Abstract: The present invention provides for a low-temperature method to crystallize a silicon-germanium film. Metal-induced crystallization of a deposited silicon film can serve to reduce the temperature required to crystallize the film. Increasing germanium content in a silicon-germanium alloy further decreases crystallization temperature. By using metal-induced crystallization to crystallize a deposited silicon-germanium film, temperature can be reduced substantially. In preferred embodiments, for example in a monolithic three dimensional array of stacked memory levels, reduced temperature allows the use of aluminum metallization. In some embodiments, use of metal-induced crystallization in a vertically oriented silicon-germanium diode having conductive contacts at the top and bottom end is be particularly advantageous, as increased solubility of the metal catalyst in the contact material will reduce the risk of metal contamination of the diode.
Abstract: A non-magnetic monocomponent toner is provided for use in a developing device of a non-contact developing method, and is obtained by externally adding an external additive to cylindrical toner particles having a ratio of a cylindrical length (L) to a cylindrical diameter (D), (L/D), within a range from 1 to 2. The non-magnetic monocomponent toner having excellent developability for use in an electrophotograhic apparatus employing a non-contact developing method.