery may be decreased and lifespan characteristics may be improved by using the negative active material.
    Type: Application
    Filed: April 25, 2014
    Publication date: May 21, 2015
    Applicant: Samsung SDI Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Sang-Eun Park, Young-Ugk Kim, Hyun-Ki Park, Chang-Su Shin, Ui-Song Do, Sung-Su Kim
  • Publication number: 20150093602
    Abstract: An electrolyte for a rechargeable lithium battery includes a non-aqueous organic solvent; a lithium salt; and an additive including vinylene carbonate, fluoroethylene carbonate, and a nitrile-based compound represented by Formula 1: wherein n ranges from 1 to 12 and R1 and R2 are independently a halogen, a hydrogen, or an alkyl group. Further, the alkyl group can be CmH(2m+1), in which m ranges from 1 to 10. The electrolyte for a rechargeable lithium battery improves storage stability of the rechargeable lithium battery at a high temperature. And, a rechargeable lithium battery including the electrolyte has improved storage stability.
    Type: Application
    Filed: December 4, 2014
    Publication date: April 2, 2015
    Inventors: Euy-Young Jung, Duck-Chul Hwang, Jong-Hwa Lee, In-Tae Mun, Sae-Weon Roh, So-Hyun Hur, Yong-Chul Park, Jeom-Soo Kim, Jae-Yul Ryu
  • Publication number: 20140370332
    Abstract: A betavoltaic power source. The power source comprises a source of beta particles, one or more regions for collecting the beta particles and for generating electron hole pairs responsive thereto, and a secondary power source charged by a current developed by the electron hole pairs.
    Type: Application
    Filed: June 13, 2014
    Publication date: December 18, 2014
    Applicant: CITY LABS, INC.
    Inventor: PETER CABAUY
  • Publication number: 20140212694
    Abstract: A composite anode active material, an anode including the composite anode active material, a lithium battery including the anode, and a method of preparing the composite anode active material, the composite anode active material including a core including a ternary alloy, the ternary alloy being capable of intercalating and deintercalating lithium; and a carbonaceous coating layer on the core.
    Type: Application
    Filed: December 16, 2013
    Publication date: July 31, 2014
    Applicant: SAMSUNG SDI CO., LTD.
    Inventors: Yo-Han PARK, Young-Ugk KIM, Seung-Uk KWON, Jae-Hyuk KIM, Soon-Sung SUH, Yury MATULEVICH, Duk-Hyoung YOON, Hee-Young CHU, Chang-Ui JEONG
  • Publication number: 20140120378
    Abstract: A composite cathode active material, a method of preparing the composite cathode active material, and a cathode and a lithium battery each including the composite cathode active material. The composite cathode active material includes a core including a lithium intercalatable oxide which enables intercalation and deintercalation of lithium; and a coating layer disposed on at least a portion of the core, wherein the conductive layer includes a lithium metal oxide which is an inactive lithium ion conductor, and wherein the lithium metal oxide contains a metal which has an atomic weight of 27 Daltons or more and is selected an element of Groups 3 to 14 of the Periodic Table of the Elements.
    Type: Application
    Filed: October 11, 2013
    Publication date: May 1, 2014
    Applicants: Samsung SDI Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Jun-young MUN, Jin-hwan PARK, Gue-sung KIM, Jun-ho PARK, Jae-gu YOON
  • Publication number: 20130302650
    Abstract: A method and apparatus for collecting and storing the energy emitted by radioisotopes in the form of alpha and or beta particles is described. The present invention incorporates aspects of three different energy conversion and storage technologies, those being: Nuclear alpha and or beta particle capture for direct energy conversion and storage, rechargeable electrochemical storage cells and capacitive electrical energy storage.
    Type: Application
    Filed: March 27, 2013
    Publication date: November 14, 2013
    Inventor: Eric Delangis
  • Publication number: 20130252031
    Abstract: A negative active material, a method of preparing the negative active material and a lithium ion battery comprising the negative active material are provided. The negative active material may comprise: a core (1) composed of a carbon material; and a plurality of composite materials (2) attached to a surface of the core (1), each of which may comprise a first material (21) and a second material (22) coated on the first material (21), in which the first material (21) may be at least one selected from the elements that may form an alloy with lithium, and the second material (22) may be at least one selected from the group consisting of transition metal oxides, transition metal nitrides and transition metal sulfides.
    Type: Application
    Filed: August 31, 2011
    Publication date: September 26, 2013
    Applicant: Shenzhen BYD Auto R&D Company Limited and BYD Company Limited
    Inventors: Yongjun Ma, Pei Tu, Zizhu Guo
  • Publication number: 20130224522
    Abstract: A technology is provided that is capable of improving deterioration of a fuel cell due to non-stationary operation (startup/shutdown, fuel depletion). An anode-side catalyst composition comprising a catalyst having catalyst particles carried on electrically conductive material and an ion exchange resin, characterized in that the catalyst particle are formed of an alloy, of which oxygen reduction capability and water electrolysis are both lower than those of platinum, and which has hydrogen oxidation capability.
    Type: Application
    Filed: October 26, 2011
    Publication date: August 29, 2013
    Applicant: W. L. GORE & ASSOCIATES, CO., LTD.
    Inventors: Masashi Maruyama, Atsushi Sakamoto, Tomoyuki Kawaguchi, Takuya Kosaka
  • Publication number: 20120321911
    Abstract: A battery is composed of a positive electrode in which a positive electrode active material layer including a positive electrode active material is formed on a positive electrode collector, a negative electrode in which a negative electrode active material layer including a negative electrode active material is formed on a negative electrode collector, a separator provided between the positive electrode and the negative electrode, and an electrolyte impregnated in the separator. The battery further includes at least one of a heteropoly acid and a heteropoly acid compound as an additive at least in one of the positive electrode, the negative electrode, the separator, and the electrolyte.
    Type: Application
    Filed: June 17, 2010
    Publication date: December 20, 2012
    Applicant: SONY CORPORATION
    Inventors: Haruo Watanabe, Tomoyo Ooyama, Shunsuke Saito, Shinichi Katayama, Hideki Nakai, Yoshihiro Kudo, Yoshikazu Kato, Muneaki Ando, Koji Morita, Ichiro Yamada, Nobuya Okano, Noritoshi Araki, Shuhei Sugita, Kunihiko Hayashi, Yosuke Hosoya, Tadahiko Fujita, Shigeru Fujita
  • Patent number: 8330038
    Abstract: A power pack comprising a solar cell panel, a carbon crystal plate, and a radium plate, wherein said solar cell panel, said carbon crystal plate, and said radium plate are positioned in an encasement. A system for generating power utilizing the power pack is also disclosed.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 20, 2011
    Date of Patent: December 11, 2012
    Inventor: Ronnie H. Wright
  • Patent number: 8294023
    Abstract: A radioisotope power sources that includes radioisotope nanoparticles and scintillator materials. An embodiment of the radioisotope power source includes radioisotope nanoparticles suspended within a polycrystalline scintillator; additional polycrystalline scintillator at least partially surrounding the polycrystalline scintillator with the radioisotope nanoparticles; and a photovoltaic device in light communication with the surrounding polycrystalline scintillator. A system that employs the radioisotope power source and a method of generating an electrical current are also disclosed. The present invention has been described in terms of specific embodiment(s), and it is recognized that equivalents, alternatives, and modifications, aside from those expressly stated, are possible and within the scope of the appending claims.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 29, 2009
    Date of Patent: October 23, 2012
    Assignee: General Electric Company
    Inventors: Brent Allen Clothier, Matthew Christian Nielsen, Todd Ryan Tolliver, Allen Lawrence Garner
  • Patent number: 8227100
    Abstract: The present invention relates to a negative active material for a lithium ion battery and a lithium ion battery including the negative active material. The negative active material for a lithium ion battery includes a hexagonal lithium vanadium composite oxide including lithium, vanadium, and magnesium. The lithium and the vanadium are included in a mole ratio within a range of 1.15?Li/V?1.35, and the magnesium and the vanadium are included in a mole ratio within a range of 0.01?Mg/V?0.06. The present invention provides a negative active material for a lithium ion battery having a stable crystal structure, excellent high rate of charge and discharge, and good charge and discharge cycle characteristics.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 10, 2008
    Date of Patent: July 24, 2012
    Assignee: Samsung SDI Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Toru Inagaki, Akira Takamuku, Geun-Bao Kim
  • Publication number: 20110241600
    Abstract: A system and method for a self-charging battery cell are provided in which beta emissions from a Strontium-90 source are obtained by a sensor device and converted into electric energy. In embodiments, a scintillation device is used to intake emissions from a Strontium-90 source, and consequently emit a light or plurality of light flashes. A sensor device, e.g., a photodiode, is utilized to convert the light or plurality of light flashes into electric voltage, current and/or energy.
    Type: Application
    Filed: April 1, 2010
    Publication date: October 6, 2011
    Inventor: ISMAIL KAZEM
  • Patent number: 7867640
    Abstract: An alpha voltaic battery includes at least one layer of a semiconductor material comprising at least one p/n junction, at least one absorption and conversion layer on the at least one layer of semiconductor layer, and at least one alpha particle emitter. The absorption and conversion layer prevents at least a portion of alpha particles from the alpha particle emitter from damaging the p/n junction in the layer of semiconductor material. The absorption and conversion layer also converts at least a portion of energy from the alpha particles into electron-hole pairs for collection by the one p/n junction in the layer of semiconductor material.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 22, 2008
    Date of Patent: January 11, 2011
    Assignees: Rochester Institute of Technology, The United States of America as represented by the Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration
    Inventors: Ryne P. Raffaelle, Phillip Jenkins, David Wilt, David Scheiman, Donald Chubb, Stephanie Castro
  • Patent number: 7867639
    Abstract: An alpha voltaic battery includes at least one layer of a semiconductor material comprising at least one p/n junction, at least one absorption and conversion layer on the at least one layer of semiconductor layer, and at least one alpha particle emitter. The absorption and conversion layer prevents at least a portion of alpha particles from the alpha particle emitter from damaging the p/n junction in the layer of semiconductor material. The absorption and conversion layer also converts at least a portion of energy from the alpha particles into electron-hole pairs for collection by the one p/n junction in the layer of semiconductor material.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 29, 2005
    Date of Patent: January 11, 2011
    Assignees: Rochester Institute of Technology, The United States of America as represented by the Administrator of National Aeronautics and Space Administration
    Inventors: Ryne P. Raffaelle, Phillip Jenkins, David Wilt, David Scheiman, Donald Chubb, Stephanie Castro
  • Patent number: 7816044
    Abstract: A system is described for storing and generating hydrogen and, in particular, a system for storing and generating hydrogen for use in an H2/O2 fuel cell. The hydrogen storage system uses beta particles from a beta particle emitting material to degrade an organic polymer material to release substantially pure hydrogen. In a preferred embodiment of the invention, beta particles from 63Ni are used to release hydrogen from linear polyethylene.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 8, 2010
    Date of Patent: October 19, 2010
    Assignee: Sandia Corporation
    Inventors: Paul M. Dentinger, Jeffrey A. W. Crowell
  • Patent number: 7781111
    Abstract: A system for storing and generating hydrogen generally and, in particular, a system for storing and generating hydrogen for use in an H2/O2 fuel cell. The hydrogen storage system uses the beta particles from a beta particle emitting material to degrade an organic polymer material to release substantially pure hydrogen. In a preferred embodiment of the invention, beta particles from 63Ni are used to release hydrogen from linear polyethylene.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 11, 2008
    Date of Patent: August 24, 2010
    Assignee: Sandia Corporation
    Inventors: Paul M. Dentinger, Jeffrey A. W. Crowell
  • Patent number: 7718283
    Abstract: An alpha voltaic battery includes at least one layer of a semiconductor material comprising at least one p/n junction, at least one absorption and conversion layer on the at least one layer of semiconductor layer, and at least one alpha particle emitter. The absorption and conversion layer prevents at least a portion of alpha particles from the alpha particle emitter from damaging the p/n junction in the layer of semiconductor material. The absorption and conversion layer also converts at least a portion of energy from the alpha particles into electron-hole pairs for collection by the one p/n junction in the layer of semiconductor material.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 22, 2008
    Date of Patent: May 18, 2010
    Assignees: Rochester Institute of Technology, Glenn Research Center, Ohio Aerospace Institute
    Inventors: Ryne P. Raffaelle, Phillip Jenkins, David Wilt, David Scheiman, Donald Chubb, Stephanie Castro
  • Publication number: 20100062288
    Abstract: Beta and alpha-ray particles emitted by radio-isotopic by-products of nuclear fission, such as nickel 63, are used as a power source at the cathode of a microwave generating magnetron. Such particles include high speed, high energy electrons having a large EMF associated therewith. In the magnetron, a radial electrical vector, between the cathode and anode, interacts with an axial magnetic vector to produce a cloud of electrons that rotates about the magnetron axis. The speed, geometry and density of the rotating cloud may be modulated by an external RF input or grids within the interaction space of the magnetron. At the periphery of the interaction space is a polar array of anode cavities into which the rotating field induces an LC equivalent parameter that includes high energy microwaves that may be used as an input for the generation of AC or DC power.
    Type: Application
    Filed: November 17, 2006
    Publication date: March 11, 2010
    Inventors: David Weber, John Cochrane
  • Patent number: 7622532
    Abstract: The present invention relates generally to synthesis of radioactive material, such as a tritiated polymer, and an apparatus for generating electrical current from the nuclear decay process of a radioactive material. In one embodiment, the invention relates to an energy cell (e.g., a battery) for generating electrical current derived from particle emissions occurring within a radioactive material such as a tritiated polymer) on pore walls of a porous semiconductor. The radioactive material may be introduced into the energy cell by a wetting process.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 16, 2007
    Date of Patent: November 24, 2009
    Assignees: William Marsh Rice University, BetaBatt, Inc.
    Inventors: Larry L. Gadeken, Paul S. Engel, Kenneth S. Laverdure
  • Patent number: 7603144
    Abstract: A radio frequency identification (RFID) device provided on a thin-film battery. A system includes the RFID device in communication with a remote radio frequency (RF) transmitter and/or receiver. In some embodiments, the RFID device of the system includes a flexible substrate, a thin-film battery deposited on the flexible substrate, an electronic circuit placed on the battery and coupled to the battery to provide power, and a Radio Frequency (RF) antenna connected to the electronic circuit. In some embodiments, the battery of the RFID device is a rechargeable battery, and the battery is recharged when energy is transmitted from the remote device. Another aspect of the invention provides a system for making an RFID device.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 2, 2003
    Date of Patent: October 13, 2009
    Assignee: Cymbet Corporation
    Inventors: Mark L. Jenson, Jody J. Klaassen, Jim Sullivan
  • Publication number: 20080311432
    Abstract: A cathode including an active material composite and a lithium battery using the same. The active material composite of the cathode includes a mixed oxide complex and a lithium-containing compound, the lithium-containing compound having a metal based compound coated on the surface of the lithium-containing compound.
    Type: Application
    Filed: April 16, 2008
    Publication date: December 18, 2008
    Applicant: Samsung SDI Co. Ltd.
    Inventors: Kyu-sung Park, Jae-gu Yoon, Seok-gwang Doo
  • Patent number: 7438789
    Abstract: A decomposition cell having a first metal plate with a first layer of dielectric and a second metal plate with a second layer of dielectric wherein each layer of dielectric is sprayed onto the metal plates in molten form using a thermal plasma spray process. The plates are placed in parallel spaced relation forming a discharge area therebetween. One of the metal plates is then attached to a high voltage high frequency source that when actuated causes a discharge within the discharge area.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 1, 2005
    Date of Patent: October 21, 2008
    Assignee: Medusa Special Projects, LLC
    Inventor: Everly Dean Putnam
  • Publication number: 20080199736
    Abstract: The present invention relates generally to synthesis of radioactive material, such as a tritiated polymer, and an apparatus for generating electrical current from the nuclear decay process of a radioactive material. In one embodiment, the invention relates to an energy cell (e.g., a battery) for generating electrical current derived from particle emissions occurring within a radioactive material such as a tritiated polymer) on pore walls of a porous semiconductor. The radioactive material may be introduced into the energy cell by a wetting process.
    Type: Application
    Filed: February 16, 2007
    Publication date: August 21, 2008
    Inventors: Larry L. Gadeken, Paul S. Engel, Kenneth S. Laverdure
  • Publication number: 20080081222
    Abstract: A nuclear electric generator which utilizes particles produced during the spontaneous disintegration of selected radioisotopes as a means of generating electricity and production of coolant and insulating material. The apparatus shall consist of an alpha emitting radioisotope diffused within or sandwiched between a first lead plate. The alpha particles capture two electrons and exit as helium atoms, resulting in a high positive charge. A beta emitting radioisotope shall be diffused within or sandwiched between a second lead plate, thus acquiring a high negative charge as a result of being “pumped” full of electrons. The entire apparatus will be immersed into a bath of liquid helium which will act as an insulator and remove heat generated by radioactive emissions. The positive and negatively charged plates shall be connected, externally, to a resistive load chosen for the voltage level desired.
    Type: Application
    Filed: September 29, 2006
    Publication date: April 3, 2008
    Inventor: Marcus Ray Taylor
  • Patent number: 6949865
    Abstract: An apparatus and method for generating electrical power from the decay process of a radioactive material is disclosed, wherein a volume of radioactive material and a junction region are enclosed in a cell. The junction region is formed by appropriate construction of a number of p-type and n-type dopant sites. At least a portion of one of the junction regions is disposed within a porous region having an aspect ratio of greater than about 20:1, and disposed at an angle of greater than about 55° measured relative to the surface area in which it is formed. The dimensions and shapes of the macroporous regions and the improved junction region surface area available for collecting charged particles emitted during a radioactive decay series permit an improved current to be derived from the apparatus than would otherwise be expected given its external dimensions.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 25, 2003
    Date of Patent: September 27, 2005
    Assignee: BetaBatt, Inc.
    Inventor: Larry Gadeken
  • Publication number: 20040241503
    Abstract: This invention provides a secondary battery comprised of a cathode, an anode and an ion conductor wherein the ion conductor contains radioactive substance. By projecting radioactive ray upon ions and deposit in the ion conductor, valency electrons and bonding electrons in deposit are excited so as to raise chemical reaction activity of ions and deposit thereby suppressing growth and excessive expansion of crystal of the deposit. Consequently, reduction in storage capacity and electromotive force due to repeated discharge/recharge is prevented.
    Type: Application
    Filed: May 12, 2004
    Publication date: December 2, 2004
    Inventor: Tomio Inoue
  • Patent number: 6774531
    Abstract: An apparatus and method for generating electrical power from the decay process of a radioactive material is disclosed, wherein a volume of radioactive material and a junction region are enclosed in a cell. The junction region is formed by appropriate construction of a number of p-type and n-type dopant sites. At least a portion of one of the junction regions is disposed within a porous region having an aspect ratio of greater than about 20:1, and disposed at an angle of greater than about 55° measured relative to the surface area in which it is formed. The dimensions and shapes of the macroporous regions and the improved junction region surface area available for collecting charged particles emitted during a radioactive decay series permit an improved current to be derived from the apparatus than would otherwise be expected given its external dimensions.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 31, 2003
    Date of Patent: August 10, 2004
    Assignee: BetaBatt, Inc.
    Inventor: Larry Gadeken
  • Publication number: 20040150290
    Abstract: An apparatus and method for generating electrical power from the decay process of a radioactive material is disclosed, wherein a volume of radioactive material and a junction region are enclosed in a cell. The junction region is formed by appropriate construction of a number of p-type and n-type dopant sites. At least a portion of one of the junction regions is disposed within a porous region having an aspect ratio of greater than about 20:1, and disposed at an angle of greater than about 55° measured relative to the surface area in which it is formed. The dimensions and shapes of the macroporous regions and the improved junction region surface area available for collecting charged particles emitted during a radioactive decay series permit an improved current to be derived from the apparatus than would otherwise be expected given its external dimensions.
    Type: Application
    Filed: January 31, 2003
    Publication date: August 5, 2004
    Inventor: Larry Gadeken
  • Patent number: 6753469
    Abstract: A power source converts &agr;-particle energy into electricity by coulomb collision in doped diamond films. Alpha particle decay from curium-244 creates electron-hole pairs by freeing electrons and holes inside the crystal lattice in N- and P-doped diamond films. Ohmic contacts provide electrical connection to an electronic device. Due to the built-in electric field at the rectifying junction across the N- and P-doped diamond films, the free electrons are constrained to traveling in generally one direction. This one direction then supplies electrons in a manner similar to that of a battery. The radioactive curium layer may be disposed on diamond films for even distribution of &agr;-particle radiation. The resulting power source may be mounted on a diamond substrate that serves to insulate structures below the diamond substrate from &agr;-particle emission. Additional insulation or isolation may be provided in order to prevent damage from &agr;-particle collision.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 5, 2002
    Date of Patent: June 22, 2004
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration
    Inventors: Elizabeth A. Kolawa, Jagdishbhai U. Patel, Jean-Pierre Fleurial
  • Publication number: 20030198848
    Abstract: A fuel cell system includes a fuel cell stack, an air supply system including a blower for driving the air to the fuel cell stack and an air humidifier for humidifying the air supplied to the fuel cell stack, a hydrogen supply system including a hydrogen storage and a pressure regulating device, and a hydrogen recirculator for receiving excessive hydrogen from the fuel cell stack and forcing the hydrogen back into the fuel cell stack in order to induce a hydrogen flow inside the fuel cell stack. A control circuit electrically controls the flow and pressure regulating device for regulating the hydrogen flow to the fuel cell stack and electrically controls the blower to regulate the air flows to the fuel cell stack and the air humidifier.
    Type: Application
    Filed: April 16, 2003
    Publication date: October 23, 2003
    Inventors: Jefferson Ys Yang, Yao-Sheng Hsu
  • Publication number: 20020022160
    Abstract: This invention provides new compositions, methods for making these compositions, and methods of using the compositions in a variety of energy-related applications. These compositions are useful as electrode materials in devices such as batteries, capacitors, fuel cells and similar devices as also in the direct production of hydrogen and oxygen gas. The new compositions of the present invention comprise: (A) one or more of the transition metal elements; optionally (B) aluminum; optionally (C) one or more of the group 1A alkali metal elements; (D) one or more elements and/or compounds having high mobility values for electrons; and (E) a source of ionizing radiation. Thus, components A, D and E are required ingredients of the present invention, and components B and C are both optional. Components B and C may be used independently alone, together, or not at all.
    Type: Application
    Filed: June 21, 2001
    Publication date: February 21, 2002
    Inventor: David G. Schmidt
  • Patent number: 6238812
    Abstract: A semiconducter battery that utilizes radioactive decay processes to produce electrical power by direct electrical current generation from these decay products. These batteries have extremely long half-lives. Each decay can produce on the order of 1,500,000 free electrons and 1,500,000 ions per each radioactive decay, so there is a tremendous multiplication factor for current generation. Production of these batteries by semiconductor processes greatly reduces battery cost compared to existing batteries that utilize radioactive decays. The battery comprises a n-type semiconducter layer, a radioactive semiconducter layer sandwiched between two adjacent layers of semiconducter material not containing radioactive material, and a p-type semiconducter layer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 6, 1998
    Date of Patent: May 29, 2001
    Inventors: Paul M. Brown, Patrick G. Herda
  • Patent number: 6118204
    Abstract: The present invention is a power cell for directly converting ionizing radiation into electrical energy. The invented isotopic electric converter provides an electrical power source that includes an electronegative material layered in a semiconductor, to form a first region that has a high density of conduction electrons, and an electropositive material also layered in the semiconductor material to form a second region with a high density of holes. Said N-layers region and P-layers region are separated by a neutral zone of semiconductor material doped with a radioactive isotope, such as, but not limited to, tritium. No junction is formed between the N and P layers regions. Rather, the potential gradient across the neutral zone is provided by the difference between the work functions of the electronegative and electropositive electrodes. Electrical contacts are affixed to the respective regions of the first and second type conductivity which become the anode and cathode of the cell, respectively.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 1, 1999
    Date of Patent: September 12, 2000
    Inventor: Paul M. Brown
  • Patent number: 5721462
    Abstract: A nuclear battery for supplying low level electrical energy for a relatively long period of time. The battery includes a low-energy beta emitter and phosphor dispersed sufficient proximate the beta emitter to capture the low energy betas before decay. A photovoltaic receptor is configured to have a peaked response near the wavelength of the photons emitted by the phosphor. In a preferred embodiment, the photovoltaic, phosphor and beta source are formed into flexible layers which are rolled into a cylinder in order to maximize the capture of photons emitted by the beta-excited phosphor.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 8, 1993
    Date of Patent: February 24, 1998
    Assignee: Iowa State University Research Foundation, Inc.
    Inventor: Howard R. Shanks
  • Patent number: 5642014
    Abstract: The invention provides a self-powered device having at least one substrate, at least one radioactive power source formed over the substrate, and integrated circuits formed over the substrate. The radioactive power source includes a first active layer of a first conductivity type, a second active layer of a second conductivity type. The first and second active layers form a depletion layer. A tritium containing layer is provided which supplies beta particles that penetrates the depletion layer generating electron-hole pairs. The electron-hole pairs are swept by the electric field in the depletion layer producing an electric current.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 27, 1995
    Date of Patent: June 24, 1997
    Assignee: Lucent Technologies Inc.
    Inventor: Steven J. Hillenius
  • Patent number: 5616928
    Abstract: An apparatus for protecting personnel and the environment from harmful emissions of radiation from a source thereof includes a plurality of shielding parts so located as to be in the path of the radioactive emissions and to absorb them so that an electrical potential difference between the shielding parts is established, due to different absorptions of radiation by them, a variable electrical load for consuming electrical power at a location remote from the radioactive source, and electrical conductors communicating the variable electrical load with such shielding parts. Although the invention is primarily intended for protecting personnel and the environment against emissions from radiation sources, such as radioactive wastes, it is also useful for shielding other sources of harmful radiated emissions. Also within the invention are processes for protecting personnel and the environment against radiation hazards.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 7, 1992
    Date of Patent: April 1, 1997
    Inventors: Virginia Russell, James W. Russell, administrator
  • Patent number: 5492570
    Abstract: The apparatus is a combined Alkali Metal Thermal to Electric Converter (AMTEC) and a thermionic energy converter which are mated by the use of a common heat transfer device which can be a heat pipe, pumped fluid or a simple heat conduction path. By adjusting the heat output surface area of the thermionic converter and the heat input surface area of the AMTEC, the heat transfer device accomplishes not only the transfer of heat from the output of the thermionic converter to the input of the AMTEC, but also the transformation of the heat density to match the requirements of the AMTEC input. The electrical current through the combined devices is also matched by adjusting the heated surface area of the AMTEC.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 5, 1994
    Date of Patent: February 20, 1996
    Assignee: Thermacore, Inc.
    Inventors: Kevin Horner-Richardson, William G. Anderson
  • Patent number: 5459366
    Abstract: A gamma radiation intensity meter measures dose rate of a radiation field. The gamma radiation intensity meter includes a tritium battery emitting beta rays generating a current which is essentially constant. Dose rate is correlated to an amount of movement of an electroscope element charged by the tritium battery. Ionizing radiation decreases the voltage at the element and causes movement. A bleed resistor is coupled between the electroscope support element or electrode and the ionization chamber wall electrode.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 10, 1994
    Date of Patent: October 17, 1995
    Assignee: Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc.
    Inventor: Louis H. Thacker
  • Patent number: 5280213
    Abstract: A power cell which converts ionizing radiation into electrical energy. The power cell includes a multi-layer composite source element which includes a charged particle emitter layer, first and second source dielectric layers, a source collector layer and a source retarding layer. The source element is disposed within a multi-layer composite shield element having an absorber layer, first and second shield dielectric layers, a shield collector layer, and a shield retarding layer. An anode is connected to the emitter layer and a cathode to the collector layer. The emitter layer produces charged particles which interact with the dielectric layers to eject electrons which are collected by the collector layer to generate a potential between the anode and the cathode.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 23, 1992
    Date of Patent: January 18, 1994
    Inventor: John J. Day
  • Patent number: 5235232
    Abstract: A long-life, electrical energy source having an adjustable output is comprised of a light emitting phosphor activated by a radioisotope and coupled to a plurality of photovoltalic cells that have their outputs electrically connected together. The output power of the electrical energy source is effectively regulated by selectively changing the connections of the outputs of the photovoltaic cells in response to the progression of time.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 4, 1990
    Date of Patent: August 10, 1993
    Assignee: E. F. Johnson Company
    Inventors: Jerry J. Conley, Gary B. Mortensen
  • Patent number: 5111099
    Abstract: There is provided an apparatus and method for converting radioactive energy into electrical energy, with the apparatus including an outer radioactive protective shell and a radioactive fuel source located within that shell. In a preferred embodiment, three mutually perpendicular magnetic fields are provided to separate alpha and beta particles emitted from the radioactive fuel source and to direct the alpha particles to a first predetermined region of the shell while directing the beta particles to a second predetermined region. An alpha collector is situated adjacent the first region to collect the alpha particles directed to that region, while a beta collector is situated within the second region to collect beta particles directed thereto. Structure is provided to permit removal of gaseous by-product from within the shell, and output leads are provided to utilize the collected alpha and beta particles to create electric current.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 2, 1990
    Date of Patent: May 5, 1992
    Assignee: Genesis Energy Systems, Inc.
    Inventor: Robert J. Smith
  • Patent number: 5089054
    Abstract: A flat plate alkali metal thermoelectric converter module having a plurality of generally flat plate cells grouped in stacks that are electrically connected in series within the stack, the cells being disposed to minimize the heat energy radiated to a condenser to provide a high efficiency module.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 28, 1990
    Date of Patent: February 18, 1992
    Assignee: Westinghouse Electric Corp.
    Inventor: Robert K. Sievers
  • Patent number: 5087533
    Abstract: An electrical energy generating device which utilizes the potential difference between two dissimilar materials having different work functions and the ionizing properties of radioactive decay products is provided. A current generating cell includes a pair of electrodes of electro-chemically dissimilar materials separated by a space filled with a solid medium having a relatively high dielectric constant and a relatively low ionization constant. A current flows in an external circuit coupling the two electrodes together when the solid medium is ionized. Utilizing a suitable radioactive material mixed or dispersed in the solid medium provides an internal ionizing flux. Similarly, a current is generated in the external circuit when each of the electrodes are constructed of two plates of dissimilar materials in physical contact with each other and the medium is ionized.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 7, 1991
    Date of Patent: February 11, 1992
    Inventor: Paul M. Brown
  • Patent number: 4967112
    Abstract: A power cell for generating useful electrical power from high frequency electromagnetic radiation comprising a spiral-wound, multi-layer film forming a cylindrical body with a central opening for receiving the radiation source. The film has in succession a conductive grounded emitter layer, a first intermediate layer of dielectric material, a second intermediate layer of a material having a substantial Compton effect, a conductive collector layer, a third intermediate layer of the same dielectric material, a conductive retarding layer, and an insulating layer. The collector and emitter layers are to be connected to the opposite terminals of a load. A bleeder regulator is connected between the retarding and collector layers to pass excess charge on the retarding layer to the collector layer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 8, 1990
    Date of Patent: October 30, 1990
    Inventor: John J. Day