Enzyme Or Microbe Electrode Patents (Class 435/817)
  • Patent number: 8728299
    Abstract: The present invention relates to electrochemical sensor strips and methods of determining the concentration of an analyte in a sample or improving the performance of a concentration determination. The electrochemical sensor strips may include at most 8 ?g/mm2 of a mediator. The strips, the strip reagent layer, or the methods may provide for the determination of a concentration value having at least one of a stability bias of less than ±10% after storage at 50° C. for 4 weeks when compared to a comparison strip stored at ?20° C. for 4 weeks, a hematocrit bias of less than ±10% for whole blood samples including from 20 to 60% hematocrit, and an intercept to slope ratio of at most 20 mg/dL. A method of increasing the performance of a quantitative analyte determination also is provided.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 14, 2013
    Date of Patent: May 20, 2014
    Assignee: Bayer HealthCare LLC
    Inventors: Huan-Ping Wu, Christine D. Nelson, Hope Spradlin, Eric Maurer
  • Patent number: 8702965
    Abstract: The present invention relates to electrochemical sensor strips and methods of determining the concentration of an analyte in a sample or improving the performance of a concentration determination. The electrochemical sensor strips may include at most 8 ?g/mm2 of a mediator. The strips, the strip reagent layer, or the methods may provide for the determination of a concentration value having at least one of a stability bias of less than ±10% after storage at 50° C. for 4 weeks when compared to a comparison strip stored at ?20° C. for 4 weeks, a hematocrit bias of less than ±10% for whole blood samples including from 20 to 60% hematocrit, and an intercept to slope ratio of at most 20 mg/dL. A method of increasing the performance of a quantitative analyte determination also is provided.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 22, 2010
    Date of Patent: April 22, 2014
    Assignee: Bayer HealthCare LLC
    Inventors: Huan-Ping Wu, Christine D. Nelson, Hope Spradlin, Eric Maurer
  • Patent number: 8426192
    Abstract: An electrochemical sensor system and membrane and method thereof for increased accuracy and effective life of electrochemical and enzyme sensors.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 14, 2009
    Date of Patent: April 23, 2013
    Assignee: Instrumentation Laboratory Company
    Inventors: Prasad Pamidi, Sohrab Mansouri, Melanie Shin, Vasile Cosofret, Clarke Xu
  • Patent number: 8187851
    Abstract: A method for formulating and immobilizing a protein and a protein matrix formed by the method. The protein matrix preparation method results in a physically and chemically stable protein matrix that has low swelling, non-leaching, high activity, and high mechanical strength properties. The method includes cross-linking and hardening the protein mixture and using a mold to form a protein into a desired shape and size.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 24, 2008
    Date of Patent: May 29, 2012
    Assignee: Medtronic Minimed, Inc.
    Inventors: Rajiv Shah, Bahar Reghabi, Rudy Montalvo, Yanan Zhang
  • Patent number: 8137927
    Abstract: A method for formulating and immobilizing a protein and a protein matrix formed by the method. The protein matrix preparation method results in a physically and chemically stable protein matrix that has low swelling, non-leaching, high activity, and high mechanical strength properties. The method includes cross-linking and hardening the protein mixture and using a mold to form a protein into a desired shape and size.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 4, 2005
    Date of Patent: March 20, 2012
    Assignee: Medtronic MiniMed, Inc.
    Inventors: Rajiv Shah, Bahar Reghabi, Rudy Montalvo, Yanan Zhang
  • Patent number: 8133718
    Abstract: An analytical strip and a detecting method using the analytical strip are provided. The analytical strip includes a substrate having a channel thereon. The channel has a first region, a second region and a third region, which are arranged successively. A first antibody is localized in the first region. A saccharide and a peroxidase are localized in the first or second region. A second antibody for recognizing a different epitope of an identical antigen with the first antibody is immobilized in the second region. A substrate reagent including a saccharide oxidase is localized in the third region.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 29, 2009
    Date of Patent: March 13, 2012
    Assignee: Actherm Inc
    Inventors: Yi-Jen Wu, Chih-Wei Hsieh, Wen-Pin Hsieh
  • Patent number: 8128803
    Abstract: A method follow the change in concentration of a redox-active substance, whereby suitable potentials for a reduction process or an oxidation process are applied to the working electrode of a measuring device. The potential of the working electrode is pulsed and measuring phases and relaxation phases are alternately produced, the pulse lengths of measuring phase and relaxation phase being determined in a suitable manner. A rapid relaxation of the concentration gradient is electrochemically forced so that the measurement can be carried out on simple transducer arrays. A device for carrying out the method includes a transducer array in addition to a suitable potentiostat. The transducer array can be formed of a planar metal substrate on which at least one flexible insulator is disposed, the metal surface and the insulator surface being firmly linked. The transducer array can also be formed of silicone-based CMOS structures.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 31, 2006
    Date of Patent: March 6, 2012
    Assignee: Siemens Aktiengesellschaft
    Inventors: Heike Barlag, Walter Gumbrecht, Konrad Mund
  • Patent number: 8110079
    Abstract: Disclosed herein is an electrochemical sensor for detecting an analyte. The sensor comprises an electrode, a redox active species that is electrochemically accessible to the electrode, and a binding moiety capable of associating with the analyte, wherein association of the binding moiety with the analyte affects the electrochemistry of the redox active species. Also disclosed herein is a method for detecting the presence of an analyte in a sample.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 16, 2007
    Date of Patent: February 7, 2012
    Assignee: NewSouth Innovations Pty Limited
    Inventors: John Justin Gooding, Guozhen Liu
  • Patent number: 8101062
    Abstract: A method for determining a concentration of an analyte is disclosed. The method includes applying a potential excitation to a fluid sample containing an analyte and determining if a current decay curve associated with the fluid sample has entered an analyte depletion stage. The method also includes measuring a plurality of current values associated with the fluid sample during the analyte depletion stage and calculating an analyte concentration based on at least one of the plurality of current values.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 24, 2009
    Date of Patent: January 24, 2012
    Assignee: Nipro Diagnostics, Inc.
    Inventor: David Deng
  • Patent number: 8080205
    Abstract: Analyte meter protectors, meters that include the same, and methods. In one example, a ketone monitoring system is provided wherein a port protector is used in combination with a meter.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 24, 2011
    Date of Patent: December 20, 2011
    Assignee: Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.
    Inventors: Frederic Arbogast, Paul Strasma, Lawrence Azzano, Kenneth Gary
  • Patent number: 8062488
    Abstract: A biosensor containing ruthenium, measurement using the same, and the application thereof. The biosensor comprises an extended gate field effect transistor (EGFET) structure, including a metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET), a sensing unit comprising a substrate, a layer comprising ruthenium on the substrate, and a metal wire connecting the MOSFET and the sensing unit.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 23, 2009
    Date of Patent: November 22, 2011
    Assignee: National Yunlin University of Science and Technology
    Inventors: Jung-Chuan Chou, Shih-I Liu
  • Patent number: 7964370
    Abstract: An analytical strip and a detecting method using the analytical strip are provided. The analytical strip includes a substrate having a channel thereon. The channel has a first region, a second region and a third region, which are connected sequentially. A first antibody is localized in the first region. A saccharide and a peroxidase are localized in the first or second region. A second antibody for recognizing a different epitope of an identical antigen with the first antibody is immobilized in the second region. An optical substrate and a substrate reagent including a saccharide oxidase are localized in the third region.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 17, 2008
    Date of Patent: June 21, 2011
    Assignee: Actherm Inc
    Inventors: Yi-Jen Wu, Wen-Pin Hsieh, Chih-Wei Hsieh
  • Patent number: 7905996
    Abstract: The present invention relate to methods and devices for holding a cell and positioning recording electrodes inside it.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 28, 2003
    Date of Patent: March 15, 2011
    Assignee: GE Healthcare UK Limited
    Inventor: Edward C. Conley
  • Patent number: 7892801
    Abstract: Effective activation of a biological material such as an enzyme has been demanded. The present invention provides a process for activating a biological material which includes providing a porous material having mesopores; immobilizing a biological material on the pore wall which forms the mesopores; and enhancing the relative activity of the biological material by heating the porous material on which the biological material is immobilized at the optimal temperature and above of the biological material and an apparatus therefor.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 30, 2007
    Date of Patent: February 22, 2011
    Assignee: Canon Kabushiki Kaisha
    Inventor: Yusuke Murata
  • Patent number: 7862696
    Abstract: The present invention relates to electrochemical sensor strips and methods of determining the concentration of an analyte in a sample or improving the performance of a concentration determination. The electrochemical sensor strips may include at most 8 ?g/mm2 of a mediator. The strips, the strip reagent layer, or the methods may provide for the determination of a concentration value having at least one of a stability bias of less than ±10% after storage at 50° C. for 4 weeks when compared to a comparison strip stored at ?20° C. for 4 weeks, a hematocrit bias of less than ±10% for whole blood samples including from 20 to 60% hematocrit, and an intercept to slope ratio of at most 20 mg/dL. A method of increasing the performance of a quantitative analyte determination also is provided.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 10, 2007
    Date of Patent: January 4, 2011
    Assignee: Bayer HealthCare LLC
    Inventors: Huan-Ping Wu, Christine D. Nelson, Hope Spradlin, Eric Maurer
  • Patent number: 7838282
    Abstract: Electrodes and configurations for electrochemical bioreactor systems that can use electrical energy as a source of reducing power in fermentation or enzymatic reactions and that can use electron mediators and a biocatalyst, such as cells or enzymes, to produce electricity are disclosed. Example electrodes in the system may comprise: (1) neutral red covalently bound to graphite felt; (2) a carboxylated cellulose bound to the graphite felt, neutral red bound to the carboxylated cellulose, NAD+ bound to the graphite felt, and an oxidoreductase (e.g., fumarate reductase) bound to the graphite felt; or (3) a metal ion electron mediator bound to graphite. Various biocatalysts, such as an oxidoreductase, cells of Actinobacillus succinogenes, cells of Escherichia coli, and sewage sludge, are suitable for use in the electrochemical bioreactor system.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 31, 2007
    Date of Patent: November 23, 2010
    Assignee: Board of Trustees of Michigan State University
    Inventors: Joseph Gregory Zeikus, Doo Hyun Park
  • Patent number: 7824925
    Abstract: Materials and methods are provided for producing patterned multi-array, multi-specific surfaces for use in diagnostics. The invention provides for electrochemiluminescence methods for detecting or measuring an analyte of interest. It also provides for novel electrodes for ECL assays. Materials and methods are provided for the chemical and/or physical control of conducting domains and reagent deposition for use multiply specific testing procedures.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 31, 2005
    Date of Patent: November 2, 2010
    Assignee: Meso Scale Technology LLP
    Inventors: Jacob N. Wohlstadter, James Wilbur, George Sigal, Mark Martin, Liang-Hong Guo, Alan Fischer, Jon Leland, Mark A. Billadeau, Larry R. Helms, Ramin Darvari
  • Patent number: 7741069
    Abstract: A porous material containing mesopores with immobilized glucose dehydrogenase is provided. The pore size is at least 10 nm.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 7, 2006
    Date of Patent: June 22, 2010
    Assignee: Canon Kabushiki Kaisha
    Inventor: Yusuke Murata
  • Patent number: 7709221
    Abstract: The present invention relates to a biosensor comprising a substrate with a coating system in which a Ruthenium complex and an enzyme is integrated. The enzyme is able to convert bioproducts, e.g. glucose, fructose or glycerol. The depletion of oxygen during these converting reactions can be monitored via the fluorescence of the Ruthenium complex. The inventive biosensor can be used in biotechnological processes, e.g. the synthesis of biofuels.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 14, 2006
    Date of Patent: May 4, 2010
    Assignees: Fraunhofer Gesellschaft zur Forderung der angewandten Forschung e.V., Institute of Catalysis, Ecole Centrale de Lyon
    Inventors: Klaus Rose, Roberto Fernandez Lafuente, Jose Manuel Guisan, Lorena Betancor, Nicole Jaffrezic, Sergei Dzyadevych
  • Patent number: 7695973
    Abstract: The present invention provides methods for quantitation of glycated protein in a biological sample using a solid support matrix by making a first bound protein measurement total bound protein under conditions where both glycated and non-glycated protein bind to the support in making a second bound protein measurement under conditions where glycated protein is bound to the support and non-glycated protein is not substantially bound. Diagnostic devices and kits comprising the methods of the present invention are also provided.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 7, 2007
    Date of Patent: April 13, 2010
    Assignee: Scripps Laboratories, Inc.
    Inventors: Ralph P. McCroskey, Cameron E. Melton
  • Patent number: 7632672
    Abstract: An electrochemical sensor system and membrane and method thereof for increased accuracy and effective life of electrochemical and enzyme sensors.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 1, 2005
    Date of Patent: December 15, 2009
    Assignee: Instrumentation Laboratory Co.
    Inventors: Prasad Pamidi, Sohrab Mansouri, Melanie Shin, Vasile Cosofret, Clarke Xu
  • Patent number: 7629172
    Abstract: The invention is directed to entrapped mutated binding proteins, mutated binding proteins containing reporter groups, compositions of mutated binding proteins containing reporter groups in analyte permeable matrixes, and their use as analyte biosensors both in vitro and in vivo.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 27, 2004
    Date of Patent: December 8, 2009
    Assignee: Becton, Dickinson and Company
    Inventors: Javier Alarcon, Christopher J. Knors, J. Bruce Pitner
  • Patent number: 7615293
    Abstract: The invention is directed to an electrode, suitable for use in a fuel cell, consisting of a microporous current collector incorporating a multitude of domains and wherein each domain contains soluble redox catalyst.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 1, 2004
    Date of Patent: November 10, 2009
    Assignee: E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company
    Inventors: William E. Farneth, Michael B. Damore, Mark Andrew Harmer
  • Patent number: 7592151
    Abstract: A redox polymer for use in an electrochemical-based sensor includes a hydrophobic polymer backbone (e.g., a hydrophobic poly(methyl methacrylate) polymer backbone) and at least one hydrophilic polymer arm (such as a hydrophilic oligo(N-vinylpyrrolidinone) polymer arm) attached to the hydrophobic polymer backbone. The redox polymer also includes a plurality of redox mediators (e.g., ferrocene-based redox mediators) attached to the at least one hydrophilic polymer arm.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 19, 2007
    Date of Patent: September 22, 2009
    Assignee: Lifescan, Inc.
    Inventors: Zuifang Liu, James Jain Rodgers, Geoffrey Ulue
  • Patent number: 7550290
    Abstract: In order to realize a sensor that is capable of promptly and accurately supplying a small amount of a liquid sample to a filtration part even if the sensor is not held substantially horizontally, this invention provides a sensor having means for supplying a liquid sample to the filtration part by capillary action.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 11, 2004
    Date of Patent: June 23, 2009
    Assignee: Panasonic Corporation
    Inventor: Tomohiro Yamamoto
  • Patent number: 7544438
    Abstract: An object of the present invention is to provide a highly functional mediator capable of smoothly proceeding electron transfer between an electrode and a biocatalyst based on the premise that the mediator excels in safety and cost and to provide an electrode and a cell with sufficient amount of such a mediator molecule immobilized efficiently and strongly. The present invention provides a mediator mediating electron transfer between an enzyme and an electrode and containing a quinone molecule derivative, in particular, a mediator containing a VK3 derivative. In addition, the present invention provides an electrode and a biofuel cell to which those mediators are applied.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 23, 2004
    Date of Patent: June 9, 2009
    Assignee: Daiichi Pure Chemicals Co., Ltd
    Inventors: Matsuhiko Nishizawa, Tomokazu Matsue, Jun-ichi Kosuge, Noboru Fukasaku
  • Patent number: 7520970
    Abstract: An immobilization carrier containing an electron acceptor compound is used in addition to glutaraldehyde and poly-L-lysine to immobilize an enzyme and an electron acceptor compound simultaneously to an electrode. For example, here are used diaphorase as the enzyme and 2-amino-3-carboxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (ACNQ) as the electron acceptor compound.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 21, 2004
    Date of Patent: April 21, 2009
    Assignee: Sony Corporation
    Inventors: Atsushi Sato, Tokuji Ikeda, Kenji Kano
  • Patent number: 7521224
    Abstract: The electroporation array is comprised of three technologies: microwire glass electrodes, microelectronic multiplexer stimulator chips and microfluidic flow chamber. Various substances, such as genes, gene silencing RNAi, gene inhibition agents or drugs, can be perfused into the microfluidic flow chamber. The entry of the various substances into the cells will be facilitated by electroporation. An applied electric potential causes nanoscale pores to open in the cell membrane allowing substances in the solution to freely diffuse into the cell. The specific cells selected for electroporation are defined using the computer controlled microelectronic stimulator array. An “image” of which electrodes within the array to apply the electric potential to, and thus electroporate, is de-multiplexed onto the array. All the selected electrodes deliver a current pulse varied by the intensity of the de-multiplexed “image”.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 30, 2003
    Date of Patent: April 21, 2009
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the Secretary of the Navy
    Inventors: Lee Johnson, Dean Scribner, Joseph Pancrazio
  • Patent number: 7435569
    Abstract: A method for formulating and immobilizing a protein and a protein matrix formed by the method. The protein matrix preparation method results in a physically and chemically stable protein matrix that has low swelling, non-leaching, high activity, and high mechanical strength properties. The method includes cross-linking and hardening the protein mixture and using a mold to form a protein into a desired shape and size.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 3, 2004
    Date of Patent: October 14, 2008
    Assignee: Medtronic Minimed, Inc.
    Inventors: Rajiv Shah, Bahar Reghabi, Rudy Montalvo, Yanan Zhang
  • Patent number: 7429630
    Abstract: A redox polymer for use in an electrochemical-based sensor includes a hydrophobic polymer backbone (e.g., a hydrophobic poly(methyl methacrylate) polymer backbone) and at least one hydrophilic polymer arm (such as a hydrophilic oligo(N-vinylpyrrolidinone) polymer arm) attached to the hydrophobic polymer backbone. The redox polymer also includes a plurality of redox mediators (e.g., ferrocene-based redox mediators) attached to the at least one hydrophilic polymer arm.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 4, 2006
    Date of Patent: September 30, 2008
    Assignee: Lifescan Scotland Limited
    Inventors: Zuifang Liu, James Jain Rodgers, Geoffrey Lillie
  • Patent number: 7398161
    Abstract: A sampling method sampling a lower-layer liquid from a liquid body comprised of two layers of liquids, an upper-layer liquid (octanol) and the lower-layer liquid (buffer solution), without mixing the layers. An extracting device is provided with a tubular apical end and is adapted to bring the apical end from above into a liquid to extract the liquid through the apical end. The method includes a plug injection step of injecting a plug liquid without mixing with the upper-layer liquid 50a, into the apical end 11a of the extracting device, and an extraction step of extracting the lower-layer liquid with the plug liquid by means of the extracting device.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 13, 2005
    Date of Patent: July 8, 2008
    Assignee: Banyu Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Satomi Horiike, legal representative, Yukifumi Dohta
  • Patent number: 7364873
    Abstract: We provide a lactate biosensing strip comprising a working electrode and a reference electrode, the two electrodes being deposited on an electrically insulated base support, the working electrode being formed by immobilizing lactate oxidase and an electron mediator on an inorganic graphite matrix and the graphite layer being deposited on a silver layer of the working electrode and the reference electrode being formed by depositing silver chloride on a silver layer of the reference electrode.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 6, 2005
    Date of Patent: April 29, 2008
    Assignee: Council of Scientific and Industrial Research
    Inventors: Manoj Kumar Pandey, Asha Chaubey, Krishan Kant Pande, Rajendra Kumar Sharma, Krishan Kumar Saini, Bansi Dhar Malhotra, Rajesh
  • Patent number: 7332297
    Abstract: The invention relates to a novel method for enzymatic polymerization which includes (1) obtaining a reaction mixture including a monomer, a template, and an enzyme; and (2) incubating the reaction mixture for a time and under conditions sufficient for the monomer to align along the template and polymerize to form a polymer-template complex. The template can be a micelle, a borate-containing electrolyte, or lignin sulfonate. Such a complex possesses exceptional electrical and optical stability, water solubility, and processibility, and can be used in applications such as light-weight energy storage devices (e.g., rechargeable batteries), electrolytic capacitors, anti-static and anti-corrosive coatings for smart windows, and biological sensors.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 14, 2003
    Date of Patent: February 19, 2008
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the Secretary of the Army
    Inventors: Lynne A. Samuelson, Ferdinando Bruno, Susan Tripathy, legal representative, Ramaswamy Nagarajan, Jayant Kumar, Wei Liu, Sukant K. Tripathy
  • Patent number: 7319018
    Abstract: We provide a lactate biosensing strip comprising a working electrode and a reference electrode, the two electrodes being deposited on an electrically insulated base support, the working electrode being formed by immobilizing lactate oxidase and an electron mediator on an inorganic graphite matrix and the graphite layer being deposited on a silver layer of the working electrode and the reference electrode being formed by depositing silver chloride on a silver layer of the reference electrode.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 15, 2003
    Date of Patent: January 15, 2008
    Assignee: Council of Scientific and Industrial Research
    Inventors: Manoj Kumar Pandey, Asha Chaubey, Krishan Kant Pande, Rajendra Kumar Sharma, Krishan Kumar Saini, Bansi Dhar Malhotra, Rajesh
  • Patent number: 7309582
    Abstract: The invention relates to a novel method for enzymatic polymerization which includes (1) obtaining a reaction mixture including a monomer, a template, and an enzyme; and (2) incubating the reaction mixture for a time and under conditions sufficient for the monomer to align along the template and polymerize to form a polymer-template complex. The template can be a micelle, a borate-containing electrolyte, or lignin sulfonate. Such a complex possesses exceptional electrical and optical stability, water solubility, and processibility, and can be used in applications such as light-weight energy storage devices (e.g., rechargeable batteries), electrolytic capacitors, anti-static and anti-corrosive coatings for smart windows, and biological sensors.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 14, 2003
    Date of Patent: December 18, 2007
    Assignee: United States of America as represented by the Secretary of the Army
    Inventors: Lynne A. Samuelson, Ferdinando Bruno, Susan Tripathy, legal representative, Ramaswamy Nagarajan, Jayant Kumar, Wei Liu, Sukant K. Tripathy, deceased
  • Patent number: 7250288
    Abstract: Electrodes and configurations for electrochemical bioreactor systems that can use electrical energy as a source of reducing power in fermentation or enzymatic reactions and that can use electron mediators and a biocatalyst, such as cells or enzymes, to produce electricity are disclosed. Example electrodes in the system may comprise: (1) neutral red covalently bound to graphite felt (FIG. 1); (2) a carboxylated cellulose bound to the graphite fell, neutral red bound to the carboxylated cellulose, NAD+ to the graphite fell, and an oxidoreductase (e.g., fumarate reductase) bound to the graphite fell; or (3) a metal ion electron mediator bound to graphite. Various biocatalysts, such as an oxidoreductase, cells of Actinobacillus succinogenes, cells of Escherichia coli, and sewage sludge, are suitable for use in the electrochemical bioreactor system.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 31, 2002
    Date of Patent: July 31, 2007
    Assignee: Board of Trustees of Michigan State University
    Inventors: Joseph Gregory Zeikus, Doo Hyun Park
  • Patent number: 7195923
    Abstract: The present invention provides methods for determining a ratio of an amount of a glycated form of a protein to a total amount of the protein in a sample containing the glycated protein, the glycosylated protein, or the glycoprotein. The method incorporates lateral flow test strip or vertical flow test strip devices having negatively charged carboxyl or carboxylate groups and hydroxyboryl groups immobilized and interspersed on a solid support matrix. The solid support matrix may include derivatives of cellulose (e.g., carboxy cellulose) derivatized with carboxylic acid (e.g., carboxylate, carboxyl) groups and hydroxyboryl compounds including phenylboronic acid (e.g., phenylborate), aminophenylboronic acid, boric acid (e.g., borate), or other boronic acid (e.g., boronate) compounds. The present invention is usefi.il for monitoring glycation or glycosylation of hemoglobin or albumin for monitoring glycemic control (e.g., glycemia in diabetes).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 31, 2002
    Date of Patent: March 27, 2007
    Assignee: Scripps Laboratories, Inc.
    Inventors: Ralph P. McCroskey, Cameron E. Melton
  • Patent number: 7192766
    Abstract: A method for formulating and immobilizing a protein and a protein matrix formed by the method. The protein matrix preparation method results in a physically and chemically stable protein matrix that has low swelling, non-leaching, high activity, and high mechanical strength properties. The method includes cross-linking and hardening the protein mixture and using a mold to form a protein into a desired shape and size.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 27, 2001
    Date of Patent: March 20, 2007
    Assignee: Medtronic Minimed, Inc.
    Inventors: Rajiv Shah, Bahar Reghabi, Rudy Montalvo, Yanan Zhang
  • Patent number: 7115362
    Abstract: An electrochemical test device is provided for determining the presence or concentration of an analyte in an aqueous fluid sample. The electrochemical test device includes a working electrode and a counter electrode made of an amorphous semiconductor material. The working electrode is overlaid with a reagent capable of reacting with an analyte to produce a measurable change in potential which can be correlated to the concentration of the analyte in the fluid sample. The test device optionally contains a reference electrode made of an amorphous semiconductor material having a reference material on the reference electrode. The test device electrodes can be constructed on a flexible film substrate, such as a polymeric film or a metal foil coated with a non-conductive coating.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 23, 2005
    Date of Patent: October 3, 2006
    Assignee: Roche Diagnostics Operations, Inc.
    Inventors: Joel S. Douglas, Jeffrey N. Roe, John H. Priest
  • Patent number: 7109271
    Abstract: A redox polymer for use in an electrochemical-based sensor includes a hydrophobic polymer backbone (e.g., a hydrophobic poly(methyl methacrylate) polymer backbone) and at least one hydrophilic polymer arm (such as a hydrophilic oligo(N-vinylpyrrolidinone) polymer arm) attached to the hydrophobic polymer backbone. The redox polymer also includes a plurality of redox mediators (e.g., ferrocene-based redox mediators) attached to the at least one hydrophilic polymer arm.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 28, 2004
    Date of Patent: September 19, 2006
    Assignee: LifeScan, Inc.
    Inventors: Zuifang Liu, James Iain Rodgers, Geoffrey Lillie
  • Patent number: 7090996
    Abstract: A process for the examination of biocompartments (1), having a micro-flow chamber (2) which contains a biocompartment (1) which is continually or intermittently subjected to the through-flow of a culture medium. In a culture medium zone proximal to the biocompartments (1), an electrical potential is applied in such a manner, that from a substance in the culture medium which is released or consumed by the biocompartments (1), OH? and/or H+ ions are formed. During the application of the potential, a first measurement (pH?1, pH?3) for the pH value of the culture medium is measured. The potential is then switched off or changed in such a manner that the formation of OH? and/or H+ ions from the said substance is stopped. Before or after the measuring of the first measured value, (pH?1, pH?3) with switched off electrical potential, a second measured value (pH?2, pH?4) is measured for the pH value of the culture medium.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 7, 2004
    Date of Patent: August 15, 2006
    Assignee: Micronas GmbH
    Inventor: Mirko Lehmann
  • Patent number: 7018848
    Abstract: An electrochemical test device is provided for determining the presence or concentration of an analyte in an aqueous fluid sample. The electrochemical test device includes a working electrode and a counter electrode made of an amorphous semiconductor material. The working electrode is overlaid with a reagent capable of reacting with an analyte to produce a measurable change in potential which can be correlated to the concentration of the analyte in the fluid sample. The test device optionally contains a reference electrode made of an amorphous semiconductor material having a reference material on the reference electrode. The test device electrodes can be constructed on a flexible film substrate, such as a polymeric film or a metal foil coated with a non-conductive coating.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 21, 2002
    Date of Patent: March 28, 2006
    Assignee: Roche Diagnostic Operations, Inc.
    Inventors: Joel S. Douglas, Jeffrey N. Roe, John H. Priest
  • Patent number: 6960466
    Abstract: An electrochemical sensor system and membrane and method thereof for increased accuracy and effective life of electrochemical and enzyme sensors.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 31, 2001
    Date of Patent: November 1, 2005
    Assignee: Instrumentation Laboratory Company
    Inventors: Prasad Pamidi, Sohrab Mansouri, Clarke Xu, Vasile Cosofret, Melanie Shin
  • Patent number: 6933143
    Abstract: An electronic controller, such as a programmed microcontroller, controls a series of pumps to automatically sequence the pumping of the individual fluids required by the ELISA procedure into a cell (or cells) necessary to produce a reporter, including the addition of o-nitrophenyl beta-D galactopyranoside substrate of the enzyme (“ONP-GP”), control the positioning of the carrier of the reporter adjacent the reporter sensor, analyze the data obtained from the reporter sensor and display the concentration of the bioagent determined from the analysis of the foregoing data. Once started, the apparatus, governed by the program, conducts the test automatically in the shortest time known to date, without the necessity for human intervention.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 25, 2003
    Date of Patent: August 23, 2005
    Assignee: Northrop Grumman Corporation
    Inventors: Brian M. Sullivan, Denes L. Zsolnay
  • Patent number: 6927033
    Abstract: A polymer composition is provided, which contains a polymer or copolymer having a mercapto group at one end and functional group or ligand at the other end and also having a polyethylene glycol segment. Such a composition can form a biosensor surface of reduced non-specific adsorbability for proteins and the like.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 10, 2001
    Date of Patent: August 9, 2005
    Assignee: Toudai TLO, Ltd.
    Inventors: Kazunori Kataoka, Yukio Nagasaki, Hidenori Otsuka, Mitsuhiro Kaneko
  • Patent number: RE41309
    Abstract: An electrochemical biosensor test strip with four new features. The test strip includes an indentation for tactile feel as to the location of the strips sample application port. The sample application port leads to a capillary test chamber, which includes a test reagent. The wet reagent includes from about 0.2% by weight to about 2% by weight polyethylene oxide from about 100 kilodaltons to about 900 kilodaltons mean molecular weight, which makes the dried reagent more hydrophilic and sturdier to strip processing steps, such as mechanical punching, and to mechanical manipulation by the test strip user. The roof of the capillary test chamber includes a transparent or translucent window which operates as a “fill to here” line, thereby identifying when enough test sample (a liquid sample, such as blood) has been added to the test chamber to accurately perform a test. The test strip may further include a notch located at the sample application port. The notch reduces a phenomenon called “dose hesitation”.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 9, 2003
    Date of Patent: May 4, 2010
    Assignees: Roche Diagnostics Operations, Inc., Roche Operations Ltd.
    Inventors: William F. Crismore, Nigel A. Surridge, Daniel R. McMinn, Richard J. Bodensteiner, Eric R. Diebold, R. Dale Delk, David W. Burke, Jiaxiong Jason Ho, Robert Kitchel Earl, Brian A. Heald
  • Patent number: RE42560
    Abstract: An electrochemical biosensor test strip with four new features. The test strip includes an indentation for tactile feel as to the location of the strips sample application port. The sample application port leads to a capillary test chamber, which includes a test reagent. The wet reagent includes from about 0.2% by weight to about 2% by weight polyethylene oxide from about 100 kilodaltons to about 900 kilodaltons mean molecular weight, which makes the dried reagent more hydrophilic and sturdier to strip processing steps, such as mechanical punching, and to mechanical manipulation by the test strip user. The roof of the capillary test chamber includes a transparent or translucent window which operates as a “fill to here” line, thereby identifying when enough test sample (a liquid sample, such as blood) has been added to the test chamber to accurately perform a test. The test strip may further include a notch located at the sample application port. The notch reduces a phenomenon called “dose hesitation”.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 24, 2003
    Date of Patent: July 19, 2011
    Assignees: Roche Diagnostics Operations, Inc., Roche Operations Ltd.
    Inventors: William F. Crismore, Nigel A. Surridge, Daniel R. McMinn
  • Patent number: RE42924
    Abstract: An electrochemical biosensor test strip with four new features. The test strip includes an indentation for tactile feel as to the location of the strips sample application port. The sample application port leads to a capillary test chamber, which includes a test reagent. The wet reagent includes from about 0.2% by weight to about 2% by weight polyethylene oxide from about 100 kilodaltons to about 900 kilodaltons mean molecular weight, which makes the dried reagent more hydrophilic and sturdier to strip processing steps, such as mechanical punching, and to mechanical manipulation by the test strip user. The roof of the capillary test chamber includes a transparent or translucent window which operates as a “fill to here” line, thereby identifying when enough test sample (a liquid sample, such as blood) has been added to the test chamber to accurately perform a test. The test strip may further include a notch located at the sample application port. The notch reduces a phenomenon called “dose hesitation”.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 23, 2003
    Date of Patent: November 15, 2011
    Assignees: Roche Diagnostics Operations, Inc., Roche Opersations Ltd.
    Inventors: William F. Crismore, Nigel A. Surridge, Daniel R. McMinn
  • Patent number: RE42953
    Abstract: An electrochemical biosensor test strip with four new features. The test strip includes an indentation for tactile feel as to the location of the strips sample application port. The sample application port leads to a capillary test chamber, which includes a test reagent. The wet reagent includes from about 0.2% by weight to about 2% by weight polyethylene oxide from about 100 kilodaltons to about 900 kilodaltons mean molecular weight, which makes the dried reagent more hydrophilic and sturdier to strip processing steps, such as mechanical punching, and to mechanical manipulation by the test strip user. The roof of the capillary test chamber includes a transparent or translucent window which operates as a “fill to here” line, thereby identifying when enough test sample (a liquid sample, such as blood) has been added to the test chamber to accurately perform a test. The test strip may further include a notch located at the sample application port. The notch reduces a phenomenon called “dose hesitation”.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 7, 2001
    Date of Patent: November 22, 2011
    Assignees: Roche Diagnostics Operations, Inc., Roche Operations Ltd.
    Inventors: William F. Crismore, Nigel A. Surridge, Richard J. Bodensteiner, Eric R. Diebold, R. Dale Delk, David W. Burke, Jiaxiong Jason Ho
  • Patent number: RE43815
    Abstract: An electrochemical biosensor test strip with four new features. The test strip includes an indentation for tactile feel as to the location of the strips sample application port. The sample application port leads to a capillary test chamber, which includes a test reagent. The wet reagent includes from about 0.2% by weight to about 2% by weight polyethylene oxide from about 100 kilodaltons to about 900 kilodaltons mean molecular weight, which makes the dried reagent more hydrophilic and sturdier to strip processing steps, such as mechanical punching, and to mechanical manipulation by the test strip user. The roof of the capillary test chamber includes a transparent or translucent window which operates as a “fill to here” line, thereby identifying when enough test sample (a liquid sample, such as blood) has been added to the test chamber to accurately perform a test. The test strip may further include a notch located at the sample application port. The notch reduces a phenomenon called “dose hesitation”.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 21, 2011
    Date of Patent: November 20, 2012
    Assignees: Roche Diagnostics Operations, Inc., Roche Operations Ltd.
    Inventors: William F. Crismore, Nigel A. Surridge, Daniel R. McMinn