Depilating Hides, Bating, Or Hide Treating Using Enzyme Or Micro-organism Patents (Class 435/265)
  • Patent number: 10277858
    Abstract: A device is presented. The device comprises: at least one processor and at least one memory including computer program code, a display element coupled to the processor, and a user input element coupled to the processor.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 29, 2015
    Date of Patent: April 30, 2019
    Assignee: Microsoft Technology Licensing, LLC
    Inventors: Esa Kankaanpää, Shahil Soni, Klaus Melakari, Niko Eiden, Roope Rainisto
  • Patent number: 9206486
    Abstract: The present invention relates to a process for tanning animal hides which comprises the steps of: bating and pickling the animal hide in aqueous solution, reducing the liquid content of the animal hide, replacing at least some of the liquid removed from the animal hide in the preceding step by a tanning solution which contains the tanning agent to be imbibed by the animal hide in an amount not exceeding an excess of 80%, and treating the animal hide containing the tanning solution with compressed gas in a pressurized container for a period of at least 15 minutes. Such a process is substantially wastewaterless, optionally even completely wastewaterless, and delivers high-quality through-tanned leathers or furs after short treatment times.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 21, 2010
    Date of Patent: December 8, 2015
    Assignee: Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft Zur Foerderung Der Angewandten Forschung E.V.
    Inventors: Manfred Renner, Eckhard Weidner, Helmut Geihsler
  • Publication number: 20140315244
    Abstract: A fungal strain Beauveria species bearing accession number MTCC 5184 is disclosed. The process for the preparation of an enzyme mix including at least one enzyme selected from, but not limited to protease, carbohydrase, and lipase from the disclosed Beauveria species and uses of the enzyme mix in various areas also disclosed.
    Type: Application
    Filed: April 10, 2014
    Publication date: October 23, 2014
    Applicant: COUNCIL OF SCIENTIFIC & INDUSTRIAL RESEARCH
    Inventors: Seeta Laxman RYALI, Shiv Shankar, Snehal Vijay More, Harish Bansilal Khandelwal, Chandra Babu Kannan Narasimhan, Saravanan Palanivel, Padmanabhan Balaram
  • Patent number: 8574884
    Abstract: The present invention provides methods and compositions comprising at least one neutral metalloprotease enzyme that has improved storage stability. In some embodiments, the neutral metalloprotease finds use in cleaning and other applications. In some particularly preferred embodiments, the present invention provides methods and compositions comprising neutral metalloprotease(s) obtained from Bacillus sp. In some more particularly preferred embodiments, the neutral metalloprotease is obtained from B. amyloliquefaciens. In still further preferred embodiments, the neutral metalloprotease is a variant of the B. amyloliquefaciens neutral metalloprotease. In yet additional embodiments, the neutral metalloprotease is a homolog of the B. amyloliquefaciens neutral metalloprotease. The present invention finds particular use in applications including, but not limited to cleaning, bleaching and disinfecting.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 6, 2012
    Date of Patent: November 5, 2013
    Assignee: Danisco US Inc.
    Inventors: Andrew Shaw, Louise Wallace, David A. Estell, Ronaldus W. J. Hommes, Sang-Kyu Lee, Hiroshi Oh, Eugene S. Sadlowski
  • Patent number: 8524481
    Abstract: Provided in part herein are compositions that include isolated microbial enzymes, such as proteases, lipases, useful in dehairing leather. Also provided are methods for isolating proteases, lipases, from microbes, as well as methods of reusing these enzymes effectively for several cycles in an environment friendly process.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 16, 2010
    Date of Patent: September 3, 2013
    Assignee: West Bengal University of Technology
    Inventor: Shaon Ray Chaudhuri
  • Publication number: 20130115671
    Abstract: The instant invention relates to a fungus of the Conidiobolus species bearing accession number MTCC 5185. The invention further relates to the process for preparing an enzyme mix of proteases, carbohydrases, and lipases for the Conidiobolus species. Such enzymes find use in the leather, silk and other industries.
    Type: Application
    Filed: March 11, 2011
    Publication date: May 9, 2013
    Applicant: Council of Scientific and Industrial Research
    Inventors: Seeta Laxman Ryali, Harish Bansilal Khandelwal, Snehal Vijay More, Kamalakar Motiram Kalal, Chandra Babu Kannan Narasimhan, Saravanan Palanivel, Padmanabhan Balaram
  • Publication number: 20130105100
    Abstract: A method is provided for controlling organic contaminants, such as xylans, pitch or both, that interfere with bleaching of fibers and/or cause other interference(s) in papermaking systems. The method includes contacting fibers before any bleaching thereof with a composition which contains a hemicellulolytic enzyme and an organic contaminant removal adjuvant to liberate the organic contaminants from the fibers. The treated fibers can then be bleached and further used, for example, in making paper. The present invention also relates to the treatment compositions and to paper products made with fiber materials treated with these compositions. A method of enhancing enzymatic degradation of a substrate as well as formulations and systems for achieving the same are also provided. Various substrates can be degraded or otherwise processed, including biomass, paper mill sludge, and animal hides. Enzymatic degradation can be enhanced by including one or more polymeric surfactants.
    Type: Application
    Filed: October 26, 2012
    Publication date: May 2, 2013
    Applicant: BUCKMAN LABORATORIES INTERNATIONAL, INC.
    Inventor: Buckman Laboratories International, Inc.
  • Publication number: 20130102058
    Abstract: The present invention relates to a method for the processing of hides or skins into leather, comprising enzymatic treatment of the hide or skin with carbohydrase in the soaking step. The present invention can achieve optimal fiber opening results in a relatively short period of time and at the same time does not cause loose grain, and meanwhile the pollution or impact on the environment is reduced in a maximum way.
    Type: Application
    Filed: June 22, 2011
    Publication date: April 25, 2013
    Applicant: NOVOZYMES A/S
    Inventors: Niels Henrik Soerensen, Tine Hoff, Peter Rahbek Oestergaard, Pierre Cassland
  • Publication number: 20130095523
    Abstract: A fungal strain Beauveria species bearing accession number MTCC 5184 is disclosed. The process for the preparation of an enzyme mix including at least one enzyme selected from, but not limited to protease, carbohydrase, and lipase from the disclosed Beauveria species and uses of the enzyme mix in various areas also disclosed.
    Type: Application
    Filed: February 4, 2011
    Publication date: April 18, 2013
    Applicant: COUNCIL OF SCIENTIFIC & INDUSTRIAL RESEARCH
    Inventors: Seeta Laxman Ryali, Shiv Shankar, Snchal Vijay More, Harish Bansilal Khandelwal, Chandra Babu Kannan Marasimhan, Saravanan Palanivel, Padmanabhan Balaram
  • Patent number: 8308821
    Abstract: The present invention pertains to a process for decreasing and/or drying skins which comprises contacting the skins to be degreased and/or dried with one or more extractor solvents which are able to dissolve both fat and water. Preferably, the extractor solvent is selected from the group consisting of dimethyl ether (DME), methylal, dioxolane, diethyl ether, methyl ethyl ketone, ethanol, propanol, and isopropanol. Most preferably, the extractor solvent is DME.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 4, 2009
    Date of Patent: November 13, 2012
    Assignees: Akzo Nobel N.V., Gases Research Innovation and Technology S.L.
    Inventors: Hermanus Johannus Berkhout, Jose Ramon Garcia Del Rio
  • Publication number: 20120142073
    Abstract: Provided in part herein are compositions that include isolated microbial enzymes, such as proteases, lipases, useful in dehairing leather. Also provided are methods for isolating proteases, lipases, from microbes, as well as methods of reusing these enzymes effectively for several cycles in an environment friendly process.
    Type: Application
    Filed: November 16, 2010
    Publication date: June 7, 2012
    Inventor: Shaon Ray Chaudhuri
  • Publication number: 20100112663
    Abstract: The present invention relates to a method of degreasing skins and hides with certain variants of Humicola lanuginose lipase. More specifically, the invention relates to a process for enzymatic degreasing of skins and hides with lipase in the absence of surfactant at pH 6-13.
    Type: Application
    Filed: April 8, 2008
    Publication date: May 6, 2010
    Applicant: Novozymes A/S
    Inventors: Lars Rasmussen, Qing Xu, Niels Kildegaard Pedersen, Zhiwei Zhou
  • Patent number: 7537926
    Abstract: A 10,000 gallon sequencing batch reactor tank for the on-site bio-degradation of oily sludge. Bacteria already present in and adapted to oily sludge degrade the hydrocarbons found in oily sludge within two weeks from 20,000 ppm to less than 100 ppm. A degradation cycle requires 5 days. After five days a recirculation pump and aeration system are turned off and solids are allowed to settle to the bottom of the tank. An ultrafiltration unit connected to the tank requires approximately 16 hours to process the contents of the reactor tank.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 1, 2008
    Date of Patent: May 26, 2009
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the Secretary of the Navy
    Inventors: Gerardo F. Maga, Frederick E. Goetz
  • Patent number: 7439054
    Abstract: A 10,000 gallon sequencing batch reactor tank for the on-site bio-degradation of oily sludge. Bacteria already present in and adapted to oily sludge degrade the hydrocarbons found in oily sludge within two weeks from 20,000 ppm to less than 100 ppm. A degradation cycle requires 5 days. After five days a recirculation pump and aeration system are turned off and solids are allowed to settle to the bottom of the tank. An ultrafiltration unit connected to the tank requires approximately 16 hours to process the contents of the reactor tank.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 25, 2004
    Date of Patent: October 21, 2008
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the Secretary of the Navy
    Inventors: Gerardo F. Maga, Frederick E. Goetz
  • Patent number: 7186546
    Abstract: The present invention relates to a process for the preparation of alkaline protease using a fungal culture of the order entomophthorales and to the use of the said protease in the pretanning processes of leather manufacture.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 9, 2004
    Date of Patent: March 6, 2007
    Assignee: Council of Scientific and Industrial Research
    Inventors: Ryali Seeta Laxman, Snehal Vijay More, Meenakshi Vilas Rele, Bommaraju Seeta Rama Rao, Vithal Venkatrao Jogdand, Mala Balachandra Rao, Vasanti Vishnu Deshpande, Ramachandra Boopathy Naidu, Panchatcharam Manikandan, Dilly Ashok Kumar, James Kanagaraj, Ramalingam Samayavaram, Natesan Samivelu, Puvanakrishnan Rengarajulu
  • Patent number: 6949344
    Abstract: A method the direct analysis of an analyte in keratinized structures, e.g., hair and fingernails, which comprises preparing a mixture containing a low redox potential activator compound such as dithiothreitol or dithioerythritol, an enzyme suitable for the digestion of the keratin structure, a sample of the keratin structure and a biological detergent that aids the digestion of the keratinized structure at a relatively low pH, e.g., between about 6.2 and 8; permitting the enzyme to at least substantially digest the sample of keratin structure, and subjecting the digest solution to analysis, preferably by radioimmunoassay, to determine the identity and amount of analyte in the keratin structure sample. To accelerate the method, cupric sulfate may be added to the mixture after degradation of the keratin sample. The enzyme may be a peptidase, endopeptidase or proteinase, with papain, chymopapain, and proteinase K being preferred for use in the invention.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 30, 1991
    Date of Patent: September 27, 2005
    Assignee: Psychemical Corporation
    Inventor: Werner Andreas Baumgartner
  • Patent number: 6867032
    Abstract: The invention provides an enzymatic unhairing agent for use in an unhairing step in tanning for producing leather comprising an alkaline protease as an active component; a treatment solution comprising a pH-adjusting agent and the enzymatic unhairing agent; a method for enzymatic unhairing treatment in tanning for producing leather comprising contacting the treatment solution with a raw hide or skin; and a leather thus produced. According to the invention, it is attained markedly reduction of the pollution load in the unhairing waste water and leather and recovered hairs both of good quality can be obtained.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 5, 2000
    Date of Patent: March 15, 2005
    Assignee: Daiwa Kasei K.K.
    Inventors: Yasuhiro Shimizu, Atsushi Sugiyama, Akira Ohta
  • Publication number: 20040214309
    Abstract: A sinter metal part with a homogeneous distribution of non-homogeneously melting components, essentially comprising non-homogeneously melting non ferrous metal powder mixtures, produced in the following manner: continuous isostatic pressure sintering of the starting material to obtain densities which substantially correspond to the density of a high-temperature isostatically pressed solid having the same composition, using die in conditions avoiding the occurrence of a liquid phase in powder at temperatures of up to 70% of the metal melting point, preferably up to 60% of the metal melting point, forming a sinter profile substantially possessing a final contour.
    Type: Application
    Filed: January 13, 2004
    Publication date: October 28, 2004
    Inventors: Ho-Yong Park, Kwang-Hee Son, Yong-Kook Kwon, Dong-Ha Shin, Sung-Gi Min
  • Publication number: 20040187220
    Abstract: The present invention relates to a process for the preparation of alkaline protease using a fungal culture of the order entomophthorales and to the use of the said protease in the pretanning processes of leather manufacture.
    Type: Application
    Filed: April 9, 2004
    Publication date: September 30, 2004
    Applicant: Council of Scientific and Industrial Research
    Inventors: Ryali Seeta Laxman, Snehal Vijay More, Meenakshi Vilas Rele, Bommaraju Seeta Rama Rao, Vithal Venkatrao Jogdand, Mala Balachandra Rao, Vasanti Vishnu Deshpande, Ramachandra Boopathy Naidu, Panchatcharam Manikandan, Dilly Ashok Kumar, James Kanagaraj, Ramalingam Samayavaram, Natesan Samivelu, Puvanakrishnan Rengarajulu
  • Patent number: 6777219
    Abstract: The present invention relates to a process for the preparation of alkaline protease using a fungal culture of the order entomophthorales and to the use of the said protease in the pretanning processes of leather manufacture.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 13, 2002
    Date of Patent: August 17, 2004
    Assignee: Council of Scientific and Industrial Research
    Inventors: Ryali Seeta Laxman, Snehal Vijay More, Meenakshi Vilas Rele, Bommaraju Seeta Rama Rao, Vithal Venkatrao Jogdand, Mala Balachandra Rao, Vasanti Vishnu Deshpande, Ramachandra Boopathy Naidu, Panchatcharam Manikandan, Dilly Ashok Kumar, James Kanagaraj, Ramalingam Samayavaram, Natesan Samivelu, Puvanakrishnan Rengarajulu
  • Patent number: 6531310
    Abstract: A method is disclosed for processing tissue by inoculating the tissue with a solution having microorganisms, where the microorganisms are selected to produce compounds that process the tissue. The tissue is incubated with the inoculated microorganisms under conditions that are effective for processing the tissue by the chemicals produced by the microorganisms. The tissue maybe subsequently treated to substantially remove or inactivate the microorganisms.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 3, 2000
    Date of Patent: March 11, 2003
    Assignee: St. Jude Medical, Inc.
    Inventors: M. William Mirsch, II, Richard F. Schroeder, William H. Borner, Susan I. Montoya
  • Publication number: 20020182711
    Abstract: The invention provides an enzymatic unhairing agent for use in an unhairing step in tanning for producing leather comprising an alkaline protease as an active component; a treatment solution comprising a pH-adjusting agent and the enzymatic unhairing agent; a method for enzymatic unhairing treatment in tanning for producing leather comprising contacting the treatment solution with a raw hide or skin; and a leather thus produced. According to the invention, it is attained markedly reduction of the pollution load in the unhairing waste water and leather and recovered hairs both of good quality can be obtained.
    Type: Application
    Filed: June 3, 2002
    Publication date: December 5, 2002
    Inventors: Yasuhiro Shimizu, Sugiyama Atsushi, Akira Ohta
  • Patent number: 6451586
    Abstract: Powdered or granulated enzyme preparations, free of surface active agents and containing a protease as the active enzyme, wherein the protease is present as a tannin complex, with the proviso that the enzyme preparation consists of at least 50 percent by weight and up to 99.9 percent by weight of one or more conventional diluent salts. Methods for soaking and bating skins and hides using such preparations.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 6, 1995
    Date of Patent: September 17, 2002
    Assignee: Roehm GmbH & Co KG
    Inventors: Juergen Christner, Guenter Partheil, Hermann Plainer, Roland Reiner
  • Patent number: 6440692
    Abstract: Large amounts of hairs and feathers can be decomposed and refined by treatment in an oxygen-containing gas stream with a fungus that can decompose hairs and feathers. The resulting decomposed and refined hairs and feathers are useful as a fertilizer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 20, 2000
    Date of Patent: August 27, 2002
    Assignee: Japan Institute of Leather Research
    Inventors: Yoh-ichi Koyama, Koki Suzuki, Koki Ogata, Masashi Kusubata, Shinkichi Irie
  • Patent number: 6350582
    Abstract: A method for the direct analysis of the presence of an analyte which becomes embedded in keratinized structures, e.g., hair, fingernails and toenails, from the bloodstream of a subject which comprises preparing a mixture containing dithiothreitol or dithioerythritol (“DTT”), an enzyme suitable for the digestion of the keratin structure and a sample of the keratin structure; permitting the enzyme to digest the sample of keratin structure to form a digest solution, followed by the addition of a salt of a metal of copper, zinc, manganese, iron, lead, cadmium, mercury, silver and cobalt to deactivate the DTT; and finally subjecting the digest solution to analysis to determine the presence of the analyte in the keratin structure sample. The protease enzymes papain, chymopapain, and proteinase K are preferred for use in the invention.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 7, 2000
    Date of Patent: February 26, 2002
    Assignee: Psychemedics Corporation
    Inventor: Werner Andreas Baumgartner
  • Patent number: 6346244
    Abstract: The present invention relates to protein disulfide isomerases which are encoded by a nucleic acid sequence which hybridizes with (i) the DNA sequence of SEQ ID NO:1 or (ii) the DNA sequence of SEQ ID NO:2, under the following conditions: presoaking in 5×SSC and prehybridizing for 1 h at ˜40° C. in a solution of 5×SSC, 5×Denhardt's solution, 50 mM sodium phosphate, pH 6.8, and 50 &mgr;g of denatured sonicated calf thymus DNA, followed by hybridization in the same solution supplemented with 50 &mgr;Ci 32-P-dCTP labelled probe for 18 h at ˜40° C. followed by washing three times in 2×SSC, 0.2% SDS at 40° C. for 30 minutes; and fragments thereof. The present invention also relates to DNA sequences encoding the protein disulfide isomerases, compositions comprising said protein disulfide isomerases and methods of use thereof.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 4, 1999
    Date of Patent: February 12, 2002
    Assignee: Novozymes A/S
    Inventor: Carsten Mailand Hjort
  • Patent number: 6203791
    Abstract: The invention refers to depilatory preparations containing: proteolytic enzymes solubilized in microemulsions, formed with lecithin, aliphatic hydrocarbon, alipathic alcohol and buffer solution pH 7 to 9, value corresponding to the pH range near the optimum pH value for the catalytic activity of the proteolytic enzymes, to be applied for permanent enzymic depilation. The application of these preparations will assure, as shown by our experimental studies, more permanent depilation than the one resulting from other depilatory methods. The application of these preparations is suitable for every type of skin (fatty-resistant or dry-sensitive). The present invention introduces the use of microemulsions as a medium for the facilitated penetration of the enzymic activity in the epithelial cells of the skin, as shown by our studies.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 26, 1999
    Date of Patent: March 20, 2001
    Inventors: Evangelia Protopapa, Aristotelis Xenakis, Spyridon Avramiotis, Konstantinos Sekeris
  • Patent number: 6200789
    Abstract: A method of producing useful products from animal by-products by incubating animal by-products in a transglutaminase-containing solution to produce transglutaminase-treated animal by-products, compressing the transglutaminase-treated animal by-products to produced a compressed product, and drying the compressed product. The transglutaminase containing solution need not contain casein.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 2, 1999
    Date of Patent: March 13, 2001
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the Secretary of Agriculture
    Inventors: William N. Marmer, Eleanor M. Brown, Maryann M. Taylor, Luisa F. Cabeza
  • Patent number: 6190904
    Abstract: The invention relates to a novel high-alkaline protease, its use in the industrial or domestic fields and also compositions for said uses containing this protease. The protease of the invention is a selected triple mutant derived from certain precursor proteases from the subtilisin group, especially of the “subtilisin 309” type.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 18, 1996
    Date of Patent: February 20, 2001
    Assignee: Genecor International, Inc.
    Inventors: Antoine Amory, André Clippe, Gerhard Konieczny-Janda, Hubert Herrmann, Karsten Börner
  • Patent number: 6121041
    Abstract: A method is disclosed for processing tissue by inoculating the tissue with a solution having microorganisms, where the microorganisms are selected to produce compounds that process the tissue. The tissue is incubated with the inoculated microorganisms under conditions that are effective for processing the tissue by the chemicals produced by the microorganisms. The tissue may be subsequently treated to substantially remove or inactivate the microorganisms.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 31, 1996
    Date of Patent: September 19, 2000
    Assignee: St. Jude Medical, Inc.
    Inventors: M. William Mirsch, II, Richard F. Schroeder, Barbara Illingworth, William H. Borner, Susan I. Montoya
  • Patent number: 6051414
    Abstract: This invention is in the field of Bio-Polishing. More specifically, the invention relates to a process for achieving Bio-Polishing effects during the manufacture of cellulosic fabrics.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 29, 1995
    Date of Patent: April 18, 2000
    Assignee: Novo Nordisk A/S
    Inventors: Thomas Videb.ae butted.k, Lars Dalg.ang.rd Andersen
  • Patent number: 6037451
    Abstract: The present invention is a process for degreasing bone for the manufacture of gelatin. A lipase solution at a concentration of greater than 0.1 ppm is added to a collagen containing material and treated for a time sufficient to solubilize the fat contained in the collagen containing material to produce degreased collagen containing material with a fat content of less than 1 weight percent.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 3, 1998
    Date of Patent: March 14, 2000
    Assignee: Eastman Kodak Company
    Inventor: Anne G. Rowlands
  • Patent number: 5834299
    Abstract: The invention relates to an environmentally friendly method for dehairing of hides or skins by means of enzymes comprising the following steps: 1) the hides or skins are soaked, 2) the soaked hides or skins are subjected to a main soak, and 3) the thus treated hides or skins are dehaired by addition of water, exposure to mechanical influence and subjection to at least one protease, characterized in that the hides or skins are subjected to at least one protein disulfide redox agent at least one time during step 1) to 3).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 19, 1997
    Date of Patent: November 10, 1998
    Assignee: Novo Nordisk A/S
    Inventor: Lars Peter Andersen
  • Patent number: 5710040
    Abstract: An aqueous liquid composition containing one or more enzymatic active substances and at least 10 wt % to a maximum of (100-x) wt % molasses, wherein x is the fraction of enzymatic active substances in wt % and wherein x is a value from 0.001 to 90, which is useful for the production of leather in the beamhouse, to improve rehydration and dirt removal while soaking, to improve the loosening of hair and to inhibit swelling during liming, and to improve the cleaning of the surface of the skin during bating.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 13, 1996
    Date of Patent: January 20, 1998
    Assignee: Roehm GmbH Chemische Fabrik
    Inventors: Juergen Christner, Gertrud Wick
  • Patent number: 5670369
    Abstract: The invention includes an improved method for producing an aqueous solution of soluble collagen. The method comprises the steps of:(A) providing an aqueous ground slurry of insoluble collagen containing insoluble collagen at a first concentration and at a pH effective to obtain activity for a proteolytic enzyme added in step (B);(B) adding a proteolytic enzyme to said slurry;(C) reacting said slurry and enzyme at a temperature, T.sub.1, and for a time t.sub.1 effective for forming a slurry containing at least some soluble collagen;(D) diluting at least a portion of the slurry formed in step (C) with water to form a diluted slurry containing insoluble collagen at a second concentration; and(E) reacting said diluted slurry obtained in step (D) at a temperature, T.sub.2 and for a time t.sub.2, effective to produce a solution containing an increased amount of soluble collagen.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 25, 1996
    Date of Patent: September 23, 1997
    Assignee: Ranpak Corporation
    Inventors: David J. Fink, Kevin M. Virnelson
  • Patent number: 5602002
    Abstract: Described is the chemical hydrolysis of partial hydrolysates obtained by the enzymatic decomposition, in aqueous conditions in the presence of alkaline-earth oxides or hydroxides, of protein-containing raw materials containing chromium. This enables protein hydrolysates with a particularly low chromium content to be obtained which are stable to turbidity during storage. The chemical hydrolysis must be carried out in the presence of compounds selected from the alkaline-earth oxides and hydroxides, and within the critical pH range of 11 to 13.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 19, 1995
    Date of Patent: February 11, 1997
    Assignee: Gruenau Illertissen GmbH
    Inventors: Eberhard Eilers, Andreas Sander
  • Patent number: 5525509
    Abstract: A method for preparing unhaired hides ready for tanning from hides and skins using proteolytic and lipolytic enzymes in the beamhouse, whereby in at least one of the partial steps of the beamhouse consisting of a) liming in the pH range 11.5-14 and b) bating in the pH range 5-11.5, alkaline lipases (E.C.3.1.3.) having an activity optimum in the pH range 9-11 are added to the aqueous floats corresponding to these partial steps.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 23, 1994
    Date of Patent: June 11, 1996
    Assignee: Rohm GmbH
    Inventors: Juergen Christner, Tilman Taeger, Gertrud Wick
  • Patent number: 5508195
    Abstract: A method for liming hides and skins using a proteolytic enzyme in an aqueous-alkaline float is taught, wherein the liming float has a pH value from 10-14 and contains both thiourea dioxide and an alkaline protease having elastase activity.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 26, 1995
    Date of Patent: April 16, 1996
    Assignee: Rohm GmbH
    Inventors: Juergen Christner, Tilman Taeger, Gertrud Wick
  • Patent number: 5468476
    Abstract: Mammalian hair growth is reduced by applying to the skin an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthetase.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 16, 1994
    Date of Patent: November 21, 1995
    Inventors: Gurpreet S. Ahluwalia, Douglas Shander, James P. Henry
  • Patent number: 5443750
    Abstract: The present invention relates to detergent compositions comprising a high activity cellulase in combination with a softening clay. In the detergent compositions herein, the cellulase comprises a cellulase of high activity defined by the C14CMC-method. Preferably the detergent composition comprises a softening clay together with a clay flocculating agent and in case of liquid composition an anti-settling agent for the clay.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 15, 1993
    Date of Patent: August 22, 1995
    Assignee: The Procter & Gamble Company
    Inventors: Andre Convents, Alfred Busch, Andre C. Baeck
  • Patent number: 5271912
    Abstract: Chromium containing protein materials are treated by processes which include the steps of: combining the material to be treated with sufficient water to effect the solubilization of the gelable protein recovered therefrom, and an alkali additive. The mixture is thereafter held at a temperature of from about 60.degree. C. to about 85.degree. C. for a period of time of from about 0.5 hour to about 8 hours. The mixture is then filtered to remove the aqueous phase, which contains solubilized gelable protein. Subsequently, water is again added to the resultant chrome-containing proteinaceous cake and at least one enzyme is utilized to hydrolyze the remaining protein thus producing a product containing solubilized partially hydrolyzed protein and insoluble chromium. After separation, the chrome in the insoluble residue may be recycled into the pickling or tanning process, and the essentially chrome-free protein components may be used as ingredients in feeds, fertilizers, and cosmetics.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 10, 1992
    Date of Patent: December 21, 1993
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the Secretary of Agriculture
    Inventors: Maryann M. Taylor, Edward J. Diefendorf, Willian N. Marmer, Eleanor M. Brown
  • Patent number: 5102422
    Abstract: Liquid enzyme preparations comprising at least one anhydrous organic liquid as a vehicle for one or more enzymes and methods for using such preparations e.g. in beamhouse operations in the commercial production of leather.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 3, 1988
    Date of Patent: April 7, 1992
    Assignee: Rohm GmbH
    Inventors: Juergen Christner, Ernst Pfleiderer, Tilman Taeger, Ursula Bernschein
  • Patent number: 5094946
    Abstract: Materials containing both chromium and protein and treated by processes which include the steps of: combining a material to be treated (i.e. containing both chromium and protein) with sufficient water to produce a mixture having from about 75 wt. % water to about 95 wt. % water, and an additive which both provides an alkaline pH and provides calcium or magnesium as an enzyme cofactor. The mixture is thereafter held at a temperature of from about 60.degree. C. to about 75.degree. C. for a period of time of from about 0.5 hour to about 4 hours. Subsequently, at least one enzyme is utilized to hydrolyze the protein, thus producing a product containing solubilized hydrolyzed protein and insoluble chromium. After separation of the soluble fraction from the insoluble fraction, the chrome in the insoluble residue may be recycled into the pickling or tanning process, and the essentially chrome-free protein hydrolyzate is potentially useful as an ingredient in feeds, fertilizers, and cosmetics.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 8, 1990
    Date of Patent: March 10, 1992
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the Secretary of Agriculture
    Inventors: Maryann M. Taylor, Edward J. Diefendorf, George C. Na, William N. Marmer
  • Patent number: 5089414
    Abstract: The soaking of hides and skins is enzymatically assisted in a method using an aqueous float having a pH from 9 to 11 which containsA) a lipase having an activity optimum in the pH region from 9 to 11,B) a protease with activity in the pH region from 9 to 11, andC) a surface active agent.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 24, 1990
    Date of Patent: February 18, 1992
    Assignee: Rohm GmbH
    Inventors: Juergen Christner, Ernst Pfleiderer, Tilman Taeger
  • Patent number: 4968621
    Abstract: A method for the wet degreasing of raw hides and skins, pelts, and wet blues under the conditions of enzymatic bating, wherein enzymatic bating of the hide stock is carried out with proteolytic enzymes in the presence of synthetic surface active substances, for example, a mixture of a non-ionic emulsifier and anionic emulsifier.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 7, 1989
    Date of Patent: November 6, 1990
    Assignee: Rohm GmbH
    Inventors: Ernst Pfleiderer, Tilman Taeger, Gertrud Wick
  • Patent number: 4943530
    Abstract: Liquid enzyme preparations comprising at least one anhydrous organic liquid as a vehicle for one or more enzymes and methods for using such preparations e.g. in beamhouse operations in the commercial production of leather.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 16, 1989
    Date of Patent: July 24, 1990
    Assignee: Rohm GmbH
    Inventors: Juergen Christner, Ernst Pfleiderer, Tilman Taeger, Ursula Bernschein
  • Patent number: 4889811
    Abstract: Methods for making leather from animal hides and skins in the presence of surface active agents wherein certain phosphonic acid compounds are used in place of, or in combination with, known surface active agents.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 9, 1986
    Date of Patent: December 26, 1989
    Assignee: Rohm GmbH
    Inventors: Juergen Christner, Ernst Pfleiderer, Tilmann Taeger
  • Patent number: 4344762
    Abstract: What is disclosed is a method for soaking preserved skins or hides adaptable to the preparation of leather which comprises soaking said skins or hides in an aqueous bath containing a compound selected from the group of compounds of the formula ##STR1## and acid addition salts thereof, wherein R taken alone is --H, --NH.sub.2, --CH.sub.3, or --NHCN, X taken alone is .dbd.O, .dbd.S, or .dbd.NH, and R and X taken together form a five- or six-membered heterocyclic ring having conjugated double bonds and containing only nitrogen as a hetero atom.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 27, 1980
    Date of Patent: August 17, 1982
    Assignee: Rohm GmbH
    Inventors: Rolf Monsheimer, Ernst Pfleiderer
  • Patent number: 4320201
    Abstract: A process for producing collagen sponge which is insoluble but highly swellable in water, the sponge having a velour-like surface and being particularly suited for medical and cosmetic applications.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 2, 1980
    Date of Patent: March 16, 1982
    Assignee: Firma Carl Freudenberg
    Inventors: Alexander Berg, Zdenek Eckmayer
  • Patent number: 4314801
    Abstract: What is disclosed is a method for soaking dried or salted fur pelts which comprises soaking said pelts in an aqueous bath containing at least one compound selected from the group consisting of compounds of the formula ##STR1## and acid addition salts of such compounds, wherein R taken alone is --H, --NH.sub.2, --CH.sub.3, or --NHCN, X taken alone is .dbd.O, .dbd.S, or .dbd.NH, and R and X taken together form a five- or six-membered heterocyclic ring having conjugated double bonds therein and containing only nitrogen as a hetero atom.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 27, 1980
    Date of Patent: February 9, 1982
    Assignee: Rohm GmbH
    Inventors: Rolf Monsheimer, Ernst Pfleiderer