Molecular Model Or Display Having Discrete Element Representing Atom Or Radical Patents (Class 434/278)
  • Patent number: 9548001
    Abstract: A molecular modeling kit provides a system for molecular modeling that represents exclusion between resonance structures in a molecule and permits their rotation, providing an informative tool for describing resonance in a classroom or other learning environment. The kit includes atom modeling components and bond connector components that are connected together to form models of molecules. The atom modeling components or the bond connector components include a mechanical exclusion feature that prevents simultaneous connection of two bond connector components to represent two pi-bonds formed with a single atom in a single plane.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 13, 2013
    Date of Patent: January 17, 2017
    Assignee: MOLECULARITY LLC
    Inventors: Bryson Dye, James Konzelman
  • Patent number: 9457288
    Abstract: The present invention relates to a magnetic block toy, and more particularly, to a magnetic block toy which makes assembly of blocks firm because caps having serrated coupling parts are combined to both sides of a block body, and which has block bodies and caps of various colors, thereby arousing children's interest and promoting development of intelligence. The magnetic block toy according to the present invention includes: a block body having a pair of brackets each of which has a protrusion and a groove formed on the inner face to correspond to each other and are coupled with each other; caps which are respectively combined to both sides of the block body and each of which has a serrated coupling part formed on the outer surface; and a magnet which is disposed inside the cap to generate a magnetic force.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 21, 2015
    Date of Patent: October 4, 2016
    Assignee: Click-Block Corporation
    Inventor: So Young Choi
  • Publication number: 20150132734
    Abstract: A molecular modeling kit provides a system for molecular modeling that represents exclusion between resonance structures in a molecule and permits their rotation, providing an informative tool for describing resonance in a classroom or other learning environment. The kit includes atom modeling components and bond connector components that are connected together to form models of molecules. The atom modeling components or the bond connector components include a mechanical exclusion feature that prevents simultaneous connection of two bond connector components to represent two pi-bonds formed with a single atom in a single plane.
    Type: Application
    Filed: November 13, 2013
    Publication date: May 14, 2015
    Applicant: MOLECULARITY LLC
    Inventors: Bryson Dye, James Konzelman
  • Publication number: 20150079571
    Abstract: An electronic device includes a display and a computer processor. The computer processor is configured to present to a user a first drawing of a cyclohexane ring in a first chair conformation and a second drawing of a cyclohexane ring in a second chair conformation. The first drawing of a cyclohexane ring displays a first bond in either an axial or equatorial position. The second chair conformation is different than the first chair conformation. The computer processor is further configured to receive a first input from the user for a carbon position of the first bond and an angular orientation of the first bond. The computer processor is also configured to indicate to the user whether the first input was correct or incorrect.
    Type: Application
    Filed: September 17, 2014
    Publication date: March 19, 2015
    Inventor: Julia English WINTER
  • Publication number: 20150017624
    Abstract: A molecular modeling device that allows for the transformation of atoms in a tetrahedral bonding arrangement around a spherical central atom to a trigonal planar bonding arrangement, without the need for disassembly and reassembly and with using the same bonds, is disclosed herein. The present invention also provides visual representations of the empty, unhybridized p-orbital on a central atom. The present invention allows users to observe a transformation between sp2 and sp3 hybridizations of an atom. The molecular modeling device may be used in education, pharmaceutical, industrial, and other applications for improved conceptualization of the geometries and angles between atomic bonds.
    Type: Application
    Filed: July 12, 2013
    Publication date: January 15, 2015
    Applicant: KINETIC MODELS, LLC
    Inventor: Nick Drapela
  • Publication number: 20140370478
    Abstract: The invention concerns a valence-electron-model in shape of a molecular-building-set and its use for early learning and teaching purposes at schools and universities. In the molecular-building-set each electron is preferentially enabled to form a chemical bond and is represented by a radical-neutral-connecting-element, each plus-charge is represented by plus-charge-connecting-elements and each minus-charge is represented by a minus-charge-connecting-element. Free electron-pairs are represented by two electron-representations in shape of an electron-pair-representation. Binding-forces between electron-pairs and basic-atomic-body-representations are represented by electron-pair-connecting-elements and basic-atomic-body-connecting-elements. Radical-neutral-connecting-elements are in a preferred embodiment shaped as radical-neutral-plugs with C3n-rotational-symmetry.
    Type: Application
    Filed: November 29, 2012
    Publication date: December 18, 2014
    Inventor: Ragen Pfeiffer
  • Publication number: 20140220533
    Abstract: The method assumes that a single solution or addition or subtraction of solutions of Schrodinger equation represented by polar or parabolic coordinates having its maximum value at the origin gives a wave function and an electric potential of a hydrogen atom. The method further: (1) regards the result of applying a gradient vector operation and thereafter a sign inversion to the wave function as an electric field; regards segments connected successively along the direction of the electric field as electric lines of force; and draws the electric lines of force so as to be approximately proportional in number to the percentage of the wave function with a difference between the maximum and minimum values of the wave function regarded as 100; and (2) displaying the wave function as an electric potential in a contour drawing.
    Type: Application
    Filed: January 24, 2014
    Publication date: August 7, 2014
    Inventor: Haruo MATSUSHIMA
  • Patent number: 8696161
    Abstract: A high-luminance ultraviolet (UV) light-emitting diode (LED) nail lamp structure and an LED light source module thereof are provided. The LED nail lamp structure includes a housing and an LED light source module. The LED light source module is provided in the housing and has a plurality of UV LEDs, wherein each UV LED has an LED chip disposed in a concave lamp cup. The LED nail lamp structure features high luminance and good lighting effect.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 8, 2011
    Date of Patent: April 15, 2014
    Assignee: Seoul National University Industry Foundation
    Inventors: Ching-Jen Pan, Cheng-Wei Chan, Ming-Hung Chen
  • Patent number: 8672685
    Abstract: A computerized method and system for demonstrating and teaching electron configurations in atomic structure are disclosed. One method includes presenting to a user one or more user interfaces stored in memory of the computing system, the one or more user interfaces includes a plurality of electron configuration diagrams. The method also includes receiving user input into an orbital box diagram displayed in the one or more user interfaces, the user input defining a possible electron configuration. The method further includes in response to the user input, updating the one or more user interfaces to illustrate the electron configuration received from the user, and if instructed by the user, generates a report regarding the compliance of the user-entered electron configuration with one or more electron configuration rules.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 7, 2009
    Date of Patent: March 18, 2014
    Assignee: Bitwixt Software Systems LLC
    Inventor: David Colby Doherty
  • Publication number: 20130143190
    Abstract: A hydrogen atom model has a drawing or three-dimensional model which expresses an electric field in a form of electric lines of force and a magnetic field in a form of magnetic lines of force, as an example. The electric field is obtained by a gradient vector operation applied to a wave function of a hydrogen atom and a sign inversion to the result of the vector operation. The magnetic field obtained by multiplication of the wave function by a ?-directed unit vector in polar coordinates (r, ?, ?) and application of a rotational vector operation to the result of the multiplication.
    Type: Application
    Filed: June 25, 2012
    Publication date: June 6, 2013
    Inventor: Haruo MATSUSHIMA
  • Publication number: 20110171619
    Abstract: This invention describes two embodiments of simple representations of molecular structures that are very useful for rapidly identifying unknown compounds from accurate mass fragmentation data generated on a mass spectrometer.
    Type: Application
    Filed: May 27, 2010
    Publication date: July 14, 2011
    Inventor: Daniel Leo Sweeney
  • Publication number: 20110081637
    Abstract: A computerized method and system for demonstrating and teaching electron configurations in atomic structure are disclosed. One method includes presenting to a user one or more user interfaces stored in memory of the computing system, the one or more user interfaces includes a plurality of electron configuration diagrams. The method also includes receiving user input into an orbital box diagram displayed in the one or more user interfaces, the user input defining a possible electron configuration. The method further includes in response to the user input, updating the one or more user interfaces to illustrate the electron configuration received from the user, and if instructed by the user, generates a report regarding the compliance of the user-entered electron configuration with one or more electron configuration rules.
    Type: Application
    Filed: October 7, 2009
    Publication date: April 7, 2011
    Inventor: David C. Doherty
  • Patent number: 7832729
    Abstract: The open frame form of the polyhedron-shaped game structures are disclosed for playing a three-dimensional racing game. A variety of spacers and polyhedron shapes are introduced to configure the shape of the present invention. The preferred embodiment of the game structure is constructed with cubic frame and orbital routes. Each player has single set of game pieces and advances each game piece on the game structure according to the number shown on the die. The players are challenged to race and capture the opponent's game pieces according to their strategic plan. After orbiting the game structure, the first player who races back all of his or her game pieces to the predetermined finish point becomes the winner.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 21, 2006
    Date of Patent: November 16, 2010
    Inventor: Alexander C Park
  • Patent number: 7650265
    Abstract: Various geometric constructs are configured for use in modeling a system, for example a fissile system, using an analysis method, such as Monte Carlo, to model such systems based upon the interstitial regions formed by these geometric constructs. The various geometric constructs are configured to provide for modeling of, for example, complex arrays and lattices and allows for embedding of these constructs and virtual filling of arrays of these modeled units.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 7, 2003
    Date of Patent: January 19, 2010
    Assignee: Global Nuclear Fuel - Americas, LLC
    Inventors: John Taylor, William Peters, Lon Paulson
  • Patent number: 7558707
    Abstract: Modeling systems are enhanced by combining physical and virtual modeling techniques to create a hybrid modeling system. Manipulation of physical models results in updated real-time physical characteristics being provided to a virtual model. User manipulation of virtual model characteristics can also be provided and implemented on the physical model using actuators and control devices. The invention also enables multiple users to simultaneously construct and manipulate different portions of a physical model, e.g., of an atom or a molecule, and to have the results of these manipulations provided to a computer system for computational analysis. The results of such analyses can be electronically returned to the physical model, e.g., wirelessly.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 31, 2003
    Date of Patent: July 7, 2009
    Assignee: Molysym, Inc.
    Inventors: Brian H. Sherman, David F. Green, Karl H. Ruping, Keith DeViere Donaldson
  • Patent number: 7465169
    Abstract: A molecular modeling kit including a three-dimensional body providing a physical representation of at least one atom. The three-dimensional body can define a cavity and include a self-reorienting magnet at least partially disposed in the cavity. The magnet can be configured to realign relative to the cavity when in proximity with a second magnet such that magnetic poles of the self-reorienting magnet and the second magnet are aligned for attraction. The second magnet can be external to the three-dimensional body.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 24, 2005
    Date of Patent: December 16, 2008
    Assignee: Milwaukee School of Engineering
    Inventors: Eatai Roth, Anne-Marie L. Nickel, Timothy M. Herman
  • Patent number: 7419325
    Abstract: A tube assembling device consisting of hub-carriers and hubs for erecting three-dimensional structures. The hub-carriers consist of two pairs of half-rings, bearing tongues offset by 90° along an antero-posterior axis and linked by four connecting lugs, they support radial hook-shaped expansions. The hub-carriers can link two tubes in a fixed or balanced position, can be fixed at the tube end, can be fixed along a tube and support hubs. The hubs support tongues are positioned folded or unfolded inside the tubes used for the construction of the radial expansions into rings and catching teeth internal to the rings. The assembly enables the hubs and hub-carriers to be linked by tubes or elastic links and constitute by folding or combining the hubs and hub-carriers nodes for modelling structures of numerous types from a reduced number or elements.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 11, 2003
    Date of Patent: September 2, 2008
    Inventor: Jean Rantrua
  • Publication number: 20080040984
    Abstract: A polyhedral array comprises a plurality of discrete polyhedrons and a connection network comprising connections that connect the polyhedrons. The discrete polyhedrons are spaced apart from each other at equilibrium in a predetermined generally regular pattern, and each polyhedron is comprised of edges, faces and vertices. The connection network at least partially constrains the discrete polyhedrons relative to each polyhedron's six degrees of freedom. In some embodiments, the connections extend along the bias of the array. In other embodiments, the connections extend along radial directions. All implementations can be constructed as regular arrays or in lattice networks.
    Type: Application
    Filed: August 15, 2006
    Publication date: February 21, 2008
    Inventor: Samuel J. Lanahan
  • Patent number: 7276270
    Abstract: In an assembly of modules with magnetic anchorage for the construction of a grid structure, a joining element for connecting rigidly at least a first and a second elongated modules of the grid structure, characterised in that it comprises: a body of the joining element; at least a first and a second tubular projections of the body for axial attachment of the first and respectively second elongated modules; and a housing of the body for securing the body to a further module of the grid structure; the at least first and second tubular projections being in direct communication with the housing for contact of the further module to the at least first and second elongated modules.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 18, 2002
    Date of Patent: October 2, 2007
    Inventor: Claudio Vicentelli
  • Patent number: 7048545
    Abstract: An NMR teaching method and apparatus incorporating pieces representative of chemical fragments. Each piece has the number of sides corresponding to the number of bonds present around the central atom. Bonds to hydrogen are curved while bonding sides are flat. The presence of concavities and convex tabs on the bonding sides indicates bonding of the respective piece to a mating piece that causes splitting of the NMR peak. The shape of concavities on each piece is indicative of the chemical fragment of the respective piece while the shape of the convex tab of the respective piece is indicative of the chemical fragment of the mating piece. First and second bonding indicators can be used to replace the convex tabs. When presented with a spectrum, a student user can select the necessary pieces using data from the spectrum. Once selected, the student user can then assemble the pieces to determine the identity of the unknown molecule in the NMR spectrum.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 14, 2004
    Date of Patent: May 23, 2006
    Assignee: Texas Lutheran University
    Inventor: John V. McClusky
  • Patent number: 6960087
    Abstract: An NMR teaching method and apparatus incorporating pieces representative of chemical fragments. Each piece has the number of sides corresponding to the number of bonds present around the central atom. Bonds to hydrogen are curved while bonding sides are flat. The presence of concavities and convex tabs on the bonding sides bonding of the respective piece to a mating piece that causes splitting of the NMR peak. The shape of concavities on each piece is indicative of the chemical fragment of the respective piece while the shape of the convex tab of the respective piece is indicative of the chemical fragment of the mating piece. When presented with a spectrum, a student user can select the necessary pieces using data from the spectrum. Once selected, the student user can then assemble the pieces to determine the identity of the unknown molecule in the NMR spectrum.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 23, 2003
    Date of Patent: November 1, 2005
    Assignee: Texas Lutheran University
    Inventor: John V. McClusky
  • Patent number: 6884079
    Abstract: A molecular model for chemistry that shows a molecular structure by expressing the distance between the atoms obtained by molecular structure analysis as the total length from two atoms and one bond as well as accurately visualizing the molecular structure without using numeric values of the van der Waals radius or covalent bond radius. The molecular model is provided with a spherical body representing the atom and a bonding rod representing an inter-atomic bond. The molecular model is to establish a general solution with versatility by (a) differentiating the radiuses of the spherical atoms in the valence state rather than an element unit, and applying different radial lengths even within the same element, and (b) applying the bonding rod differentiated by the bonding state between the atoms.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 14, 2004
    Date of Patent: April 26, 2005
    Assignee: Talou Co., Ltd.
    Inventor: Tadahisa Takamatsu
  • Patent number: 6793497
    Abstract: Three-dimensional models of molecules, including proteins, and molecular model construction kits, including an alpha helix construction kit, a beta sheet construction kit, and a nucleic acid construction kit. The three-dimensional models of molecules include one or more elongated tubular strands representing alpha carbons and the bonds between the alpha carbons. The alpha helix and beta sheet construction kits include amino acid backbone units, hydrogen bond units, and side chain units. The nucleic acid construction kits include base units, hydrogen bond units, sugar units, and phosphate units.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 17, 2001
    Date of Patent: September 21, 2004
    Assignee: Milwaukee School of Engineering
    Inventors: Timothy M. Herman, Michael H. Patrick, Vito R. Gervasi, Gunnar Vikberg
  • Publication number: 20040170949
    Abstract: The invention relates to a method and apparatus for depicting one or more biological elements in a basic environment by means of a data processing system comprising the steps of obtaining one or more data sets relating to a biological element, determining at least one first feature element from said data sets, said feature element providing information on a relation between said biological element and said basic environment, obtaining data determining a graphical representation for depicting at least one of the biological elements corresponding to said one or more data sets determining a relation between the graphical representation of said basic environment and said graphical representation on the basis of said first feature element, providing means for effecting that in a graphical representation of said environment generated from said data said graphical representation of said biological element is depicted as located on said display of said basic environment element according to said relation determined o
    Type: Application
    Filed: January 20, 2004
    Publication date: September 2, 2004
    Inventors: Sean O'Donoghue, Karsten Fries, Joachim Meyer, Andrea Schafferhans
  • Patent number: 6769916
    Abstract: This invention is intended to be used as an Educational demonstration for college level instruction. The invention allows students to visualize the phenomenon of activation energy. Rearrange the unit to demonstrate the SN2 reaction and the potential energy of a covalent bond as a function of internuclear distance. The demonstration can be used as a visual aid to enhance the students understanding of the material presented during the instructors lecture time, or the demonstration can be used directly by the student as a laboratory exercise. The student will gain important graphing skills by using this invention to plot the activation energy curve. The device is made with the most powerful ring magnets commercially available. The size and shape of the ring magnets produces the unusual effects that characterize this invention. An acrylic rod, containing a metric scale for easy measurement, aligns the magnets.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 27, 2002
    Date of Patent: August 3, 2004
    Inventors: Robert Arthur Montgomery, Christopher Gordon Snow
  • Patent number: 6758677
    Abstract: A computer implemented molecular modeler displays information concerning structural validity to the user. The display of information may be updated substantially continuously while the user modifies the molecular model. The display of information may comprise a color coded indicator and/or text associated with the atoms of the molecular model.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 2, 2003
    Date of Patent: July 6, 2004
    Assignee: Accelrys, Inc.
    Inventor: John D. Clark
  • Patent number: 6652285
    Abstract: It is described a system of independently moving elements with characteristics making them bind reversibly to each other according to certain rules such that they form self-replicating and mutating polymers subject to the general principles of natural selection, and use of the system to simulate the origin of life, for entertainment, decoration, scientific and educational purposes.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 5, 2001
    Date of Patent: November 25, 2003
    Inventor: Jarle Breivik
  • Publication number: 20030194687
    Abstract: A computer implemented molecular modeler displays information concerning structural validity to the user. The display of information may be updated substantially continuously while the user modifies the molecular model. The display of information may comprise a color coded indicator and/or text associated with the atoms of the molecular model.
    Type: Application
    Filed: May 2, 2003
    Publication date: October 16, 2003
    Inventor: John D. Clark
  • Publication number: 20030186204
    Abstract: The present invention relates to a structure of molecular model that can express the distance between the atoms obtained by molecular structure analysis as the total length from two spherical atoms and one bonding rod as well as accurately visualize the molecular structure without using numeric values of the van der Waals radius or covalent bond radius. The molecular model is to establish a general solution with versatility by (a) differentiating the radiuses of the spherical atoms in the valence state rather than an element unit, and applying different radial lengths even within the same element, and (b) applying the bonding rod differentiated by the bonding state between the atoms.
    Type: Application
    Filed: August 29, 2002
    Publication date: October 2, 2003
    Inventor: Tadahisa Takamatsu
  • Patent number: 6582233
    Abstract: A computer implemented molecular modeler displays information concerning structural validity to the user. The display of information may be updated substantially continuously while the user modifies the molecular model. The display of information may comprise a color coded indicator and/or text associated with the atoms of the molecular model.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 14, 1999
    Date of Patent: June 24, 2003
    Assignee: Accelrys Inc.
    Inventor: John D. Clark
  • Patent number: 6575787
    Abstract: The invention provides a waterproof connector in which a seal is maintained around a bolt without having to increase the number of components. A bolt 39 is passed through a through hole 36 of a bolt attachment member 35, this bolt 39 being passed from a countersunk hole 46 of a grommet 40 attached so as to cover a posterior face of a female housing 30. A nut 26 of a male housing 20 is fastened to this bolt 39, this fastening the two housings 20 and 30 together. A circular sealing member 50 is formed in a manner whereby it adjoins a central hole 47 of a base face 46A of the countersunk hole 46, a shaft 39A of the bolt 39 passing through this sealing member 50 in a manner whereby it fits tightly therewith. The sealing member 50 fits into a housing hole 53 of the bolt attachment member 35.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 30, 2001
    Date of Patent: June 10, 2003
    Assignee: Sumitomo Wiring Systems, Ltd.
    Inventors: Ryotaro Ishikawa, Hajime Kawase, Yuuichi Nankou
  • Patent number: 6516294
    Abstract: The nuclear receptor for the steroid hormone 1&agr;,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, its ligand binding domain, three-dimensional model thereof and a method for selection of suitable vitamin D3 binding to the 1&agr;,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 receptor. A three-dimensional model for residues 142-427 of the ligand binding domain of the human nuclear receptor for 1&agr;,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 used to identify the interaction of the conformationally flexible natural hormone 1&agr;,25(OH)2D3 and a number of related analogs with the receptor ligand binding domain. A method for identification and generation of new potential analog drug forms of dihydroxyvitamin D3.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 1, 1999
    Date of Patent: February 4, 2003
    Assignee: The Regents of the University of California
    Inventor: Anythony W. Norman
  • Patent number: 6508652
    Abstract: A chemical model set of 15 elements of the first three periods and one generic transitional metal that can easily build and disassemble molecular structures. The models have markings on them to signify their chemical symbol, electronic orbital state and electro-negativity. The models have ceramic magnets in a plastic assembly that is attached to the models. This assembly can move rotationally and laterally about the sides of the model in slots that are individually designated to the models and facilitate the building of molecular structures. The ceramic magnet assemblies are able to mate at either face of their polarized edge with magnets of facing models, and are marked with an arrow in the direction of their polarity. The rotational ability of the magnet assembly allows the relative oxidative or reductive state of the model in a molecular structure to be surmised by the symbolic placing or removing of electron density on the model in the direction that the paired arrows in the bond are facing.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 16, 1998
    Date of Patent: January 21, 2003
    Inventor: Paul Edward Kestyn
  • Publication number: 20020182576
    Abstract: An interactive astronomical model includes a geocentric module, a heliocentric module, and a housing. The geocentric module has a central body configured to represent earth. The heliocentric module has a central axis configured to represent the sun. A housing is used to couple both the geocentric module and the heliocentric module. The invention also includes a method for generating an interactive astronomical model comprising the steps of providing a geocentric module having a central body configured to represent earth, providing a heliocentric module having a central axis configured to represent a sun; and coupling the geocentric module with the heliocentric module with a shared housing.
    Type: Application
    Filed: January 14, 2002
    Publication date: December 5, 2002
    Inventor: Martin K. Kiel
  • Patent number: 6471520
    Abstract: A solid free form model of a complex structure, such as a molecular structure, and a method of making such a model. The model includes a first elongated strand extending along a first path corresponding to the locations of selected elements to represented, a second elongated strand extending along a second path spaced from the first path and a connecting leg extending between the first and second strands along a path corresponding to the vector along which a force, such as a hydrogen bond, acts on the modeled elements.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 12, 1999
    Date of Patent: October 29, 2002
    Assignee: Milwaukee School of Engineering
    Inventors: Timothy M. Herman, Vito R. Gervasi, Thomas E. Bray, Deborah S. Adler
  • Patent number: 6320024
    Abstract: A topographic model useful to design and synthesize memory-enhancing substances is disclosed. Administration of substances designed by this method to enhance memory in mammals, including humans, is disclosed. Such substances include peptides having the amino acid sequence Val Phe Phe.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 9, 1999
    Date of Patent: November 20, 2001
    Inventor: Eugene Roberts
  • Patent number: 6241572
    Abstract: A manipulatable beaded string toy device comprising of a plurality of interconnectable elements, each element including a number of beads disposed on a cord. When the plurality of interconnectable elements are interconnected, a junction formed comprises at least four beads, two from each cord, each of the at least four beads is in contact with at least three other beads of the junction.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 26, 1998
    Date of Patent: June 5, 2001
    Inventor: Leonid Braginsky
  • Patent number: 5947745
    Abstract: An atomic model in a single piece of injection-molded plastic is provided herein which represents the two electrons in co-valent electron bonding between atoms, and simultaneously represents the allosteric spin capability around an axis perpendicular to the centers of two conjoint co-valent electron faces on two atoms. This model includes a small cylindrical stud arising from a flat face cut into one (or up to four) curved surfaces or segment(s) of a physical three-dimensional spherical body which represents the electron available for donation by an atom. It also includes on each face a hole which is cut intaglio or dropped vertically into the face of the atom next to the raised stud. This hole is arced in a 90-degree arc about the contiguous electron-representing stud which arises above it like a nose above a smiling mouth. This arced slot represents the available space in the outer shell of the receiving atom into which a donated electron-stud from another atom may be inserted.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 6, 1992
    Date of Patent: September 7, 1999
    Assignee: Andrew D. Tempelman
    Inventor: Andrew D. Tempelman
  • Patent number: 5420805
    Abstract: The effective Born radii of atoms in a molecule are determined using a new molecular modeling technique. In this approach, the electrical polarization component of solvation energy of an atom i is approximated as the electrical polarization energy given by the classical Born equation (Eq. 2), assuming that the Born radius .alpha. is equal to the van der Waals radius of the atom, minus the effects of all surrounding atoms, j, which displace solvent from around atom i. This displacement effect increases with the volume of the atom j and decreases as the fourth power of the separation between atom i and atom j. E.sub.pol for atom i can therefore be calculated using the following equation:E.sub.pol,i =-166(1-1/.epsilon.)q.sub.i [1/(P.sub.0 +R.sub.i)-.SIGMA.PV.sub.j /r.sub.ij.sup.4 ]wherein R.sub.i is the van der Waals radius of atom i, V.sub.j is the volume of an atom j, and P.sub.0 and P are empirically determined, solvent-dependant constants or functions of r.sub.ij, This value of E.sub.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 5, 1992
    Date of Patent: May 30, 1995
    Assignee: The Trustees of Columbia University in the City of New York
    Inventors: William C. Still, Frank P. Hollinger
  • Patent number: 5110297
    Abstract: An assembly for obtaining a plurality of cluster structures in either a sequential manner or collectively having a base component portion (10) having an enlarged body (12) to which is attached, by way of flexible straps (21), a plurality of assembly component portions (20) each having an enlarged body (24) and the flexible straps (21) such that, when appropriate tension is applied to the straps (21), the bodies (24) of the assembly component portions (20) are firmly abutted to the body (12) of the base component portion (10) causing rotations of the assembly component bodies (24) in relation to each other and to the base body (12) to automatically produce a plurality of cluster structures. The base component portion (10) may have the enlarged body (12) mounted on and around an enlarged hollow-core support member (11) with the member acting as a channel for the flexible straps (21).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 17, 1989
    Date of Patent: May 5, 1992
    Inventor: Harold J. Teague
  • Patent number: 5030103
    Abstract: A novel molecular model assembly is provided herein for representing the structure of a molecule. That assembly includes a three dimensional body providing a physical representation of an atomic core, and a first cylindrical hole extending inwardly along a central longitudinal axis of such three dimensional body from each end of such three dimensional body. A plurality of connecting guiding elements, e.g. arcuate lobes project from such three dimensional body or a plurality of arcuate slots are inset into such three dimensional body, each being disposed equiangularly about the periphery of such three dimensional body core.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 9, 1990
    Date of Patent: July 9, 1991
    Inventors: Peter H. Buist, Alois A. Raffler
  • Patent number: 4906122
    Abstract: Molecular modeling constituents having plug ends are joined by a coupling having a connective sleeve and a locking sleeve. The connective sleeve receives a plug in a bore at each end thereof. Radially deflectable staves of the connective sleeve have ridges on the inside surface thereof for engaging corresponding annular grooves about the circumference of the plugs. A locking sleeve fits over the connective sleeve and allows outward radial deflection of the staves in an OPEN position for insertion/extraction of plugs into/from the coupling, and inhibits radial deflection of the staves in a lock position to prohibit insertion/extraction of plugs into/from the coupling. The OPEN and LOCK positions are relative rotational positions of the connective sleeve and locking sleeve.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 28, 1988
    Date of Patent: March 6, 1990
    Inventors: Edward J. Barrett, Yee K. Hui
  • Patent number: 4877406
    Abstract: A device for use as a molecular model or manipulable puzzle includes at least two concentric spheres rotatable with respect to one another and a plurality of at least six inserts extending radially through the concentric spheres. Each of the spheres has at least two great circle channels crossing one another, preferably perpendicularly, each great circule channel receiving at least one and preferably four of eight inserts. The outer spheres are formed by separate, approximately quarter sphere, curved segments which are held together by the inserts. The concentric spheres can be made to rotate with respect to one another by movement of the inserts. In the preferred embodiments, eight inserts are arrangable in cubic orientations forming two sets of four, tetrahedrally oriented inserts.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 4, 1988
    Date of Patent: October 31, 1989
    Inventor: Howard J. Wilk
  • Patent number: 4855931
    Abstract: This is a stochastic method for determining the likely conformations of a molecule by starting with an initial molecular structure along with given atomic coordinate positions and defined bonds between atoms. Each of the atom's initial X, Y and Z coordinates are modified by the combination therewith of random numbers to create a new random coordinate position for each atom. A predetermined constraint is placed on the distance of each new coordinate from each initial coordinate. The steric energy of the reconfigured molecule is then calculated, stored and a new set of randon numbers combined with the atomic coordinates and the steric energy of the new structure calculated. The process is repeated until most, if not all, steric minima are detected and the structures associated therewith are determined.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 25, 1988
    Date of Patent: August 8, 1989
    Assignee: Yale University
    Inventor: Martin Saunders
  • Patent number: 4812128
    Abstract: A three-dimensional molecular model comprises plastic modules, each representing on atom connected to one another. Modules intended to represent atoms of cyclic compounds are polyhedrons set in the model so that adjacent polyhedrons touch faces and have a common apex. The sum total of the angles formed by the adjacent faces of polyhedrons of the modules is more than 360.degree..
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 19, 1984
    Date of Patent: March 14, 1989
    Assignee: Tartussky gosudarstvenny Universitet
    Inventor: Raik-Khiio N. Mikelsaar
  • Patent number: 4810197
    Abstract: A device is disclosed for demonstrating the physical properties and chemical relationships between elements which includes three-dimensional models of the individual elements positioned within a chassis preferably in the same order as they are in the periodic chart. The models are magnetized spheres having model properties to indicate the size, coloration, density and electron affinity of the corresponding basic elements. The display chassis includes a plurality of retaining positions for holding the spheres and sensors for sensing the absence of the models or spheres such that an interfacing device can withdraw information from a computerized data bank for display of information concerning the element withdrawn from the chassis on a display device. Also information concerning possible molecular combinations will be displayed thereon responsive to simultaneous absence of two of the elemental models.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 24, 1988
    Date of Patent: March 7, 1989
    Inventor: Alfonza Hicks
  • Patent number: 4754979
    Abstract: This disclosure is a game played with colored chips, which when played on a game board or flat surface, one chip at a time, create for each consecutive of two or more players, with his specific color chips, patterns of number, letters, or geometric designs, depending on the selection of which pattern type, as the game objective at start of game. Values are established for each pattern which determine the winner as the one who has constructed the most patterns and or their accumulated number of values. The game chips are preferably flat pieces of rigid or semirigid material, having multiple edges, such as squares, hexagons, octagons, etc. Each consecutive play by each player constructs "legs", that is, a group of same color chips in a row, of two or more, the combinations of these rows used to construct the specific pattern selected by the player.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 20, 1986
    Date of Patent: July 5, 1988
    Inventor: Vesper A. Vaseen
  • Patent number: 4702702
    Abstract: A three-dimensional model of molecular structure comprises plastic modules and their connecting elements which are made as cylindrical rods whose entire surface, as well as the mating surface of sockets of the modules, is provided with easily curved projections alternating with depressions of the same shape. To assemble or disassemble said three-dimensional model use is made of a device, whose jaws each have a wider portion to hold the module and are bent, and the inner surface of the jaws being provided with wedge-like projections to facilitate disassembly of the modules.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 4, 1986
    Date of Patent: October 27, 1987
    Inventor: Raik-Khiio N. Mikelsaar
  • Patent number: 4701131
    Abstract: A geometrical structural system is made up of a plurality of nodes and shape-coded connectors extending therebetween, each node having a plurality of outer polygonal elements. The outer edges of each element are bordered by end edges of other elements and each element has an opening therethrough corresponding to the outer side edges of each element. Each opening extends radially into a hollow space centrally of each node. The connectors are elongated and have opposed connecting ends with a cross-sectional configuration corresponding to a cross-sectional configuration of an opening in one of the element faces for insertion therein.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 20, 1985
    Date of Patent: October 20, 1987
    Inventors: Paul R. Hildebrandt, Marc G. Pelletier
  • Patent number: RE33785
    Abstract: A geometrical structural system is made up of a plurality of nodes and shape-coded connectors extending therebetween, each node having a plurality of outer polygonal elements. The outer edges of each element are bordered by end edges of other elements and each element has an opening therethrough corresponding to the outer side edges of each element. Each opening extends radially into a hollow space centrally of each node. The connectors are elongated and have opposed connecting ends with a cross-sectional configuration corresponding to a cross-sectional configuration of an opening in one of the element faces for insertion therein.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 18, 1989
    Date of Patent: December 31, 1991
    Inventors: Paul R. Hildebrandt, Marc G. Pelletier