Slurry Patents (Class 48/DIG7)
  • Patent number: 5827336
    Abstract: A process for upgrading plastic material containing inorganic filler or reinforcement material for use as feedstock in a partial oxidation gas generator for the production of raw synthesis gas, fuel gas or reducing gas. The plastic material is granulated and partially liquefied by heating in a closed autoclave at a temperature in the range of about 400.degree. F. to 495.degree. F. and a pressure in the range of about 150 psig to 750 psig while the plastic material is in contact with a pumpable hydrocarbonaceous liquid solvent. A pumpable slurry is thereby produced comprising solubilized plastic, unsolubilized plastic, hydrocarbonaceous liquid solvent, separated inorganic material and unseparated inorganic material. After removing the separated inorganic material, the remainder of the slurry is then reacted by partial oxidation to produce said raw synthesis gas, fuel gas or reducing gas.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 22, 1996
    Date of Patent: October 27, 1998
    Assignee: Texaco Inc.
    Inventors: Motasimur Rashid Khan, Christine Cornelia Gorsuch, Stephen Jude DeCanio
  • Patent number: 5785721
    Abstract: The operating life of a fuel injector nozzle for a gasifier is prolonged by shielding the fuel injector nozzle with a preformed protective insulating sheath before the fuel injector nozzle is installed inside a preheated reaction chamber of the gasifier. The thermal insulating sheath has low thermal conductivity and is placed around the fuel injector nozzle body. The thermal sheath can also be positioned to cover a downstream end of the fuel injector nozzle that includes a nozzle portion. The thermal insulating sheath is supported by ceramic rope, solder or metal wire and is gradually consumable in the environs of the reaction chamber immediately after the fuel injector nozzle is installed. Before the thermal sheath is consumed, it moderates the temperature rise rate of the fuel injector nozzle while the fuel injector nozzle is being installed in the gasifier.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 31, 1997
    Date of Patent: July 28, 1998
    Assignee: Texaco Inc.
    Inventor: Donald Duane Brooker
  • Patent number: 5656042
    Abstract: A pumpable slurry of shredded scrap solid carbonaceous plastic-containing material that contains associated inorganic matter in admixture with a comminuted aluminosilicate-containing material having noncombustible constituents is reacted by partial oxidation to produce synthesis gas, reducing gas, or fuel gas. The noncombustible constituents in the aluminosilicate-containing material captures the inorganic matter in the scrap solid carbonaceous plastic-containing material while in the reducing atmosphere of the gasifier to produce nontoxic, nonleachable slag. The slurrying medium is water, liquid hydrocarbonaceous fuel, or mixtures thereof. Scrap plastics may be disposed of by the subject process without polluting the nation's environment.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 24, 1994
    Date of Patent: August 12, 1997
    Assignee: Texaco Inc.
    Inventors: Motasimur Rashid Khan, Christine Cornelia Albert, John Saunders Stevenson, George Neal Richter, David Charles Crikelair
  • Patent number: 5636451
    Abstract: A process and apparatus for feeding dewatered sludge into a reactor for thermal disposal, in which process and apparatus dewatered sludge with a water content of less than 85% is subjected to a temperature-pressure treatment after exiting from a thick-matter pump and prior to its atomization within a disposal reactor. In the temperature-pressure treatment the temperature is adjusted to more than 150.degree. C. and the pressure is adjusted to be equal to or greater than the water vapor/saturation pressure at these temperatures.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 2, 1994
    Date of Patent: June 10, 1997
    Assignee: Noell-DBI-Energie und Entsorgungstechnik GmbH
    Inventors: Rainer Bolcek, Jurgen Gorz, Hans Hille, Peter Gohler, Manfred Schingnitz, Thilo Ziessler
  • Patent number: 5534040
    Abstract: A process for upgrading plastic material containing inorganic filler or reinforcement material for use as feedstock in a partial oxidation gas generator for the production of raw synthesis gas, fuel gas, or reducing gas. The plastic material is granulated and partially liquefied by heating in a closed autoclave at a temperature in the range of about 400.degree. F. to 495.degree. F. and a pressure in the range of about 150 psig to 750 psig while the plastic material is in contact with a pumpable hydrocarbonaceous liquid solvent. A pumpable slurry is thereby produced comprising solubilized plastic, unsolubilized plastic, hydrocarbonaceous liquid solvent, separated inorganic material and unseparated inorganic material. After removing the separated inorganic material, the remainder of the slurry is then reacted by partial oxidation to produce said raw synthesis gas, fuel gas or reducing gas.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 31, 1995
    Date of Patent: July 9, 1996
    Assignee: Texaco Inc.
    Inventors: Motasimur R. Khan, Christine C. Albert, Stephen J. DeCanio
  • Patent number: 5445659
    Abstract: A process for converting scrap plastic material into a high quality transportation fuel. The plastic material is granulated and mixed with granulated solid carbonaceous fuel e.g. coal and liquid hydrocarbonaceous solvent e.g. waste motor oil to produce a plastic-containing sludge. The plastic-containing sludge is liquefied in a closed autoclave while in contact with hydrogen gas. A pumpable slurry from the autoclave is heated and fractionated in a fractionation zone to produce a hydrocarbonaceous distillate which may be used for transportation fuel. A bottoms stream from the fractionation zone comprising liquid hydrocarbonaceous material and inorganic material is reacted by partial oxidation to produce nontoxic slag and raw synthesis gas, fuel gas or reducing gas which may be purified in a gas purification zone.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 4, 1993
    Date of Patent: August 29, 1995
    Assignee: Texaco Inc.
    Inventors: Motasimur R. Khan, Christine C. Albert, Stephen J. DeCanio
  • Patent number: 5423894
    Abstract: Pumpable aqueous slurries of low rank coal e.g. subbituminous coal and lignite having a comparatively high solids content are made by keeping the particles of coal in contact with a non-oxidizing gas e.g. nitrogen and/or CO.sub.2 thereby maintaining a hydrophobic surface on the particles of coal while they are ground and dried, contacted with an aqueous slurry of liquid hydrocarbonaceous fuel which is absorbed and which coats the particles of coal, and then dried. The dried coated particles of low rank coal are mixed with water to produce a pumpable slurry having a solids content in the range of about 50 to 60 wt. %. In one embodiment, at least a portion of the water needed to produce said pumpable slurry is derived by cooling and condensing out water from the non-oxidizing gas that was used to dry the low rank coal. In still another embodiment, the dewatered non-oxidizing gas is introduced into the combustor of a gas turbine to moderate the temperature and thereby reduce the formation of NO.sub.x gases.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 3, 1993
    Date of Patent: June 13, 1995
    Assignee: Texaco Inc.
    Inventors: Edward T. Child, William L. Lafferty, Jr., Motasimur R. Khan
  • Patent number: 5273556
    Abstract: A process for disposing of sewage sludge by heating and shearing an aqueous mixture of sewage sludge in a tubular-shaped processing means containing a plurality of rotating agitators to produce a pumpable aqueous slurry of sewage sludge. The aqueous slurry of sewage sludge is mixed with solid carbonaceous fuel or an aqueous slurry of solid carbonaceous fuel to produce a pumpable aqueous slurry of sewage sludge and solid carbonaceous fuel. The aqueous slurry of sewage sludge and solid carbonaceous fuel is heated in a first steam jacketed rotary disc mixing-heating means. Alternately, first and second hoppers are filled with said heated aqueous slurry of sewage sludge and solid carbonaceous fuel and cycled between a second steam jacketed rotary disc mixing-heating means; wherein while one hopper is being filled the contents in the other hopper are being dewatered. The thickened pumpable slurry is burned in a partial oxidation gasifier, furnace, boiler, or incinerator to produce a hot effluent gas steam.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 30, 1992
    Date of Patent: December 28, 1993
    Assignee: Texaco Inc.
    Inventors: Matthew A. McMahon, Ronald J. McKeon, Robert F. Heyl, Motasimur R. Khan, Kenneth W. McKenzie, Enrique F. Depaz
  • Patent number: 5266085
    Abstract: A process for disposing of sewage sludge comprising the steps of, (1) dewatering the sewage sludge to produce an aqueous slurry of sewage sludge having a solids content of about 10 to 30 wt. %; (2) simultaneously heating and shearing said dewatered sewage sludge at about 150.degree. F. to 210.degree. F. in the absence of air for 0.5 seconds to 60 minutes while being continuously passed through a tubular-shaped processing means containing a plurality of rotating agitators, thereby producing a pumpable slurry having a viscosity of less than about 2000 centipoise; (3) dewatering the sewage sludge if necessary; (4) mixing at a temperature in the range of about ambient to 180.degree. F. in a ribbon or in-line static mixer the slurry of sewage sludge from (2) and/or (3) with a supplemental solid carbonaceous fuel e.g. coal and/or petroleum-coke to produce a pumpable aqueous slurry of sewage sludge and supplemental fuel having a solids content in the range of about 50 to 60 wt.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 23, 1992
    Date of Patent: November 30, 1993
    Assignee: Texaco Inc.
    Inventors: Matthew A. McMahon, Motasimur R. Khan, Robert F. Heyl, Ronald J. McKeon, Kenneth W. McKenzie
  • Patent number: 5264009
    Abstract: A process for disposing of sanitary sewage sludge by producing a pumpable slurry of sewage sludge with or without solid carbonaceous fuel and burning said slurry as fuel in a partial oxidation gas generator, furnace, or boiler. The aqueous slurry of sewage sludge is concentrated by removing water by means of a conventional belt filter press, centrifuge, or hydroclone. The dewatered slurry of sewage sludge is preheated and sheared; hydrothermally treated; and its solids content increased. A chelating agent, for example an aminopolycarboxylic acid or a hydrocarboxylic acid is mixed with the aqueous slurry of sewage sludge during the preheating and shearing step and/or the step for increasing its solids content. By means of the subject process, the viscosity of the slurry of sewage sludge with or without solid carbonaceous fuel is reduced and coagulation is suppressed.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 1, 1992
    Date of Patent: November 23, 1993
    Assignee: Texaco Inc.
    Inventor: Motasimur R. Khan
  • Patent number: 5261602
    Abstract: A partial oxidation process and a novel burner are provided for simultaneously introducing two or three separate feedstreams into a free-flow partial oxidation gas generator for the production of synthesis gas and fuel gas, or reducing gas. The reactant feedstreams include a liquid hydrocarbonaceous fuel or a pumpable slurry of solid carbonaceous fuel, and a free-oxygen containing gas e.g. air or oxygen. The burner comprises a central conduit and a plurality of spaced concentric coaxial conduits with down-flowing annular passages. A flat annular-shaped disc or cup-shaped porous ceramic or porous metal cooling means of uniform composition, wall thickness and porosity with the various pores interconnecting is attached to the downstream tip of the burner. A controlled amount of liquid coolant under pressure is passed successively through the porous inside surface, porous core and porous outside surface of the cooling means is vaporized. The tip of the burner is thereby cooled.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 23, 1991
    Date of Patent: November 16, 1993
    Assignee: Texaco Inc.
    Inventors: Albert Brent, Robert J. Stellaccio, Mitri S. Najjar, Jerrold S. Kassman
  • Patent number: 5234468
    Abstract: A process for disposing of sewage sludge comprising the steps of, (1) dewatering the sewage sludge to produce amorphous sewage sludge having a solids content of about 28 to 50 wt. %; (2) heating said amorphous sewage sludge at about 150.degree. F. to 510.degree. F. in the absence of air for 3 seconds to 60 minutes and mildly shearing the sewage sludge, thereby producing a pumpable feed slurry of sewage sludge having a viscosity in the range of about 400 to 1500 centipoise and a higher heating value in the range of about 5000 to 9500 BTU/LB; and (3) burning said pumpable slurry from (2) in a partial oxidation gasifier, furnace, boiler, or incinerator to produce an effluent gas stream. In one embodiment, the effluent gas stream is cleaned and purified and non-contaminating fly-ash and slag are separated. The fly-ash may be mixed with the sewage sludge in the process to facilitate separation of water during pressing and to encapsulate the non-combustible materials in the sewage sludge.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 28, 1991
    Date of Patent: August 10, 1993
    Assignee: Texaco Inc.
    Inventor: Motasimur R. Khan
  • Patent number: 5234469
    Abstract: A process for disposing of sewage sludge comprising the steps of, (1) dewatering the sewage sludge to produce an aqueous slurry of sewage sludge having a solids content of about 10 to 50 wt. %; (2) heating and mildly shearing said dewatered sewage sludge at about 150.degree. F. to 210.degree. F. in the absence of air for 3 seconds to 60 minutes by a rotor/mixer at a speed of about 15 to 1000 r.p.m., thereby producing a pumpable slurry having a viscosity of less than about 2500 centipoise; (3) mixing at a temperature in the range of about ambient to 200.degree. F. the slurry of sewage sludge from (2) with a supplemental fuel to produce a pumpable slurry of sewage sludge and supplemental fuel having a solids content in the range of about 50 to 65 wt. % and a higher heating value in the range of about 6,000 to 18,000 BTU/LB; and (4) burning said pumpable slurry from (3) in a partial oxidation gasifier, furnace, boiler, or incinerator to produce an effluent gas stream.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 28, 1991
    Date of Patent: August 10, 1993
    Assignee: Texaco Inc.
    Inventors: Motasimur R. Khan, Matthew A. McMahon, Christine C. Albert, Ronald J. McKeon, Stephen J. DeCanio
  • Patent number: 5230211
    Abstract: An improved process for the low-cost disposal of noxious municipal sewage sludge in a safe way without polluting the environment. In the process, a portion of a stream of dewatered sewage sludge having a solids content in the range of about 17 to 40 wt.% is dried to produce dried sewage sludge having a solids content in the range of about 75 to 99 wt.%. The dried sewage sludge is ground to a small particle size. A pumpable aqueous feed slurry having a solids content in the range of about 45 to 70 wt.% is produced comprising (a) solid carbonaceous fuel, (b) ground dried sewage sludge, and (c) sheared and/or unsheared dewatered sewage sludge. The parts by weight of (a):(b):(c) are respectively in the range of about 3 to 8:0.5 to 2:0.5 to 2, and preferably 6:1:1. The aqueous feed slurry is gasified in a free-flow partial oxidation gas generator. Synthesis gas, reducing gas or fuel gas is produced, Ash and slag are separated from the gas stream and safely disposed.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 15, 1991
    Date of Patent: July 27, 1993
    Assignee: Texaco Inc.
    Inventors: Matthew A. McMahon, Michael C. Martin, Kenneth W. McKenzie
  • Patent number: 5211724
    Abstract: An improved process for the low-cost disposal of noxious sewage sludge in a safe way without polluting the environment. In the process, sewage sludge having a solids content of about 0.5 to 20 wt.% is concentrated by pressing in a belt filter press, optionally followed by pressing in a high intensity press. It was unexpectedly found that the morphology of the resulting dewatered sewage sludge is changed by such mechanical treatment so that slurries with higher concentrations of solids are achieved. The dewatered sewage sludge is heated, flash evaporated and/or centrifuged, and mixed with a supplemental fuel e.g., liquid hydrocarbonaceous and/or solid carbonaceous fuel to produce a pumpable fuel slurry having a total solids content in the range of about 50 to 70 wt.% and comprising about 10 to 40 wt.% dewatered sewage sludge and having a higher heating value in the range of about 5,000 to 14,000 BTU/Lb.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 15, 1991
    Date of Patent: May 18, 1993
    Assignee: Texaco, Inc.
    Inventors: Motasimur R. Khan, Ronald J. McKeon
  • Patent number: 5211723
    Abstract: This invention relates to a novel pumpable sewage sludge fuel and process for burning it. An aqueous slurry of sewage sludge is dewatered and dried to a solids content in the range of about 50 to 99 wt. % in a drying zone in the absence of free-oxygen containing gas but while in contact with a gaseous material selected from the group consisting of N.sub.2, CO.sub.2, H.sub.2, CO, and mixtures thereof. The dried sewage sludge is mixed with a supplementary fuel from the group consisting of solid carbonaceous fuel, liquid hydrocarbonaceous fuel, mixtures thereof, and optionally with water to produce a pumpable slurry fuel feedstream having a solids content in the range of about 50 to 65 wt. % and a higher heating value of at least about 6,000 Btu/lb. The slurry fuel feedstream may be burned in a partial oxidation gasifier, furnace, boiler, or incinerator.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 19, 1991
    Date of Patent: May 18, 1993
    Assignee: Texaco Inc.
    Inventor: Motasimur R. Khan
  • Patent number: 4995193
    Abstract: A method of preventing the adherence of the ash to a gasifier wall in a process for gasifying petroleum coke in the gasifier by partial oxidization reaction. The petroleum coke is mixed with 10 to 30 wt % of coal based on the petroleum coke and the mixture is gasified at a gasifying temperature higher than the melting point of the ash of said coal.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 18, 1990
    Date of Patent: February 26, 1991
    Assignee: Ube Industries, Ltd.
    Inventors: Kunio Soga, Kazuo Okada, Noriaki Tanaka, Morio Sogame, Toshio Tsujino
  • Patent number: 4952218
    Abstract: A two-fluid nozzle for atomizing a liquid with a gas in which at least two conduits, a central and annular conduit, converge in an internal mixing zone for the liquid and gas, in which the nozzle has a central discharge orifice having a shoulder at its upstream end, and a two-piece, thermally resistant metal alloy heat shield for the central discharge orifice which the heat shield includes a retaining ring and an outwardly flaring liner for the outlet connected so that the retaining ring bears against the central outlet shoulder and is held in place by the flared construction at its downstream end, preferably the liner has heat conductive flexible packing disposed between its outside surface and the discharge orifice. The central discharge orifice may open into a protective cap which is cylindrical at one end and rounds out to an elliptical end surface.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 26, 1988
    Date of Patent: August 28, 1990
    Assignee: The Dow Chemical Company
    Inventors: Charles W. Lipp, Clifton T. Knight, Larry L. Lafitte, Marion H. Hunt
  • Patent number: 4946475
    Abstract: This invention relates to a process burner for feeding a carbonaceous slurry, an oxygen-containing gas, fuel gas, and optionally, temperature moderators contemporaneously and selectively into a pressurized partial oxidation zone. The process burner feature internal formation of a uniform dispersion of the carbonaceous slurry and the oxygen-containing gas and the high atomization of the carbonaceous slurry.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 30, 1988
    Date of Patent: August 7, 1990
    Assignee: The Dow Chemical Company
    Inventors: Charles W. Lipp, Douglas D. Merrick, Richard A. Lee
  • Patent number: 4897089
    Abstract: The present invention provides a burner for the partial oxidation under pressure of a first fluid by the second fluid. This burner comprises two fluid introduction tubes, one being internal to the other, with each of the tubes comprising a plate, and with each plate having several holes and a plate of the external tube has holes placed opposite the holes in the internal plate.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 28, 1988
    Date of Patent: January 30, 1990
    Assignee: Institut Francais du Petrole
    Inventors: Dang V. Quang, Alain Feugier, Paul Gateau, Bernard Poussin
  • Patent number: 4887962
    Abstract: Disclosed is a burner for the partial combustion of a solid carbonaceous fuel wherein coal, e.g., finely divided coal, is supplied to a reactor space via a central channel disposed along the longitudinal axis of the burner, and oxygen-containing gas is supplied via an annular channel surrounding said central channel, and heat from the combustion is removed from the hollow front face of the burner by coolant flowed through said front face spirally about the longitudinal axis of the burner.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 17, 1988
    Date of Patent: December 19, 1989
    Assignee: Shell Oil Company
    Inventors: Hendricus J. A. Hasenack, Ian Poll
  • Patent number: 4875906
    Abstract: Low heating value liquid hydrocarbonaceous and/or solid carbonaceous hazardous waste materials from the production, refining and marketing of petroleum products are destroyed without contaminating the environment while simultaneously gaseous mixtures comprising H.sub.2 +CO i.e. synthesis gas, reducing gas, or fuel gas are produced. From about 0.3 to 2.0 wt. % of an anionic surface active dispersant and water (if needed) are mixed with the hazardous waste material to produce a first aqueous mixture. A comminuted solid carbonaceous fuel i.e. coal, petroleum coke is mixed with water and from about 0.02 to 1.00 wt. % of the dispersant to produce a second stable pumpable aqueous slurry. The first and second aqueous slurries are mixed together to produce a stable pumpable final blend aqueous slurry which is reacted in a partial oxidation gas generator as the feedstock.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 10, 1988
    Date of Patent: October 24, 1989
    Assignee: Texaco Inc.
    Inventor: Howard L. Apel
  • Patent number: 4872886
    Abstract: A two-stage upflow process for coal gasification and an apparatus useful therefor. An oxygen-containing gas and a first increment of a coal-in-water slurry are ignited in a horizontal fired slagging reactor by means of horizontal coaxial juxtaposed burner nozzles mounted in the reactor, thereby converting the oxygen, the coal, and the water into steam and gaseous combustion products. The discharge from the fired reactor is contacted overhead with a second increment of coal-water slurry in a vertical unfired heat-recovery unit connected to the upper end of the reactor. The heat evolved in the reactor is used in the heat recovery unit to convert the second increment of coal-water slurry into more steam, char and synthesis gas. The gas effluent is separated from the solid char, and synthesis gas is passed into a fire-tube boiler to recover heat and the cooled product gas is recovered as the desired fuel-rich product. The solid char is reslurried and recycled to the fired reactor 3 for further combustion.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 5, 1988
    Date of Patent: October 10, 1989
    Assignee: The Dow Chemical Company
    Inventors: John P. Henley, Stanley R. Pearson, Bruce C. Peters, Larry L. LaFitte
  • Patent number: 4865542
    Abstract: Disclosed is a burner for the partial combustion of a solid carbonaceous fuel wherein coal, e.g., finely divided coal, is supplied to a reactor space via a central channel disposed along the longitudinal axis of the burner, and oxygen-containing gas is supplied via two annular channels surrounding said central channel, and heat from the combustion is removed from the hollow front face of the burner by coolant flowed through said front face spirally about the longitudinal axis of the burner.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 17, 1988
    Date of Patent: September 12, 1989
    Assignee: Shell Oil Company
    Inventors: Hendricus J. A. Hasenack, Ian Poll
  • Patent number: 4857076
    Abstract: An improved burner nozzle and process for making a synthetic or fuel gas mixture containing hydrogen and carbon monoxide by the partial oxidation, in a free-flowing hollow reactor, of a slurry of solid carbonaceous fuel in a liquid carrier admixed with a gas containing free oxygen. The nozzle may also be used in other applications where nozzles are required to handle slurries having a high concentration of finely-divided solids that must be uniformly admixed with a gas, as for example, in the aeration or incineration processes of a waste disposal plant. The nozzle and process include enveloping of an annular slurry stream between a central layer and an annular layer of high velocity gas, impinging the annular slurry stream on a downstream nozzle diffuser where a zone of high shear forces produce a uniform atomized admixture of solids, liquids and gases, and then transporting the admixture through an exit orifice at an accelerated velocity to further atomize the admixture.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 23, 1987
    Date of Patent: August 15, 1989
    Assignee: The Dow Chemical Company
    Inventors: Stanley R. Pearson, Douglas D. Merrick, William P. White, Charles W. Lipp
  • Patent number: 4857075
    Abstract: A process burner for combusting a fluid feed material which has central, middle and frusto-conical conduits in which the central and middle conduits form an annular passageway having an enlarged upstream end forming a distribution chamber to prevent high fluid flow regions which would erode an acceleration conduit at the discharge ends of the central, middle and frusto-conical conduits, the acceleration conduit forming a smooth curving surface without sharp angles from the frusto-conical conduit apex to the cylindrical discharge portion of the acceleration conduit. The distribution chamber preferably has a baffle or mixing plate angularly disposed under the fluid feed inlet to the annular passageway so that the fluid feed changes from axial to downwardly spiralling radial flow.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 19, 1988
    Date of Patent: August 15, 1989
    Assignee: The Dow Chemical Company
    Inventor: Charles W. Lipp
  • Patent number: 4784670
    Abstract: Synthesis gas is produced by the partial oxidation of a feedstock comprising sulfur-containing petroleum coke and/or liquid hydrocarbonaceous fuel and having ashes that contain nickel and a comparatively low level of silicon. The production of toxic nickel subsulfide (Ni.sub.3 S.sub.2) in the slag is prevented, and there is substantially no increase in the mole ratio H.sub.2 S+COS/H.sub.2 +CO in the raw product gas stream by introducing an additive comprising about 2 to 100 wt. % of a sulfur-containing material and any remainder comprising a supplemental iron-containing material into the reaction zone along with the feed. The additive combines with substantially all of the nickel constituents and most of the iron constituents and sulfur found in the feedstock to produce molten slag substantially comprising a fluid sulfide phase and a relatively minor amount of an Fe, Ni alloy phase.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 22, 1987
    Date of Patent: November 15, 1988
    Assignee: Texaco Inc.
    Inventor: Mitri S. Najjar
  • Patent number: 4752303
    Abstract: The present invention describes a process for producing synthesis gas by partial oxidation of carbon-containing particles suspended in water with oxygen at elevated pressures and temperatures of 1000.degree. to 1600.degree. C. Three substance streams are added separately but simultaneously to the reactor. The inner substance stream consists of oxygen or a mixture of oxygen and synthesis gas. The middle substance stream forms a carbon-water suspension, and the outer substance stream carries oxygen or oxygen-containing gases. Due to the fact that these three substance streams intersect at an acute angle, an ideal distribution of the suspension with the gas streams is achieved and an optimum reaction course is ensured. In order to be able to compensate requirement fluctuations during continuous operation, the outlet opening for the carbon-water suspension and the outer gas stream can be correspondingly adapted in a continuous and independent manner.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 12, 1987
    Date of Patent: June 21, 1988
    Assignee: Ruhrchemie Aktiengesellschaft
    Inventors: Winfried Materne, Bernard Schleper, Josef Hibbel, Volkmar Schmidt, Bernhard Lieder, Ulrich Gerhardus, Heinrich Scheve
  • Patent number: 4705538
    Abstract: An ash fusion temperature increasing agent principally comprising a silicon and/or titanium compound, such as SiO.sub.2 and/or TiO.sub.2 is mixed with an ash-containing fuel comprising a pumpable liquid hydrocarbonaceous material and/or petroleum coke to produce Mixture A. In one embodiment, the ash fusion temperature increasing agent comprises about 55-100 wt. % of silicon compound selected from the group consisting of fine silica or quartz, volcanic ash, and mixtures thereof; and the remainder, if any, of said ash fusion temperature increasing agent comprises a member of the group consisting of aluminum compound such as Al.sub.2 O.sub.3, magnesium compound such as MgO, and mixtures thereof. Mixture A is reacted with a free-oxygen containing gas in a free-flow refractory lined reaction zone of a partial oxidation gas generator. A hot raw effluent gas stream comprising H.sub.2 +CO along with fly-ash having an increased initial deformation temperature are produced at a higher temperature.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 4, 1985
    Date of Patent: November 10, 1987
    Assignee: Texaco Inc.
    Inventors: Mitri S. Najjar, Richard V. Kessler
  • Patent number: 4705539
    Abstract: An ash fusion temperature reducing agent principally comprising at least 50.0 wt. % of a manganese compound, such as MnO, and the remainder of the agent comprising a silicon compound, such as SiO.sub.2 is mixed with an ash-containing fuel comprising a pumpable liquid hydrocarbonaceous material and/or petroleum coke to produce Mixture A. In one embodiment, the ash fusion temperature reducing agent comprises a comminuted pyrolusite ore in which the following elements are present in weight percent basis ore: manganese in the range of about 50-75, calcium in the range of about 0-1.0, silicon in the range of about 0-3.0, magnesium in the range of about 0-1.0, and aluminum in the range of about 0-1.0. Mixture A is reacted with a free-oxygen containing gas in a free-flow refractory lined reaction zone of a partial oxidation gas generator. A hot raw effluent gas stream comprising H.sub.2 +CO along with molten ash having a reduced initial deformation temperature are produced at a lower temperature.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 2, 1985
    Date of Patent: November 10, 1987
    Assignee: Texaco Inc.
    Inventors: Mitri S. Najjar, Michael W. Becker, Arnulf Muan
  • Patent number: 4705535
    Abstract: This invention relates to a two-fluid nozzle which is adjustable to provide a substantially constant mixing energy. Adjustment of the two-fluid nozzle is made in accordance with the pressure and mass flow values of the liquid and gas fed to the nozzle. A microprocessor calculates the mixing energy from these values and provides an output to the nozzle to adjust it should its mixing energy be in variance with a pre-selected mixing energy.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 13, 1986
    Date of Patent: November 10, 1987
    Assignee: The Dow Chemical Company
    Inventor: Charles W. Lipp
  • Patent number: 4671804
    Abstract: Synthesis gas is produced by the partial oxidation of a fuel feedstock comprising sulfur-containing petroleum coke and/or heavy liquid hydrocarbonaceous fuel and having a nickel and iron-containing ash in a free-flow refractory lined partial oxidation reaction zone. The production of toxic nickel subsulfide (Ni.sub.3 S.sub.2) in said slag is prevented, and there is a substantial reduction in the concentration of H.sub.2 S+COS in the raw product gas stream by introducing an iron-containing additive into the reaction zone along with the feed. The weight ratio of iron-containing additive to ash in the fuel feedstock is in the range of about 0.5 to 10.0. The weight ratio of iron to nickel in said mixture of iron-containing additive and fuel feedstock is greater than 0.33. The additive combines with at least a portion of the nickel and iron constituents and sulfur found in the feedstock to produce a very fluid sulfide phase of iron and nickel, and an Fe, Ni alloy phase.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 29, 1985
    Date of Patent: June 9, 1987
    Assignee: Texaco Inc.
    Inventor: Mitri S. Najjar
  • Patent number: 4666464
    Abstract: Aqueous slurries of solid carbonaceous fuel having an increased reactivity of the solid material are produced by maintaining the solid carbonaceous fuel-water slurry at a temperature in the range of about 300.degree. to 650.degree. F. and a pressure in the range of about 100 to 3500 psia and sufficient to maintain the H.sub.2 O in the slurry in liquid phase; at substantially constant temperature depressurizing said slurry to a pressure in the range of about above atmospheric to 250 psia above that in the reaction zone of a partial oxidation gas generator, thereby partially vaporizing the water in the slurry and producing steam. After depressurizing, the slurry is cooled so that the solid particles drop in temperature about 2.degree. F. to 10.degree. F. and the water in the slurry drops in temperature about 100.degree. F. to about 200.degree. F.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 23, 1986
    Date of Patent: May 19, 1987
    Assignee: Texaco Inc.
    Inventors: Mitri S. Najjar, Walter C. Gates, Jr.
  • Patent number: 4666462
    Abstract: Control process for producing an aqueous slurry of solid carbonaceous fuel having a desired solids concentration for feed to a partial oxidation gas generator by grinding together in a size reduction zone a recycle aqueous slurry stream comprising carbon-containing particulate solids, a stream of solid carbonaceous fuel, and a specific amount of make-up water. No valves are in the line or path between the size reduction zone and the feed tanks for the solid carbonaceous fuel and recycle aqueous slurry. A system control unit automatically calculates the amount of make-up water and provides a corresponding signal to control the flow rate. Input signals that are provided to the system control unit include those corresponding to the weigh belt feeder speed and moisture content for the solid carbonaceous fuel; and pump speed, weight fraction, temperature, and density of the solids for the slurry of recycle particulate solids.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 30, 1986
    Date of Patent: May 19, 1987
    Assignee: Texaco Inc.
    Inventor: Michael C. Martin
  • Patent number: 4655792
    Abstract: An ash fusion temperature reducing agent comprising a comminuted ore mixture of the silicates of iron, calcium, magnesium and aluminum is mixed with an ash containing pumpable liquid hydrocarbonaceous material to produce Mixture A. Mixture A is reacted with a free-oxygen containing gas in a partial oxidation gas generator. A hot raw effluent gas stream comprising H.sub.2 +CO along with molten ash having a reduced ash fusion temperature are produced at a lower temperature. Alternatively, Mixture A may be first introduced into a coking zone and converted into petroleum coke in which the ash fusion temperature reducing agent is dispersed throughout. The petroleum coke is then introduced into the partial oxidation gas generator where the hot raw effluent gas stream comprising H.sub.2 +CO is produced along with molten petroleum coke ash having a reduced ash fusion temperature.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 12, 1984
    Date of Patent: April 7, 1987
    Assignee: Texaco Inc.
    Inventors: Richard V. Kessler, Mitri S. Najjar
  • Patent number: 4624684
    Abstract: A partial oxidation process for the production of a stream of mixed gases comprising H.sub.2 and CO. An aqueous particulate solid carbonaceous fuel slurry feedstream is preheated by indirect heat exchange with a process-derived stream of skimmed gases substantially comprising H.sub.2 O. The aqueous carrier of the slurry is vaporized by introducing superheated steam directly into the slurry pipeline. A suspension of particulate solid carbonaceous fuel entrained in a gaseous mixture substantially comprising steam e.g. about 90 to 99.9 wt. % H.sub.2 O and about 0.1 to 10 wt. % of a CO.sub.2 -containing gas mixture is produced. The suspension of solid fuel in the gaseous mixture is then separated in a skimming operation into an overhead gas stream substantially comprising steam, as previously described, and a bottom stream comprising particulate solid carbonaceous fuel with the remainder of said gaseous mixture.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 3, 1985
    Date of Patent: November 25, 1986
    Assignee: Texaco Inc.
    Inventor: John S. Stevenson
  • Patent number: 4563196
    Abstract: In a coal-gasification reactor installation, carbon dioxide gas is added into a liquid coal suspension in the form of fine bubbles of gas to improve the flowability and dispersion of the liquid coal suspension. In a preferred embodiment, carbon dioxide is separated from the gaseous reactor products, dissolved in an ammonium solution, reacted to form solid ammonium carbonate salt; the solid chemical salt is added to the liquid coal suspension where it is made to decompose and generate carbon dioxide gas.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 19, 1984
    Date of Patent: January 7, 1986
    Assignee: Ruhrkohle Aktiengesellschaft
    Inventor: Jurgen Seipenbusch
  • Patent number: 4527997
    Abstract: Coal gasification apparatus wherein a combustible mixture is formed and burned, comprising a combustion supporting gas such as oxygen, and a coal slurry. The hot products of combustion which issue from the burner, are directed into the reaction chamber of a synthesis gas generator. To avoid deposition of slag and ash particles along the hot, exposed face of the burner, a dynamic fluid blanket or barrier is directed transversely of the burner face. The reaction chamber includes an elongated port in which the burner is registered. To shield the burner, a manifold depends from the reaction chamber wall adjacent to the burner face and projects a stream of coolant fluid transversely of the face.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 12, 1982
    Date of Patent: July 9, 1985
    Assignee: Texaco Inc.
    Inventor: Michael L. Espedal
  • Patent number: 4526588
    Abstract: A coal-water suspension containing 50 to 75 percent by weight coal, based on the weight of the suspension, the bulk of the coal having a particle size of 50 to 500 .mu.m, the proportion of the particles having a diameter greater than 0.5 mm in the coal being less than 15 percent by weight and the particle size distribution curve of the coal in the Rosin-Rammler particle size distribution grid according to DIN 4190 having a slope of .gtoreq.1; a process for the production of such water-coal suspension which is suitable for use in coal gasification under elevated pressure by mixing lump coal with water directly, the water being added in a concentration just sufficient to form a water-coal dust suspension suitable for the gasification reaction and grinding the resultant suspension in a disc attrition mill, a toothed disc attrition mill or a toothed colloid mill.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 6, 1983
    Date of Patent: July 2, 1985
    Assignee: Ruhrchemie Aktiengesellschaft
    Inventors: Jurgen Lusch, Heinrich Heinen, Bernhard Lieder, Volkmar Schmidt, Wolfgang Kolodzey
  • Patent number: 4525175
    Abstract: A burner is provided for introducing four separate feedstreams including a stream of gaseous material from the group free-oxygen containing gas, steam, recycle product gas, and hydrocarbon gas; a pumpable slurry of solid carbonaceous fuel in liquid phase e.g. coal-water; and two high velocity streams of free-oxygen containing gas into a free-flow partial oxidation gas generator for the production of synthesis gas, fuel gas, or reducing gas. The burner has a central conduit and three concentric annular passages. A central core of a gas selected from the group consisting of free-oxygen containing gas, steam, recycle product gas, and hydrocarbon gas surrounded by the slurry of solid carbonaceous fuel is discharged from the central conduit and first annular passage respectively and is impacted by two separate streams of free-oxygen containing gas passing through the second and outer annular passages.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 16, 1983
    Date of Patent: June 25, 1985
    Assignee: Texaco Inc.
    Inventor: Robert J. Stellaccio
  • Patent number: 4502633
    Abstract: A variable capacity burner that may be used in gasification processes, the burner being adjustable when operating in its intended operating environment to operate at two different flow capacities, with the adjustable parts being dynamically sealed within a statically sealed structural arrangement to prevent dangerous blow-outs of the reactants to the atmosphere.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 5, 1982
    Date of Patent: March 5, 1985
    Assignee: Eastman Kodak Company
    Inventor: Daniel I. Saxon
  • Patent number: 4481015
    Abstract: The present invention relates to a method for producing pumpable coal-water suspensions by grinding pre-comminuted coal with water in a packed column in a ratio corresponding to the composition of the suspension ready for use. The addition of water or coal is controlled by measuring the density of the suspension leaving the mill, and the grain size of the coal particles is controlled by measuring the viscosity of the suspension. The density and viscosity of the coal-water suspension are simultaneously mutually adjusted. The addition of additives to the water is regulated according to the amount of coal added to the mill. The coal-water suspension can be fed to a coal gasification reactor without substantially changing the relative amounts of coal and water in said suspension.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 28, 1982
    Date of Patent: November 6, 1984
    Assignee: Ruhrchemie Aktiengesellschaft
    Inventors: Jurgen Lusch, Bernhard Lieder, Heinrich Heinen, Wolfgang Kolodzey
  • Patent number: 4443228
    Abstract: A high turndown de-slagging burner is provided for simultaneously introducing one or two mixed pairs of reactant feedstreams into a free-flow noncatalytic partial oxidation gas generator for the production of synthesis gas, fuel gas, or reducing gas by way of the central and/or annular sections of the burner, respectively. Each pair of feedstreams comprises a stream of free-oxygen containing gas with or without a temperature moderator and a pumpable liquid slurry stream of solid carbonaceous fuel, such as a coal-water slurry. Other hydrocarbonaceous fuels may be employed. The burner comprises four coaxial concentric conduits that are radially spaced to provide coaxial concentric annular passages. All of the conduits and annular passages are closed at the upstream ends and open at the downstream ends. Each pair of feedstreams is separately mixed together in a central or annular pre-mix chamber located upstream from the face of the burner.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 29, 1982
    Date of Patent: April 17, 1984
    Assignee: Texaco Inc.
    Inventor: Warren G. Schlinger
  • Patent number: 4443230
    Abstract: A partial oxidation process including a burner is provided for introducing four separate feedstreams including a stream of gaseous material from the group free-oxygen containing gas, steam, recycle product gas, and hydrocarbon gas; a pumpable slurry of solid carbonaceous fuel in liquid phase e.g. coal-water; and two high velocity streams of free-oxygen containing gas into a free-flow partial oxidation gas generator for the production of synthesis gas, fuel gas, or reducing gas. The burner has a central conduit and three concentric annular passages. A central core of a gas selected from the group consisting of free-oxygen containing gas, steam, recycle product gas, and hydrocarbon gas surrounded by the slurry of solid carbonaceous fuel is discharged from the central conduit and first annular passage respectively and is impacted by two separate streams of free-oxygen containing gas passing through the second and outer annular passages.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 31, 1983
    Date of Patent: April 17, 1984
    Assignee: Texaco Inc.
    Inventor: Robert J. Stellaccio
  • Patent number: 4436531
    Abstract: Synthesis gas, fuel gas, or reducing gas is produced by the noncatalytic partial oxidation of a slurry of ash-containing solid carbonaceous fuel in a liquid carrier with a free-oxygen containing gas in the free-flow reaction zone of a refractory lined gas generator at an autogenous temperature in the range of about 2350.degree. F. to 2900.degree. F. so that about 75 to 95 weight percent of the carbon in the fuel feed to the reaction zone is converted into carbon oxides. The hot effluent gas stream from the reaction zone containing entrained particulate carbon, unconverted solid carbonaceous fuel, and molten slag is passed through a free-flow radiant cooler where it is contacted by and provides the heat to vaporize an aqueous solution of catalyst consisting of alkali metal and/or alkaline earth metal compound in water. In the presence of the catalyst, H.sub.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 27, 1982
    Date of Patent: March 13, 1984
    Assignee: Texaco Development Corporation
    Inventors: Lawrence E. Estabrook, Robert M. Suggitt
  • Patent number: 4424065
    Abstract: A method of particulate-carbon recovery from the product gas in a coal gasification process of the type using water-carbon slurry combusted with oxygen in a reactor uses water scrubbing for the product gas to obtain particulate carbon together with ash. Certain ash content is trapped in carbon particles which have a tendency of lumping together. The carbon and ash fraction is treated with liquid hydrocarbon for carbon particle wetting and facilitating separation of ash. The recovered carbon is ground to break down bigger carbon particles and sent through a wet-particle separator; carbon particles which pass a predetermined mesh size, e.g., approximately 63 micron mesh, are sent back to the reactor for mixing with the water-carbon slurry inlet for further combustion. The bigger fractions of carbon are either ground down to size again, or diverted for other uses.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 14, 1981
    Date of Patent: January 3, 1984
    Inventors: Josef Langhoff, Ju/ rgen Seipenbusch
  • Patent number: 4400180
    Abstract: A partial oxidation process and control system for continuously producing synthesis gas, fuel gas or reducing gas in which one process fuel is replaced by a different fuel without shutting down or depressurizing the gas generator. This multifuel process is not tied to one particular fuel and reacts slurries of solid carbonaceous fuel and/or liquid or gaseous hydrocarbonaceous fuels. Suitable burners for introducing the feedstreams into the gas generator comprise a central conduit means radially spaced from a concentric coaxial outer conduit having a downstream exit nozzle, and providing a coaxial annular passage means therebetween. The central conduit means may be retracted upstream from the burner face a distance of about 0 to 12 and preferably 3 to 10 times the minimum diameter of the central exit orifice.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 10, 1981
    Date of Patent: August 23, 1983
    Assignee: Texaco, Inc.
    Inventors: Charles P. Marion, William B. Crouch, Albert Brent, George N. Richter, Edward T. Child, Blake Reynolds
  • Patent number: 4394137
    Abstract: A partial oxidation process for continuously producing synthesis gas, fuel gas or reducing gas in which process one fuel is replaced by a differing fuel without shutting down or depressurizing the gas generator. This multifuel process is not tied to one particular fuel and reacts slurries of solid carbonaceous fuel and/or liquid or gaseous hydrocarbonaceous fuels. Problems of fuel availability are reduced due to the wide selection of fuels that are suitable for the subject process. A two-section burner having a high turndown feature is employed that comprises a central conduit; a central bunch of tubes positioned in said central conduit; an outer conduit coaxial with said central conduit and forming an annular passage therewith; and an annular bunch of tubes positioned in said annular passage. The downstream ends of said central and/or annular bunches of tubes are respectively retracted upstream from the burner face a distance of about 0 to 12 i.e.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 10, 1981
    Date of Patent: July 19, 1983
    Assignee: Texaco, Inc.
    Inventors: Charles P. Marion, William B. Crouch, Albert Brent, George N. Richter, Edward T. Child, Blake Reynolds
  • Patent number: 4386941
    Abstract: A process for the partial oxidation of pumpable slurries of solid carbonaceous fuels in which the pumpable slurry of solid carbonaceous fuel in a liquid carrier is passed in liquid phase through one passage of a burner comprising a retracted central coaxial conduit, an outer coaxial conduit with a converging orifice at the downstream tip of the burner and, optionally, an intermediate coaxial conduit. The downstream tips of the central conduit and the intermediate conduit, if any, are retracted upstream from the burner face a distance of respectively two or more say 3 to 10 for the central conduit, and about 0 to 12 say 1 to 5 for the intermediate conduit times the minimum diameter of the converging orifice of the outer conduit at the burner tip. A pre-mix zone is thereby provided comprising one or more, say 2 to 5 coaxial pre-mix chambers in series.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 29, 1982
    Date of Patent: June 7, 1983
    Assignee: Texaco Inc.
    Inventors: William B. Crouch, George N. Richter, Charles P. Marion, Blake Reynolds, Albert Brent, Edward T. Child
  • Patent number: 4371379
    Abstract: A partial oxidation process using a swirl burner for producing synthesis gas, fuel gas or reducing gas from slurries of solid carbonaceous fuel and/or liquid or gaseous hydrocarbon fuel. The swirl burner may have pre-mix and/or high turndown features. By means of the burner a first reactant stream is split into a plurality of swirling streams by being passed down through a central bundle of helical tubes. Simultaneously a second reactant stream is split into a plurality of swirling streams by being passed down through a plurality of related passages formed in the cylindrical space that surrounds said central bundle of helical tubes and/or the interstices between the helical tubes. When the two swirling reactant feed streams impinge, either upstream from the face of the burner in a pre-mix zone or downstream from the face of the burner, in the gas generator, they are intimately mixed together. The combustion efficiency of the burner is thereby improved.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 25, 1982
    Date of Patent: February 1, 1983
    Assignee: Texaco Inc.
    Inventors: Albert Brent, Charles P. Marion, George N. Richter, William B. Crouch, Edward T. Child, Blake Reynolds