Abstract: Arithmetic Measurement System quantifies arithmetic operations just by measurement and without arithmetic calculation or even counting. Playing cards may be annotated with size-coded marks or card tags to represent face value. For example, a tag representing a face value 5 is half the size of one representing a value 10 using a linear tag scale, or about 7/10th the size using a log10 tag scale. Users align linear tags in a contiguous row to add values or overlap tags to subtract values. Users align logarithmic tags in a row to multiply values or overlap tags to divide values. Integrated and separate measures with corresponding linear or logarithmic tag-scales quantify a total value of aggregate or net tag row size. Product developers may use the Arithmetic Measurement System of tags and measures to provide novel educational math manipulatives and playing card games for players unskilled in arithmetic.
Abstract: An apparatus and method for motivating students in mathematics education, computer technology education and information encoding. The apparatus consists of a container holding multi-state sources and a reading device, if necessary, that can determine the state of the sources in the container when it is closed. Students determine the states of the sources and use a predetermined algorithm to determine the information or data represented in the container. The apparatus and method can be presented to an audience as a magic trick.
Abstract: The invention is for a memory assist device with an indicia field to indicate a number. The memory assist device includes at least two filaments extending between internal walls of the memory assist device to form an indicia field. The memory assist device also includes clips selectively clamped on the filaments to indicate the number. In one embodiment, the memory assist device has a loop portion for attachment to a key chain when using the memory assist device to indicate a floor on which a user has parked his car in a parking garage. In other embodiments, the memory assist device has a first numerical label to associate a numerical expression with a particular clip. In still other embodiments, the memory assist device has a second numerical label to indicate the position of the clips within the indicia field.
Abstract: The game for teaching binary mathematics includes a plurality of balls, a backboard, and a plurality of elongate members selectively connected to each other and to the backboard in non-horizontal directions. A plurality of gate sections are pivotally connected to the backboard and engageable with select ones of the plurality of members so that the gate sections can be pivoted between open and closed positions respectively. Select ones of the plurality of balls may cause corresponding ones of the plurality of gate sections to pivot between open and closed positions after passing thereby. Corresponding 0 and 1 binary values are assigned to closed and open ones of the plurality of gate sections, respectively, so that a number of the plurality of marbles that have been introduced to the game can be determined by adding the corresponding 0 and 1 binary values.
Abstract: A kit containing an Instructor unit sized for presentation to a group and multiple Child training units both set up to allow students to visually model and relate addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division in primary mathematics. The manipulative units include a plurality of colored cubes arranged in slots so that the movement of particular cubes from one side of the slots to the other side represents numbers in a mathematical operation. Tally trays of five slots may be removed from the device and hold up to 10 cubes to demonstrate regrouping operations on a mat.
Abstract: A kit containing an Instructor unit sized for presentation to a group and multiple Child training units both set up to allow students to visually model and relate addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division in prinmry mathematics.
Abstract: An arrangement for abacus-like calculation comprises a basic element comprising a first region with an array of first cells forming the first region, wherein each first cell represents a visual marking as to an assignment of each first cell, a second region with an array of second cells forming the second region, wherein each second cell represents a visual marking as to an assignment of each second cell, at least one first indicator unit accessed to the first region, wherein the relative arrangement between the first indicator unit and the first region is changeable in order to indicate a selected first cell of the array of first cells, and at least one second indicator unit accessed to the second region, wherein the relative arrangement between the second indicator unit and the second region is changeable in order to indicate a selected second cell of the array of second cells, wherein the visually marked assignment is marked on the basic element or on the indicator unit.
Abstract: A score counter includes a bar having two spheres on two ends thereof so as to fix the bar by engaging the two spheres with relative members. A plurality of retaining members each have a score marked therein and extend from an outside of the bar. A plurality of blocks are slidably mounted to the bar and each block is separated by the retaining members on the bar. The hole is sized that the user can move the block over the retaining members by force. The blocks on the bar are separated by the retaining members.
Abstract: The present invention involves the use of numerical digits with markers and attribute tags as a means to represent quantities, facilitate mathematical manipulation, and solve problems. The given number of markers on each digit corresponds to the value of the digit. For example, the digit three is enhanced with three markers. The attribute tags are also provided with a given number of markers, for example, ten, for math problems in base ten. The digits and the attribute tags are then used to represent and solve math problems including, but not limited to, learning ones, tens, hundreds, thousands columns, addition, multiplication, subtraction, and division, of whole numbers, of fractions, of negative whole numbers and of negative fractions, as well as decimals and exponents. The problems are quantitatively viewed, manipulated, and solved directly on the numerical digits incorporating the markers and attribute tags.
Abstract: A character revealing game having a ternary game piece, a plurality of character revealing elements and a character decoding device. A surface area of the ternary game piece is divided into sub-areas, and pictoral characters are arranged on the sub-areas in groups such that all characters arranged in a given group share a common indicium which is different from indicia of pictoral characters of any of the other groups. Each character revealing element has an indicium identical to a indicium of pictoral characters of exactly one group arranged on the ternary game piece. The arrangement of particular pictoral characters in particular groups on the ternary game piece takes advantage of particular characteristics of a distinct ternary number representation assigned to each pictoral character so that a first player may ascertain a pictoral character secretly selected by a second player merely by knowing all indicia with which the secretly selected pictoral character appears on the ternary game piece.
Abstract: A binary computer for demonstrating concepts of decimal to binary conversion and binary operations such as counting, addition, subtraction and multiplication is provided. Further, the binary computer is capable of demonstrating the computer concepts of bit, byte, memory, flip-flop, serial input and parallel input. A plurality of pointer-shaped flip-flops function as an information storage facility or memory and are a central concept in the design.
April 4, 1991
Date of Patent:
May 25, 1993
Paul M. Lapsa, Jeanne W. Lapsa, Ingrid A. Lapsa, Gaida T. Lapsa, Andrew P. Lapsa
Abstract: An apparatus for mechanically composing a mosaic pattern formed by balls, which comprises an inclined composition table subdivided by uniformly spaced protruding guides into a number of columns extending along the direction of the lines of maximum slope, each column having a width slightly larger than the diameter of a ball and a length several times larger than said diameter, a store of differently colored balls to be disposed into columns, situated at a level higher than that of the composition table, a reservoir for discharged balls, situated at a level lower then that of the composition table, a launching and column forming device actuable to direct each ball arriving from the upper store towards a preselected column of the composition table, a rejection device opening into the lower reservoir, a retaining device situated at the lower end of the columns of the composition table to normally retain the balls contained in these columns and, on command, to let them roll down towards the lower reservoir, and a
Abstract: A stack of sheets, each sheet from the next to lowermost upwardly corresponding to a successive binary place, the lowermost sheet carrying array of decimal numerals, a pivot connecting the sheets for relative rotation, and a window in each sheet above the lowermost configured to expose in one position of sheet movement the decimal corresponding to the binary place of the respective sheet and additional decimal numerals.
Abstract: The instant invention relates to an aid for the carrying out of a didactic game in order that any (n) based number system may be learned.It consists of a series of containers decreasing in size, each containing an (n) number of smaller containers which are equal to each other; the smallest container holds an (n) number of pieces each representing a numerical unit. A desk is provided with colored squares or frames arranged in such a way that the last square (frame) on the right is of the same color as the unit of the first order, the penultimate the same color as the unit of the second order and so on.
Abstract: A didactic game wherein a number of balls are allowed to roll by gravity along a guide channel on a play plate. The guide channel has bifurcations controlled by switch means provided with manual control members for selecting the trajectory of each ball and direct the same towards a specific nest of a plurality of nests arranged at the outlet of the ramifications of the guide channel. All switch means of the same order are connected to a single collective control member. The two positions of each control means are designed by the digits 0 and 1, which, read from the top towards the bottom, indicate in binary numeration the progressive number of the nest made reachable by the ball. This progressive number is marked in decimal numeration in the nests. The game may be used, in addition to play purposes, also for explicating and fix in the memory the practice of translating numbers from one to the other system of numeration.
Abstract: A mathematics teaching device wherein a display surface is divided into eight regions. The first region contains one hundred colored and numbered plaques removably mounted in ten rows. Plaques are within five color groupings and the rows are color-coded as are receiving pockets. Two regions have another set of plaques with an adjacent receiving pocket to permit simple mathematical operations to be performed therein. The other regions are marked for additional operations to be performed therein.
Abstract: A display device comprising a plurality of adjacent hierarchical orders, and at least one hierarchichal display in each order. The number of hierarchichal orders is n. The number of hierarchical displays in each order is 2.sup.n-1. The displays in each order include (n-1) display segments when n>and one display segment when n=1. The hierarchichal displays within each order are arrayed symmetrically about a medial boundary line intersecting the orders. Means for representing selected indicia at each display segment are provided.
Abstract: The invention is an educational device for explicitly demonstrating various operations with nonstandard counting procedures, mainly extending binary sequences by an additional digit for each sequence while remaining consistent with hereditary properties residing in the original or challenge sequence.Illustrated in an inscribed sequence with sixteen binary digits and its derived sub-sequence with fifteen binary digits in a configuration for testing values of a variable denoted by the letter `T.`The letter `T` is inscribed upon a plate which indicates the exact position into which a new trial binary digit may be incorporated into the subsequence thereby extending the challenge binary sequence.
June 3, 1988
Date of Patent:
February 6, 1990
The United States of America as represented by the President of the United States