Desulfurizing Patents (Class 435/282)
  • Patent number: 10465105
    Abstract: A method of reducing an amount of a sulfur-containing compound in a reservoir fluid includes contacting a treatment fluid comprising an aqueous medium and an enzymatic scavenger with a precipitating fluid to precipitate the enzymatic scavenger; contacting the precipitated enzymatic scavenger with the reservoir fluid comprising the sulfur-containing compound; and reducing a number of the sulfur-containing compound in the reservoir fluid.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 9, 2018
    Date of Patent: November 5, 2019
    Assignee: BAKER HUGHES, A GE COMPANY, LLC
    Inventors: Soma Chakraborty, Prasad Dhulipala, Jeffrey Russek, Sunder Ramachandran, Jack Lynn
  • Patent number: 8455240
    Abstract: The aim of the invention is to use sulphate-reducing thermophilic archaeobacteria for carrying out a method for degrading linear or branched, saturated or unsaturated, when necessary sulphur, aromatic hydrocarbons under anaerobic conditions.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 30, 2006
    Date of Patent: June 4, 2013
    Assignee: Institut de Recherche pour le Development (I.R.D.)
    Inventors: Marie-Laure Fardeau, Bernard Ollivier, Agnès Hirschler-Rea, Nadia Khelifi
  • Patent number: 8372628
    Abstract: The present invention is related to an isolated chemolithotrophic bacterium belonging to species Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans named Licanantay, deposited in Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganismen and Zellkulturen GmbH-DSMZ with number DSM 17318, and its use in pure form or in mixtures that contains it for bioleaching processes of minerals or sulfured metallic species concentrates. This Licanantay strain DSM 17318 has sulfur-oxidizing activity in both primary and secondary sulfured minerals, especially in the case of chalcopyrite, covellite, bornite, chalcocite, enargite and tennantite.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 25, 2010
    Date of Patent: February 12, 2013
    Assignee: Biosigma S.A.
    Inventors: Atsuko Ohata, Manabu Manabe, Pilar A. Parada Valdecantos
  • Patent number: 8030055
    Abstract: A method of biotreating and recovering metal values from metal-bearing refractrory sulfide ore using a nonstirred surface bioreactor is provided. According to the method, the surface of a plurality of coarse substrates is coated with a solid material to be biotreated to form a plurality of coated coarse substrates. The coarse substrates have a particle size greater than about 0.3 cm and the solid material to be biotreated has a particle size less than about 250 ?m. A nonstirred surface reactor is then formed by stacking the plurality of coated coarse substrates into a heap or placing the plurality of coated coarse substrates into a tank so that the void volume of the reactor is greater than or equal to about 25%. The solid material is biotreated in the surface bioreactor until the undesired compound in the solid material is degraded to a desired concentration.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 26, 2008
    Date of Patent: October 4, 2011
    Assignee: Geobiotics, LLC
    Inventor: William J. Kohr
  • Patent number: 8021870
    Abstract: A method of biotreating a solid material including an organic compound is provided. According to the method, a nonstirred bioreactor having a void volume of greater than or equal to 25% with a mixture including a solid material to be biotreated and a plurality of coarse substrates having a particle size greater than or equal to about 0.6 cm is formed. The solid material to be biotreated includes an organic material. The mixture includes sufficient coarse substrates to provide the reactor with at least 100 square meters of surface area per cubic meter of reactor space. The solid material in the bioreactor is biotreated until the organic material within the bioreactor is reduced to a desired concentration.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 26, 2008
    Date of Patent: September 20, 2011
    Assignee: Geobiotics, LLC
    Inventor: William J. Kohr
  • Patent number: 7754471
    Abstract: A process for the recovery of sulfur from an acid gas stream is disclosed. The process includes a Claus sulfur recovery step in combination with a direct reduction step and a biological sulfur recovery step to provide a sweet gas stream having a very low concentration of hydrogen sulfide and sulfur dioxide. The process includes reacting an acid gas steam with oxygen under such oxidation conditions to yield a combustion gas comprising hydrogen sulfide and sulfur dioxide. The combustion gas is reacted under Claus reaction conditions to yield a reaction gas comprising sulfur. Sulfur is recovered from the reaction gas to yield a Claus tail gas comprising hydrogen sulfide and sulfur dioxide. The Claus tail gas is reacted under direct reduction reaction conditions to yield a direct reduction gas comprising sulfur. Sulfur is recovered from the direct reduction reaction gas to yield a tail gas comprising a concentration of hydrogen sulfide.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 2, 2005
    Date of Patent: July 13, 2010
    Assignee: Shell Oil Company
    Inventors: Jen Kai Chen, Michael Arthur Huffmaster
  • Patent number: 7749747
    Abstract: Process for surface activation and/or devulcanization of sulfur-vulcanized rubber particles. In order to break the sulfur bridges and to reduce the sulfur, the rubber particles are treated in a biotechnological manner in a medium with mesophilic anaerobic and/or optionally anaerobic and/or microaerophilic bacteria and/or with one or more enzyme systems of such bacteria. The thus-treated activated rubber particles show improved vulcanization properties in comparison with non-treated rubber particles, and permit the production of better quality articles.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 29, 2004
    Date of Patent: July 6, 2010
    Assignee: Cristallo Holdings, Inc.
    Inventor: Willi Neumann
  • Patent number: 7737191
    Abstract: A process and resulting product is provided in which vulcanized rubber crumb has selected chemical bonds broken and sulphur removal by biotreatment with hydrophobic bacteria, such as mycolic acid containing actinomycete bacteria of ‘mycolata’, without significant degradation of the hydrocarbon polymer. The products obtained from the use of these bacteria may be processed alone or in blends with virgin rubber and revulcanized to yield products of much higher quality than conventional reclaimed rubber materials.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 27, 2004
    Date of Patent: June 15, 2010
    Assignee: Recyclatech Group Limited
    Inventors: Nicholas Christofi, John Geoffrey, David Edward
  • Publication number: 20090217571
    Abstract: Disclosed herein is a method for producing ultra-low-sulfur content hydrocarbon fuel and product thereof. The method comprises selective biocatalytic oxidation of sulfur containing compounds present in the fuels employing enzyme lipase as biocatalyst in presence of controlled and incremental amount of hydrogen peroxide and carboxylic acid without using water or any co-factor for the reactivity of said enzymes.
    Type: Application
    Filed: October 28, 2005
    Publication date: September 3, 2009
    Applicant: Indian Oil Corporation Limited
    Inventors: Mahendra Pratap Singh, Manoj Kumar, Wadhava Ram Kalsi, Alex Cheru Pulikottil, Rakesh Sarin, Deepak Kumar Tuli, Ravinder Kumar Malhotra, Ram Prakash Verma, Brij Mohan Bansal
  • Patent number: 7560266
    Abstract: A microbial consortium for the biodegradation of sulfonated aliphatic-aromatic co-polyesters having greater than 60 mol percent aromatic acid content based on the total acid content of the co-polyester, created by applying selective pressure. Methods to biodegrade sulfonated aliphatic-aromatic co-polyesters using microbial consortium SPDC-1 are provided.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 3, 2006
    Date of Patent: July 14, 2009
    Assignee: E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company
    Inventors: Michael Bramucci, Vasantha Nagarajan
  • Patent number: 7416882
    Abstract: A method of biotreating a solid material to remove an undesired compound using a nonstirred surface bioreactor is provided. According to the method, the surface of a plurality of coarse substrates is coated with a solid material to be biotreated to form a plurality of coated coarse substrates. The coarse substrates have a particle size greater than about 0.3 cm and the solid material to be biotreated has a particle size less than about 250 ?m. A nonstirred surface reactor is then formed by stacking the plurality of coated coarse substrates into a heap or placing the plurality of coated coarse substrates into a tank so that the void volume of the reactor is greater than or equal to about 25%. The solid material is biotreated in the surface bioreactor until the undesired compound in the solid material is degraded to a desired concentration.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 21, 2004
    Date of Patent: August 26, 2008
    Assignee: Geobiotics, LLC
    Inventor: William J. Kohr
  • Patent number: 7338795
    Abstract: A process for treating liquid hydrocarbon, includes the steps of providing a liquid hydrocarbon containing complex sulfur-containing compounds, providing a bioactive material selected from or derived from members of genus Alcaligenes; and exposing the liquid hydrocarbon to the bioactive material under effective conditions such that the bioactive material interacts with the complex sulfur compounds and transforms the organic sulfur-containing compounds into inorganic sulfur compounds.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 24, 2003
    Date of Patent: March 4, 2008
    Assignee: Intevep, S.A.
    Inventors: Isora Ranson, Carmen M. Rivas
  • Patent number: 7329532
    Abstract: Methods and apparatus are disclosed for remediating sulfur-containing pollutants with a hydrocarbon that is used to stimulate the growth of hydrocarbon-utilizing bacteria. The hydrocarbon is preferably an alkane such as butane. The sulfur-containing pollutant may comprise sulfate, sulfite, sulfide, disulfides, mercaptans, alkanesulfonates, dialkyl sulfides, thiosulfate, thiofurans, thiocyanates, isothiocyanates, thioureas, thiols, thiophenols, thioethers, thiophene, tetrathionate, dithionite, dialkyl disulfides, sulfones, sulfoxides, sulfolanes, sulfonic acid, dimethylsulfoniopropionate, sulfonic esters, hydrogen sulfide, sulfate esters, sulfur dioxide and any other sour gases, elemental sulfur and any other sulfur-containing material considered to be a contaminant or pollutant.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 26, 2002
    Date of Patent: February 12, 2008
    Assignee: Global BioSciences, Inc.
    Inventor: Felix Anthony Perriello
  • Patent number: 7101410
    Abstract: A microbiological method of desulfurization (MDS) of hydrocarbon fuels such as coal, coal tar and petroleum uses an aqueous microbial biocatalytic agent which is not significantly reproducing but is still capable of oxidizing inorganic sulfur compounds and/or of selectively cleaving sulfur-carbon bonds in organic compounds, thereby removing sulfur with insignificant losses in fuel value. Microorganisms are selected according to the type of fuel sulfur present and the environment in which the desulfurizing process is to take place. One embodiment allows droplets of highly concentrated cell-water suspensions to pass from the top surface of the fuel through to the bottom, desulfurizing along the way and removing the sulfur products of the process as well. This MDS method can be used during hydrocarbon fuel production, storage, transport, and/or processing conditions, thereby also providing an added benefit in corrosion protection of the vessels used for these functions.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 3, 2004
    Date of Patent: September 5, 2006
    Inventors: Clarence L. Baugh, Thomas E. Baugh, Robert L. Baugh
  • Patent number: 6808919
    Abstract: A process for treating liquid hydrocarbon, includes the steps of providing a liquid hydrocarbon containing complex sulfur-containing compounds, providing a bioactive material selected from or derived from members of genus Alcaligenes; and exposing the liquid hydrocarbon to the bioactive material under effective conditions such that the bioactive material interacts with the complex sulfur compounds and transforms the organic sulfur-containing compounds into inorganic sulfur compounds.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 11, 2002
    Date of Patent: October 26, 2004
    Assignee: Intevep, S.A.
    Inventors: Isora Ranson, Carmen M. Rivas
  • Patent number: 6756022
    Abstract: There is provided a desulphurization apparatus to be mounted in automobiles, which is arranged between a fuel tank and an injector of an engine, the apparatus comprising a combination of a sulfur-containing compound adsorbent for adsorbing and concentrating the sulfur-containing compound and a sulfur-containing compound oxidizing agent or oxidation catalyst for oxidizing the adsorbed sulfur-containing compound, the apparatus further comprising a means for recovering and removing the resulting sulfur-containing oxide. According to this apparatus, the quantity of the particulate matter in an exhaust gas is reduced by half and the durability of the catalyst for removing a nitrogen oxide is improved by a factor of about two.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 29, 2001
    Date of Patent: June 29, 2004
    Assignee: Toyota Jidosha Kabushiki Kaisha
    Inventors: Takenobu Sakai, Tatsuji Mizuno, Hiroshi Suzuki
  • Patent number: 6638419
    Abstract: A method for obtaining oil products such as diesel fuel with improved quality, from a gas oil fraction containing organosulphur compounds such as dibenzenethiophenes and/or their derivatives, with initial and final boiling points generally ranging between about 170 and 480° C. The method includes at least two steps which consist in: (a) liquid-liquid extraction wherein the diesel fuel fraction is contacted with a solvent so as to obtain a gas oil-type raffinate with low content of sulphur and aromatic compounds and an extract rich in solvent and with high content of sulphur and aromatic compounds; (b) oxidation of the extract sulphur compounds so as to obtain, after separation, a heavy gas oil-type hydrocarbon effluent with low sulphur content, and a residue comprising oxidased organosulphur compounds. The invention also concerns oil products obtained by said method which can be used either for the formation of fuel for internal combustion engine with compression ignition (of the diesel type) or as fuel.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 10, 2002
    Date of Patent: October 28, 2003
    Assignee: Total Raffinage Distribution S.A.
    Inventors: Pedro Da Silva, Raphaël Le Gall
  • Publication number: 20030170873
    Abstract: A process for treating liquid hydrocarbon, includes the steps of providing a liquid hydrocarbon containing complex sulfur-containing compounds, providing a bioactive material selected from or derived from members of genus Alcaligenes; and exposing the liquid hydrocarbon to the bioactive material under effective conditions such that the bioactive material interacts with the complex sulfur compounds and transforms the organic sulfur-containing compounds into inorganic sulfur compounds.
    Type: Application
    Filed: March 11, 2002
    Publication date: September 11, 2003
    Inventors: Isora Ranson, Carmen M. Rivas
  • Publication number: 20030170874
    Abstract: A process for treating liquid hydrocarbon, includes the steps of providing a liquid hydrocarbon containing complex sulfur-containing compounds, providing a bioactive material selected from or derived from members of genus Alcaligenes; and exposing the liquid hydrocarbon to the bioactive material under effective conditions such that the bioactive material interacts with the complex sulfur compounds and transforms the organic sulfur-containing compounds into inorganic sulfur compounds.
    Type: Application
    Filed: February 24, 2003
    Publication date: September 11, 2003
    Inventors: Isora Ranson, Carmen M. Rivas
  • Patent number: 6607903
    Abstract: This invention provides novel genes encoding enzymes which decompose difficult-to-decompose thiophene compounds. By using these genes, sulfur atoms can be released from the thiophene compounds in fossil fuel such as petroleum, and the diffusion of sulfur into the environment caused by the combustion of the fossil fuel can be prevented.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 10, 2002
    Date of Patent: August 19, 2003
    Assignee: Petroleum Energy Center
    Inventors: Yoshitaka Ishii, Jin Konishi, Kazuaki Hirasawa, Hideki Okada, Masanori Suzuki
  • Publication number: 20030092169
    Abstract: A process for converting organic sulfur compounds contained in liquid hydrocarbons to elemental sulfur. The liquid hydrocarbons are solubilized in an organic solvent and reacted in the presence of a biocatalyst and hydrogen. The organic solvent is a nucleophilic solvent having a pKa greater than about 2, an electrophilic solvent having a pKa more negative than about −2, or mixtures thereof. The biocatalyst may be supported on a Lewis acid. Elemental sulfur is removed from the liquid hydrocarbons. Liquid hydrocarbons treated in accordance with this process have significantly reduced concentrations of organic sulfur compounds and thus reduced viscosity.
    Type: Application
    Filed: November 14, 2001
    Publication date: May 15, 2003
    Inventor: Mark A. Plummer
  • Patent number: 6479271
    Abstract: This invention provides novel genes encoding enzymes which decompose difficult-to-decompose thiophene compounds. By using these genes, sulfur atoms can be released from the thiophene compounds in fossil fuel such as petroleum, and the diffusion of sulfur into the environment caused by the combustion of the fossil fuel can be prevented.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 10, 2002
    Date of Patent: November 12, 2002
    Assignee: Petroleum Energy Center
    Inventors: Yoshitaka Ishii, Jin Konishi, Kazuaki Hirasawa, Hideki Okada, Masanori Suzuki
  • Patent number: 6461859
    Abstract: The invention relates to a method of removing thiophenic and organosulfide compounds from a fossil fuel comprising the steps of contacting the fossil fuel with hemoproteins, which oxidize the sulfur containing compounds to sulfoxides and sulfones in a reaction system containing organic solvent or not, and followed by a distillation step in which sulfoxides and sulfones are removed from the fuel. Preferred biocatalysts include hemoproteins such as chloroperoxidase from Caldariomyces fumago, and peroxidases and cytochromes from animal, plant or microbial cells. The hemoprotein biocatalyst can be contacted with the fossil fuel in free or immobilized forms. The reaction can be carried out in the presence of the fuel alone or with addition of any organic solvent. The biocatalytically oxidized fuel is then distilled in order to eliminate the heavy fraction which contains most of oxidized organosulfur compounds.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 9, 1999
    Date of Patent: October 8, 2002
    Assignees: Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico
    Inventors: Rafael Vazquez Duhalt, Maria del Pilar Bremauntz, Eduardo Barzana, Raunel Tinoco
  • Patent number: 6420158
    Abstract: This invention provides novel genes encoding enzymes which decompose difficult-to-decompose thiophene compounds. By using these genes, sulfur atoms can be released from the thiophene compounds in fossil fuel such as petroleum, and the diffusion of sulfur into the environment caused by the combustion of the fossil fuel can be prevented.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 29, 2000
    Date of Patent: July 16, 2002
    Assignee: Petroleum Energy Center
    Inventors: Yoshitaka Ishii, Jin Konishi, Kazuaki Hirasawa, Hideki Okada, Masanori Suzuki
  • Patent number: 6410304
    Abstract: A method of biotreating a solid material to remove an undesired compound using a nonstirred surface bioreactor is provided. According to the method the surface of a plurality of coarse substrates is coated with a solid material to be biotreated to form a plurality of coated coarse substrates. The coarse substrates have a particle size greater than about 0.3 cm and the solid material to be biotreated has a particle size less than about 250 &mgr;m. A nonstirred surface reactor is then formed by stacking the plurality of coated coarse substrates into a heap or placing the plurality of coated coarse substrates into a tank so that the void volume of the reactor is greater than or equal to about 25%. The reactor is inoculated with a microorganism capable of degrading the undesired compound in the solid material, and the solid material is then biotreated in the surface bioreactor until the undesired compound in the solid material is degraded to a desired concentration.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 12, 2000
    Date of Patent: June 25, 2002
    Assignee: Geobiotics, LLC
    Inventor: William J. Kohr
  • Patent number: 6407144
    Abstract: A process and resulting product is provided in which a vulcanized solid particulate, such as vulcanized crumb rubber, has select chemical bonds altered by biotreatment with thermophillic microorganisms selected from natural isolates from hot sulfur springs. Following the biotreatment, microwave radiation is used to further treat the surface and to treat the bulk interior of the crumb rubber. The resulting combined treatments render the treated crumb rubber more suitable for use in new rubber formulations. As a result, larger loading levels and sizes of the treated crumb rubber can be used in new rubber mixtures and good properties obtained from the new recycled products.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 4, 2000
    Date of Patent: June 18, 2002
    Assignee: Westinghouse Savannah River Company, LLC
    Inventors: Carl B. Fliermans, George G. Wicks
  • Publication number: 20020028505
    Abstract: There is provided a desulphurization apparatus to be mounted in automobiles, which is arranged between a fuel tank and an injector of an engine, the apparatus comprising a combination of a sulfur-containing compound adsorbent for adsorbing and concentrating the sulfur-containing compound and a sulfur-containing compound oxidizing agent or oxidation catalyst for oxidizing the adsorbed sulfur-containing compound, the apparatus further comprising a means for recovering and removing the resulting sulfur-containing oxide. According to this apparatus, the quantity of the particulate matter in an exhaust gas is reduced by half and the durability of the catalyst for removing a nitrogen oxide is improved by a factor of about two.
    Type: Application
    Filed: August 29, 2001
    Publication date: March 7, 2002
    Applicant: TOYOTA JIDOSHA KABUSHIKI KAISHA
    Inventors: Takenobu Sakai, Tatsuji Mizuno, Hiroshi Suzuki
  • Patent number: 6337204
    Abstract: This invention relates to a biological culture comprising at least one bacterial strain that is selected from the group that is formed by Rhodococcus erythropolis CNCM I-2204 Rhodococcus erythropolis CNCM I-2205 Rhodococcus erythropolis CNCM I-2207 Rhodococcus erythropolis CNCM I-2208 Rhodococcus rhodnii CNCM I-2206 able to selectively attack the C—S bonds of organic molecules present in hydrocarbons without substantially altering their carbon structure, and having improved stability. The invention also relates to a process for desulfurization of a hydrocarbon feedstock containing sulfur-containing organic molecules.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 19, 2000
    Date of Patent: January 8, 2002
    Assignee: Institut Francais du Petrole
    Inventors: Frédéric Monot, Samir Abbad-Andaloussi, Michel Warzywoda
  • Patent number: 6306288
    Abstract: A process for removing H2S and mercaptans from a hydrocarbon stream is disclosed. A hydrocarbon stream such as a LPG stream is contacted with a weakly basic stream, e.g., a sodium bicarbonate stream in order to extract the H2S and mercaptans from the hydrocarbon stream into the basic stream. The basic stream is now treated in a reactor containing a sulfide oxidizing microorganism in order to convert the H2S to sulfur and the mercaptans to disulfides. Finally, the sulfur and disulfides are separated from the basic aqueous stream which can be recycled and used to treat a fresh hydrocarbon stream. The treated hydrocarbon stream is purified to the point that it passes the copper strip test, while the purified basic stream contains less than 0.08 g/l of elemental sulfur.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 22, 1999
    Date of Patent: October 23, 2001
    Assignee: UOP LLC
    Inventors: Rusty Pittman, Blaise J. Arena, Albert J. Janssen
  • Patent number: 6274372
    Abstract: The invention provides a novel flavin reductase, which has been isolated from Rhodococcus strain sp. IGTS8 and purified to homogeneity. The flavin reductase is of use in the biocatalytic desulfurization of a fossil fuel containing organic sulfur compounds. The method comprises the steps of (1) contacting the fossil fuel with an aqueous phase containing a biocatalyst capable of cleaving carbon—sulfur bonds and a rate-enhancing amount of the flavin reductase of the present invention, thereby forming a fossil fuel and aqueous phase mixture; (2) maintaining the mixture under conditions sufficient for cleavage of the carbon—sulfur bonds of the organic sulfur molecules by the biocatalyst, thereby resulting in a fossil fuel having a reduced organic sulfur content; and (3) separating the fossil fuel having a reduced organic sulfur content from the resulting aqueous phase.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 3, 1999
    Date of Patent: August 14, 2001
    Assignee: Enchira Biotechnology Corporation
    Inventors: Kevin A. Gray, John D. Childs, Charles H. Squires
  • Patent number: 6235519
    Abstract: The present invention relates to an isolated nucleic acid molecule which encodes one or more of the enzymes which catalyze one or more steps in the desulfurization of thiophene, or a homologue or active fragment thereof. The invention also includes a recombinant microorganism containing one or more such heterologous nucleic acid molecules. The invention also provides a method for desulfurizing a fossil fuel containing thiophene and/or one or more substituted thiophenes. The method comprises contacting the fossil fuel with an organism containing a recombinant nucleic acid molecule which encodes an enzyme which catalyzes the desulfurization of thiophene.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 26, 1998
    Date of Patent: May 22, 2001
    Assignee: Energy Biosystems Corporation
    Inventors: Yongzhao Wang, John D. Childs, Charles H. Squires
  • Patent number: 6204046
    Abstract: The present invention relates to Gordona sp. CYKS1 (KCTC 0431BP) capable of selective removal of organically bound sulfurs from carbonaceous fossil fuel such as petroleum and coal by cleaving bonds between carbon and sulfur atoms in the said sulfur-containing organic compounds, and a method for biological desulfurization using this strain at the room temperature and atmospheric pressure. Since Gordona sp. CYKS1 (KCTC 0431BP) utilizes various organic sulfur compounds in fossil fuel besides dibenzothiophene as a sole sulfur source, the method for biological desulfurization employing the Gordona strain has advantages over the conventional chemical methods as followings: The desulfurization can be carried out at a mild condition; the cost for installation and operation of equipments can be reduced; and, the desulfurization of highly complex organic sulfur compounds can be realized.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 3, 1999
    Date of Patent: March 20, 2001
    Assignee: Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology
    Inventors: Yong Keun Chang, Ho Nam Chang, Sung-Keun Rhee, Je Hwan Chang, Jung Hyun Sung
  • Patent number: 6197570
    Abstract: The present invention relates to Nocardia sp. CYKS2 (KCTC 0432 Br) capable of selective removal of organically bound sulfurs from carbonaceous fossil fuel such as petroleum and coal by cleaving bonds between carbon and sulfur atoms in the said sulfur-containing organic compounds, and a method for biological desulfurization using this strain at the room temperature and atmospheric pressure. Since Nocardia sp. CYKS2 (KCTC 0432 Bp) utilizes various organic sulfur compounds in fossil fuel besides dibenzothiophene as a sole sulfur source, the method for biological desulfurization employing the Nocardia strain has advantages over the conventional chemical methods as followings: The desulfurization can be carried out at a mild condition; the cost for installation and operation of equipments can be reduced; and, the desulfurization of highly complex organic sulfur compounds can be realized.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 2, 1999
    Date of Patent: March 6, 2001
    Assignee: Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology
    Inventors: Yong Keun Chang, Ho Nam Chang, Sung-Keun Rhee, Je Hwan Chang, Jung Hyun Sung
  • Patent number: 6159726
    Abstract: A method of biotreating a solid material to remove an undesired compound using a nonstirred surface bioreactor is provided. According to the method the surface of a plurality of coarse substrates is coated with a solid material to be biotreated to form a plurality of coated coarse substrates. The coarse substrates have a particle size greater than about 0.3 cm and the solid material to be biotreated has a particle size less than about 250 .mu.m. A nonstirred surface reactor is then formed by stacking the plurality of coated coarse substrates into a heap or placing the plurality of coated coarse substrates into a tank so that the void volume of the reactor is greater than or equal to about 25%. The reactor is inoculated with a microorganism capable of degrading the undesired compound in the solid material, and the solid material is then biotreated in the surface bioreactor until the undesired compound in the solid material is degraded to a desired concentration.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 12, 1998
    Date of Patent: December 12, 2000
    Assignee: Geobiotics, Inc.
    Inventor: William J. Kohr
  • Patent number: 6130081
    Abstract: The present invention relates to a method of degrading organic sulfur compounds, in which organic sulfur compounds are decomposed by a microorganism belonging to the genus Paenibacillus and having the ability to decompose organic sulfur compounds. Heterocyclic sulfur compounds can be decomposed by specifically cleaving their C--S bonds under high-temperature conditions.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 9, 1999
    Date of Patent: October 10, 2000
    Assignee: Petroleum Energy Center
    Inventors: Jin Konishi, Yoshitaka Ishii, Kouichi Okumura, Masanori Suzuki
  • Patent number: 6124130
    Abstract: Sulfur is removed from fossil fuels containing sulfur by incubation of the fuel with microbes isolated and purified from soil or water that selectively extract the sulfur without apparently utilizing the fuel as a carbon or energy source. Preferred biodesulfurization microbes remove at least about 20% of the sulfur. The microbes are obtained in a multi-step screen that first selects microorganisms that utilize dibenzothiophene (DBT) as a sole source of sulfur, and then tests these in incubations with fossil fuels; organisms that desulfurize DBT without metabolizing the DBT phenyl ring structures and desulfurize fuels only when a second carbon source devoid of sulfur is present are identified and employed in desulfurization processes. Two cultures, CDT-4 and CDT-4b, were particularly efficacious in the desulfurization of liquid fossil fuels.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 10, 1998
    Date of Patent: September 26, 2000
    Assignee: Clean Diesel Technologies, Inc.
    Inventor: Gregory J. Olson
  • Patent number: 6071738
    Abstract: The present invention relates to a method for the desulfurization of a fossil fuel containing one or more organosulfur compounds. In one embodiment, the method comprises the steps of (1) contacting the fossil fuel with a biocatalyst capable of converting the organosulfur compound to an oxyorganosulfur compound which is separable from the fossil fuel; and (2) separating the oxyorganosulfur compound from the fossil fuel. The oxyorganosulfur compound can then be isolated, discarded or further processed, for example, via desulfurization by a biocatalyzed process or an abiotic process, such as hydrodesulfurization.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 19, 1997
    Date of Patent: June 6, 2000
    Assignee: Energy BioSystems Corporation
    Inventors: Steven W. Johnson, Daniel J. Monticello, Charles Hazan, Jean-Michel Colin
  • Patent number: 6051518
    Abstract: The present invention relates to a biological process for regenerating metal-containing sulfide mitigation catalysts that are commonly known in the natural gas processing industry as liquid redox catalysts. The invention further relates to a sulfide mitigation process wherein mitigation and regeneration are performed in a single reactor under substantially anaerobic conditions. The present invention also relates to a self regenerating catalyst composition for the mitigation of sulfides.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 24, 1997
    Date of Patent: April 18, 2000
    Assignee: Gas Research Institute
    Inventors: Kailash Chandra Srivastava, Daman S. Walia
  • Patent number: 5985650
    Abstract: The invention relates to the discovery that the rate of reaction of the desulfurization of fossil fuels is enhanced by the addition of a flavoprotein to the biocatalyst. The invention is drawn to a method for enhancing the rate of desulfurizing a fossil fuel containing organic sulfur compounds, comprising the steps of:a) contacting the fossil fuel with an aqueous phase containing a biocatalyst capable of cleaving carbon-sulfur bonds and a rate-enhancing amount of a flavoprotein, thereby forming a fossil fuel and aqueous phase mixture;b) maintaining the mixture of step (a) under conditions sufficient for cleavage of the carbon-sulfur bonds of the organic sulfur molecules by the biocatalyst, thereby resulting in a fossil fuel having a reduced organic sulfur content; andc) separating the fossil fuel having a reduced organic sulfur content from the resulting aqueous phase.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 18, 1998
    Date of Patent: November 16, 1999
    Assignee: Energy BioSystems Corporation
    Inventors: Charles H. Squires, Wan Ji, Lei Xi, Beatrice C. Ortego, Olga S. Pogrebinsky, Kevin A. Gray, John D. Childs
  • Patent number: 5968812
    Abstract: The invention relates to the unexpected discovery that the removal of the sulfinate group from an organosulfinate compound can be improved in the presence of an effective amount of a Lewis acid. The invention includes a method of removing the sulfinic acid functional group from an organosulfinic acid compound, comprising reacting the organosulfinic acid compound with an effective amount of a Lewis acid.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 2, 1998
    Date of Patent: October 19, 1999
    Assignee: Energy BioSystems Corporation
    Inventor: Gregory T. Mrachko
  • Patent number: 5952208
    Abstract: The present invention provides novel recombinant pseudomonads which contain a heterologous nucleic acid molecule comprising a nucleotide sequence encoding one or more desulfurization enzymes which are components of a biodesulfurization catalyst. The invention also provides a method of desulfurizing a carbonaceous material, such as a fossil fuel, which comprises organosulfur compounds. The method includes the steps of The method comprises the steps of (1) contacting the fossil fuel with an aqueous phase containing a recombinant biocatalyst which is capable of cleaving carbon-sulfur bonds and, optionally, a flavoprotein, thereby forming a fossil fuel and aqueous phase mixture; (2) maintaining the mixture under conditions sufficient for cleavage of the carbon-sulfur bonds of the organosulfur molecules by the biocatalyst, thereby resulting in a fossil fuel having a reduced organic sulfur content; and (3) separating the fossil fuel having a reduced organic sulfur content from the resulting aqueous phase.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 5, 1997
    Date of Patent: September 14, 1999
    Assignee: Energy BioSystems Corporation
    Inventors: Aldis Darzins, Lei Xi, John D. Childs, Daniel J. Monticello, Charles H. Squires
  • Patent number: 5925560
    Abstract: The present invention relates to a method of degrading organic sulfur compounds, in which organic sulfur compounds are decomposed by a microorganism belonging to the genus Paenibacillus and having the ability to decompose organic sulfur compounds. Heterocyclic sulfur compounds can be decomposed by specifically cleaving their C--S bonds under high-temperature conditions.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 29, 1997
    Date of Patent: July 20, 1999
    Assignee: Petroleum Energy Center
    Inventors: Jin Konishi, Yoshitaka Ishii, Kouichi Okumura, Masanori Suzuki
  • Patent number: 5910440
    Abstract: A process to remove organic sulfur from organic compounds and organic carbonaceous fuel substrates containing sulfur compounds having sulfur-carbon bonds is disclosed. The steps of the process include oxidizing the sulfur species to the sulfone and/or sulfoxide form, and reacting the sulfone and/or sulfoxide form in an aqueous media of the reacting step including a hydride transfer reducing agent. In a particular embodiment, the reducing agent is sodium formate, the oxidizing agent is a microorganism as exemplified by Rhodococcus species ATCC 55309 or Rhodococcus species ATCC 55310 or combinations thereof.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 12, 1996
    Date of Patent: June 8, 1999
    Assignee: Exxon Research and Engineering Company
    Inventors: Matthew J. Grossman, Michael Siskin, David T. Ferrughelli, M. Kathryn Lee, James D. Senius
  • Patent number: 5882935
    Abstract: An analysis element for analyzing both amounts of glycated hemoglobin and total hemoglobin in an aqueous liquid sample to determine glycated hemoglobin content ratio in the sample. The element comprises a substrate layer for receiving a reaction mixture after the completion of an immunological reaction between the glycated hemoglobin in the sample and an enzyme-labelled antibody against the glycated hemoglobin, and a reagent layer. The substrate layer contains a non-diffusible substrate which forms a diffusible material in the presence of the enzyme of the enzyme-labelled antibody, the activity of the enzyme being effected relative to the steric hindrance due to the immunological reaction. The reagent layer contains a reagent composition for reacting with the diffusible material to form a dye detectable colorimetrically in a wavelength range which is not effected by an absorption spectrum of the hemoglobin.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 17, 1995
    Date of Patent: March 16, 1999
    Assignee: Fuji Photo Film Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Kikuo Hirai, Hiroshi Shinoki, Masashi Ogawa, Yoshihiko Makino
  • Patent number: 5874294
    Abstract: A simple and effective biochemical process solves the problems associated with sulfur in bitumen by removing sulfur from active participation in SO.sub.x -producing combustion reactions. In one aspect, an emulsion of bitumen and water is contacted with a microbiological desulfurization agent for a time and under conditions effective to reduce the oxidizable sulfur content of the bitumen. The preferred agents do not affect the heating value of the fuel, but selectively oxidize organic sulfur to water-soluble sulfates which can either be physically removed or chemically bound so that they do not cause SO.sub.x production. Multistage reaction is employed to enhance sulfur removal.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 10, 1997
    Date of Patent: February 23, 1999
    Inventor: James M. Valentine
  • Patent number: 5874295
    Abstract: The invention relates to a strain of Arthrobacter sp. CBS 208.96 capable of selectively effecting the opening of the C-S bond of sulfurated organic molecules present in carbonaceous materials and its use in a process for the selective removal of organic sulfur from fossil fuels contained therein.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 27, 1997
    Date of Patent: February 23, 1999
    Assignee: Eniricerche S.p.A.
    Inventors: Eugenio Fascetti, Ezio D'Addario, Roberto Gianna, Pasquale Sacceddu, Luca Serbolisca, Andrea Robertiello
  • Patent number: 5854060
    Abstract: Chelants represented by Formula 1b: ##STR1## are determined to be biodegradable when Distance A is from about 3.8.times.10.sup.-10 to about 4.6.times.10.sup.-10 m, Distance B is from about 5.1.times.10.sup.-10 to about 5.9.times.10.sup.-10 m, and Distance C is from about 4.3 to about 6.7.times.10.sup.-10 m). Compounds meeting these criteria are referred to as compounds of Formula 2.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 18, 1997
    Date of Patent: December 29, 1998
    Assignee: The Dow Chemical Company
    Inventor: Alan D. Strickland
  • Patent number: 5846813
    Abstract: The invention relates to the discovery that the rate of reaction of the desulfurization of fossil fuels is enhanced by the addition of an oxidoreductase to the biocatalyst. The invention is drawn to a method for enhancing the rate of desulfurizing a fossil fuel containing organic sulfur compounds, comprising the steps of:a) contacting the fossil fuel with an aqueous phase containing a biocatalyst capable of cleaving carbon-sulfur bonds and a rate-enhancing amount of an oxidoreductase, thereby forming a fossil fuel and aqueous phase mixture;b) maintaining the mixture of step (a) under conditions sufficient for cleavage of the carbon-sulfur bonds of the organic sulfur molecules by the biocatalyst, thereby resulting in a fossil fuel having a reduced organic sulfur content; andc) separating the fossil fuel having a reduced organic sulfur content from the resulting aqueous phase.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 27, 1996
    Date of Patent: December 8, 1998
    Assignee: Energy BioSystems Corporation
    Inventors: Kevin A. Gray, Charles H. Squires, Daniel J. Monticello
  • Patent number: 5804435
    Abstract: The present invention provides a method for obtaining organic solvent resistant microorganisms which comprises subjecting a microbial parent strain to mutagenesis and then to selective cultivation in the presence of 0.1% to 10% by volume (v/v) of concentrations of a toxic organic solvent, and the organic solvent resistant microorganisms obtainable by the method. In addition according to the present invention, a microorganism which is natively hydrophilic and has useful functions but does not show resistance to organic solvents and can not express the useful functions in the organic solvents may be converted into a microorganism capable of growing in the presence of such toxic organic solvents and expressing the useful functions that the hydrophilic parent strain bears natively.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 29, 1996
    Date of Patent: September 8, 1998
    Assignees: Tonen Corporation, The Agency of Industrial Science and Technology
    Inventors: Ryuichiro Kurane, Takuichi Tsubata
  • Patent number: 5789236
    Abstract: A bacterial culture which comprises a Campylobacter-like species is provided. The bacterial culture is capable of oxidizing a sulfide compound in a fluid such as, for example, a produced brine. Also provided is a process for substantially reducing sulfide content in a fluid wherein the process comprises contacting the fluid with a bacterial culture which comprises a Campylobacter-like species.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 4, 1997
    Date of Patent: August 4, 1998
    Assignee: Phillips Petroleum Company
    Inventor: Gary E. Jenneman