Temperature Control Or Regulation Of The Fischer-tropsch Reaction Patents (Class 518/712)
  • Patent number: 11806684
    Abstract: Methods and apparatus for compact and easily maintainable waste reformation. Some embodiments include a rotary oven reformer adapted and configured to provide synthesis gas from organic waste. Some embodiments include a rotary oven with simplified operation both as to reformation of the waste, usage of the synthesized gas and other products, and easy removal of the finished waste products, preferably in a unit of compact size for use in austere settings. Yet other embodiments include Fischer-Tropsch reactors of synthesized gas. Some of these reactors include heat exchanging assemblies that provide self-cleaning effects, efficient utilization of waste heat, and ease of cleaning.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 10, 2022
    Date of Patent: November 7, 2023
    Assignee: Raven SR, Inc.
    Inventors: Terry R. Galloway, Joseph Oscar Waidl
  • Patent number: 11655421
    Abstract: A method for producing a synthetic fuel from hydrogen and carbon dioxide comprises extracting hydrogen molecules from hydrogen compounds in a hydrogen feedstock to produce a hydrogen-containing fluid stream; extracting carbon dioxide molecules from a dilute gaseous mixture in a carbon dioxide feedstock to produce a carbon dioxide containing fluid stream; and processing the hydrogen and carbon dioxide containing fluid streams to produce a synthetic fuel. At least some thermal energy and/or material used for at least one of the steps of extracting hydrogen molecules, extracting carbon dioxide molecules, and processing the hydrogen and carbon dioxide containing fluid streams is obtained from thermal energy and/or material produced by another one of the steps of extracting hydrogen molecules, extracting carbon dioxide molecules, and processing the hydrogen and carbon dioxide containing fluid streams.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 21, 2017
    Date of Patent: May 23, 2023
    Assignee: Carbon Engineering Ltd.
    Inventors: Kenton Heidel, James Murphy, Adrian Corless, Geoff Holmes, Jenny McCahill, Anna Stukas, Jane Ritchie, Kevin Nold
  • Patent number: 11642641
    Abstract: Methods and apparatus for compact and easily maintainable waste reformation. Some embodiments include a rotary oven reformer adapted and configured to provide synthesis gas from organic waste. Some embodiments include a rotary oven with simplified operation both as to reformation of the waste, usage of the synthesized gas and other products, and easy removal of the finished waste products, preferably in a unit of compact size for use in austere settings. Yet other embodiments include Fischer-Tropsch reactors of synthesized gas. Some of these reactors include heat exchanging assemblies that provide self-cleaning effects, efficient utilization of waste heat, and ease of cleaning.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 9, 2021
    Date of Patent: May 9, 2023
    Assignee: Raven SR, Inc.
    Inventors: Terry R. Galloway, Joseph Oscar Waidl
  • Patent number: 11613707
    Abstract: A method for producing a synthetic fuel from hydrogen and carbon dioxide comprises extracting hydrogen molecules from hydrogen compounds in a hydrogen feedstock to produce a hydrogen-containing fluid stream; extracting carbon dioxide molecules from a dilute gaseous mixture in a carbon dioxide feedstock to produce a carbon dioxide containing fluid stream; and processing the hydrogen and carbon dioxide containing fluid streams to produce a synthetic fuel. At least some thermal energy and/or material used for at least one of the steps of extracting hydrogen molecules, extracting carbon dioxide molecules, and processing the hydrogen and carbon dioxide containing fluid streams is obtained from thermal energy and/or material produced by another one of the steps of extracting hydrogen molecules, extracting carbon dioxide molecules, and processing the hydrogen and carbon dioxide containing fluid streams.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 21, 2017
    Date of Patent: March 28, 2023
    Assignee: Carbon Engineering Ltd.
    Inventors: Kenton Heidel, James Murphy, Adrian Corless, Geoff Holmes, Jenny McCahill, Anna Stukas, Jane Ritchie, Kevin Nold
  • Patent number: 11292973
    Abstract: Processes and systems for upgrading a hydrocarbon feed. The process can include feeding a hydrocarbon feed, catalyst particles, and molecular hydrogen (H2) into a separation zone. The hydrocarbon feed and H2 can be contacted in the presence of the catalyst particles under hydrotreating conditions in the separation zone that can include contacting under a total pressure of less than 3,500 kilopascals-gauge. The H2 can be fed into the separation zone at a rate of no greater than 270 cubic meters of H2 per cubic meter of the hydrocarbon feed, where the volume of H2 and hydrocarbon feed are based on a temperature of 25 C and a pressure of 101 kilopascals-absolute. A vapor phase hydrocarbon stream and a liquid phase hydrocarbon stream can be obtained from the separation zone. At least a portion of the vapor phase hydrocarbon stream can be fed into a pyrolysis reaction zone to produce a pyrolysis effluent.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 24, 2020
    Date of Patent: April 5, 2022
    Assignee: ExxonMobil Chemical Patents Inc.
    Inventors: Ramanathan Sundararaman, James R. Lattner, Michael W. Weber, David T. Ferrughelli, Saurabh S. Maduskar, Federico Barrai, Jeevan S. Abichandani
  • Patent number: 10935280
    Abstract: An extreme condensing boiler includes cold and hot water headers, burner, and multi-tubing heat exchanger, so that cold water absorbs heat from exhaust gas of the burner being heated to medium-hot, which absorbs heat generated by the burner being heated to hot water through absorbing heat from both sides of tube portion of the multi-tubing heat exchanger, and so that the hot water is delivered to the hot water header, and a combustion air heat exchanger is provided around the multi-tubing heat exchanger. The condensing boiler uses dual/triple tubes for fire and water tubes, increasing efficiency by absorbing heat from both sides. The fire tube is surrounded by the cold water tube so as to minimize exhaust gas temperature and maximize condensing by absorbing waste heat. The condensing boiler realizes a direct fire boiler through the fire and water tubes, and an energy-saving tankless boiler including headers and tubes only.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 3, 2018
    Date of Patent: March 2, 2021
    Inventor: Dongho Kim
  • Patent number: 10246326
    Abstract: An apparatus for steam reforming of hydrocarbons is described including a steam reformer containing a plurality of externally-heated vertical tubes each tube having an inlet for a feed gas mixture including hydrocarbon and steam, and an outlet for a reformed gas mixture, wherein the tubes contain a particulate steam reforming catalyst adjacent the outlet and a structured steam reforming catalyst adjacent the inlet. A process for steam reforming of hydrocarbons using the apparatus is also described.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 17, 2015
    Date of Patent: April 2, 2019
    Assignee: Johnson Matthey Public Limited Company
    Inventors: Kenneth Chlapik, Peter William Farnell
  • Patent number: 9816034
    Abstract: A method of forming a hydrocarbon product, the method comprising a first step of enriching a carrier liquid with carbon monoxide and hydrogen and a subsequent step of bringing the enriched carrier liquid into contact with a catalyst in a first reaction zone of a reactor, wherein the catalyst catalyzes reaction of the carbon monoxide and hydrogen to form the hydrocarbon product.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 15, 2014
    Date of Patent: November 14, 2017
    Assignee: PROCESS SYSTEMS ENTREPRISE LIMITED
    Inventor: Zbigniew Boguslaw Urban
  • Patent number: 9267703
    Abstract: The invention provides a method for producing a supply of a heated fluid, which method comprises passing the fluid through a heat exchanger unit where it is heated by a heat source; characterized in that the heat source derives heat from the exothermic reaction of two or more chemical reactants. The chemical reactants are preferably an acid and a base.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 20, 2014
    Date of Patent: February 23, 2016
    Inventor: Mark Collins
  • Patent number: 9193927
    Abstract: A method for converting carbon dioxide in flue gas into natural gas using dump energy. The method includes: 1) transforming and rectifying a voltage of dump energy generated from a renewable energy plant, introducing the voltage-transformed and rectified dump energy into an electrolyte solution to electrolyze water therein to yield H2 and O2; 2) purifying industrial flue gas to separate CO2 therein and purifying CO2; 3) transporting H2 generated and CO2 to a synthesis equipment, allowing a methanation reaction between H2 and CO2 to happen to yield a high-temperature mixed gas with main ingredients of CH4 and water vapor; 4) employing the high-temperature mixed gas to conduct indirect heat exchange with process water to yield superheated water vapor; 5) delivering the superheated water vapor to a turbine to generate electric energy, and returning the electric energy to step 1); and 6) condensing and drying the mixed gas.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 24, 2014
    Date of Patent: November 24, 2015
    Assignee: Wuhan Kaidi Engineering Technology Research Institute Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Yanfeng Zhang, Yilong Chen, Zhilong Wang, Zhangjian Fang, Xingcai Zheng
  • Patent number: 9012523
    Abstract: Systems and methods for producing a synthetic natural gas are provided. A syngas can be separated into a first syngas, a second syngas, and a third syngas. The first syngas can be methanated to produce a first effluent. The first effluent can be mixed with the second syngas to produce a first mixed effluent. The first mixed effluent can be methanated to produce a second effluent. The second mixed effluent can be methanated to produce a third effluent. The third effluent can be cooled to produce a first cooled effluent. The first cooled effluent can be cooled to produce a synthetic natural gas.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 22, 2011
    Date of Patent: April 21, 2015
    Assignee: Kellogg Brown & Root LLC
    Inventor: Siva Ariyapadi
  • Patent number: 9005538
    Abstract: The invention pertains to a reactor tube comprising a fixed bed of Fischer-Tropsch catalyst particles, wherein the catalyst particles in 5%-40% of the fixed bed volume at the upstream end have an average outer surface to volume ratio (S/V) of between 3.0 to 4.5 mm-1, and the remaining catalyst particles have an average S/V of between 4.5 to 8.0 mm-1, and wherein the difference between the average S/V of the particles at the upstream end and the remaining fixed bed volume is at least 0.5 mm-1. Additionally the fixed bed volume at the upstream end shows a full-bed apparent catalytic activity per volume unit lower than the full-bed apparent catalytic activity per volume unit in the remaining fixed bed volume and/or the weight of catalytically active metal per weight unit at the upstream end is more than 70% lower than in the remaining fixed bed volume.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 27, 2012
    Date of Patent: April 14, 2015
    Assignee: Shell Oil Company
    Inventors: Robert Martijn Van Hardeveld, Thomas Joris Remans, Erwin Roderick Stobbe
  • Patent number: 8993642
    Abstract: The present invention provides a process for producing a hydrocarbon oil by performing a Fischer-Tropsch synthesis reaction using a reactor for a Fischer-Tropsch synthesis including a reaction apparatus having a slurry containing catalyst particles and a gaseous phase located above the slurry to obtain a hydrocarbon oil, wherein the Fischer-Tropsch reaction is performed while controlling a temperature of the slurry so that a difference T2?T1 between the average temperature T1 of the slurry and a temperature T2 at the liquid level of the slurry in contact with the gaseous phase is 5 to 30° C.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 26, 2012
    Date of Patent: March 31, 2015
    Assignees: Japan Oil, Gas and Metals National Corporation, Inpex Corporation, JX Nippon Oil & Energy Corporation, Japan Petroleum Exploration Co., Ltd., Cosmo Oil Co., Ltd., Nippon Steel & Sumikin Engineering Co., Ltd.
    Inventor: Yuichi Tanaka
  • Patent number: 8980194
    Abstract: The present invention pertains to a reactor tube comprising a fixed bed of Fischer-Tropsch catalyst particles, wherein the catalyst particles in 5% to 40% of the fixed bed volume at the upstream end have an average outer surface to volume ratio (S/V) in the range of between 3.0 to 4.5 mm?1, and the catalyst particles in the remaining fixed bed volume have an average outer surface to volume ratio (S/V) in the range of between 4.5 to 8.0 mm?1, and wherein the difference between the average S/V of the particles at the upstream end and the average S/V of the particles in the remaining fixed bed volume is at least 0.5 mm?1.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 15, 2010
    Date of Patent: March 17, 2015
    Assignee: Shell Oil Company
    Inventors: Alouisius Nicolaas Renée Bos, Peter John Van Den Brink, Thomas Joris Remans, Erwin Roderick Stobbe, Dominik Johannes Michael Unruh, Ronald Vladimir Wisman
  • Patent number: 8975303
    Abstract: In a synthesis gas methanation process, at least one first fraction of synthesis gas to treat is fed, together with steam, to a shift reactor where a shift reaction occurs; the gas flow produced in the shift reactor is then fed to a first methanation reactor where a methanation reaction occurs and then to further second methanation reactors in series, where further methanation reactions, performed with the addition of fresh synthesis gas which has not been subjected to the shift reaction.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 8, 2010
    Date of Patent: March 10, 2015
    Assignee: Foster Wheeler Italiana S.r.l.
    Inventors: Luigi Bressan, Maria Sudiro
  • Publication number: 20150045459
    Abstract: An integrated microchannel reactor and heat exchanger comprising: (a) a waveform sandwiched between opposing shim sheets and mounted to the shim sheets to form a series of microchannels, where each microchannel includes a pair of substantially straight side walls, and a top wall formed by at least one of the opposing shim sheets, and (b) a first set of microchannels in thermal communication with the waveform, where the waveform has an aspect ratio greater than two.
    Type: Application
    Filed: October 27, 2014
    Publication date: February 12, 2015
    Inventors: Anna Lee Y. Tonkovich, Robert D. Litt, Timothy M. Werner, Bin Yang
  • Patent number: 8933136
    Abstract: The present invention pertains to a process for carrying out a high-speed stop in a Fischer-Tropsch process which comprises providing a feed to a fixed bed reactor comprising a Fischer-Tropsch catalyst, the reactor being at reaction temperature and pressure, and withdrawing an effluent from the reactor, wherein the high-speed stop is effected by blocking provision of feed to the reactor and simultaneously blocking the withdrawal of effluent from the reactor.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 15, 2009
    Date of Patent: January 13, 2015
    Assignee: Shell Oil Company
    Inventors: Gerrit Leendert Bezemer, Carolus Matthias Anna Maria Mesters, Thomas Joris Remans, Johannes Theodorus Maria Smits
  • Publication number: 20140364518
    Abstract: A method of starting up one or more units, the method comprising the steps of: (a) starting up a first unit including a microchannel reactor housing a Fischer-Tropsch catalyst by initially feeding a carbon monoxide source and a hydrogen source to the first unit and through the microchannel reactor; (b) processing, within the microchannel reactor, at least a portion of the carbon monoxide source and the hydrogen source; (c) monitoring at least one of internal pressure, temperature, and concentration at least one of within the microchannel reactor and downstream from the microchannel reactor; (d) at least partially containing the microchannel reactor using a wall of a containment device, the wall cooperating with the microchannel reactor to delineate at least one of a first inlet cavity and a first outlet cavity of the microchannel reactor, where at least one of the first inlet cavity and the first outlet cavity is not in fluid communication with at least one of a second inlet cavity and a second outlet cavity;
    Type: Application
    Filed: June 10, 2013
    Publication date: December 11, 2014
    Inventors: William Allen Rogers, JR., Christopher Paul Weil, Robert Dwayne Litt, Ronald Chester Pasadyn, George Bradley Smith, Charles Robert Miele, Thomas Peter Forte, Jimmy Glen Pelham
  • Publication number: 20140148520
    Abstract: A method of operating a carbon to liquids system is provided. The method includes receiving a flow of syngas and reacting, in a reactor, the syngas and a catalyst in a Fischer-Tropsch reaction to produce a product including steam, wherein the reactor includes a polymeric material that is configured to permit the permeation of the steam therethrough. The method also includes recycling the permeated steam to a vessel positioned upstream from the reactor.
    Type: Application
    Filed: November 29, 2012
    Publication date: May 29, 2014
    Applicant: GENERAL ELECTRIC COMPANY
    Inventors: Vitali Victor Lissianski, Surinder Prabhjot Singh, Dhaval Ajit Bhandari
  • Publication number: 20130289144
    Abstract: A process and apparatus for converting a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide to hydrocarbons comprising reacting the hydrogen and carbon monoxide at elevated temperature and pressure in contact with a suitable catalyst in a reactive distillation column is disclosed.
    Type: Application
    Filed: October 31, 2011
    Publication date: October 31, 2013
    Applicant: ASA ENERGY CONVERSIONS LTD.
    Inventor: Rian Steyn
  • Publication number: 20130165536
    Abstract: The invention provides methods, apparatus and systems in which there is partial boiling of a liquid in a mini-channel or microchannel. The partial boiling removes heat from an exothermic process.
    Type: Application
    Filed: August 27, 2012
    Publication date: June 27, 2013
    Inventors: Anna Lee Tonkovich, David J. Hesse, Sean P. Fitzgerald, Bin Yang, Ravi Arora, Laura J. Silva, G. Bradley Chadwell, Kai Jarosch, Dongming Qiu
  • Publication number: 20130165535
    Abstract: Systems and methods for producing a synthetic natural gas are provided. A syngas can be separated into a first syngas, a second syngas, and a third syngas. The first syngas can be methanated to produce a first effluent. The first effluent can be mixed with the second syngas to produce a first mixed effluent. The first mixed effluent can be methanated to produce a second effluent. The second mixed effluent can be methanated to produce a third effluent. The third effluent can be cooled to produce a first cooled effluent. The first cooled effluent can be cooled to produce a synthetic natural gas.
    Type: Application
    Filed: December 22, 2011
    Publication date: June 27, 2013
    Applicant: Kellogg Brown & Root LLC
    Inventor: Siva Ariyapadi
  • Patent number: 8450381
    Abstract: The present invention includes a removable microchannel unit including an inlet orifice and an outlet orifice in fluid communication with a plurality of microchannels distributed throughout the removable microchannel unit, and a pressurized vessel adapted have the removable microchannel unit mounted thereto, the pressurized vessel adapted to contain a pressurized fluid exerting a positive gauge pressure upon at least a portion of the exterior of the removable microchannel unit. The invention also includes a microchannel unit assembly comprising a microchannel unit operation carried out within a pressurized vessel, where pressurized vessel includes a pressurized fluid exerting a positive gauge pressure upon an exterior of the microchannel unit operation, and where the microchannel unit operation includes an outlet orifice in fluid communication with an interior of the pressurized vessel.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 22, 2012
    Date of Patent: May 28, 2013
    Assignee: Velocys, Inc.
    Inventors: William Allen Rogers, Paul William Neagle, Michael Alan Marchiando, Christopher Paul Well, Robert Dwayne Litt, Ronald Chester Pasadyn, G. Bradley Smith, Charles Robert Miele, Thomas Peter Forte, Jimmy Glen Pelham
  • Patent number: 8450234
    Abstract: The present invention relates to a catalyst used for producing dimethylether, a method of producing the same, and a method of producing dimethylether using the same. More particularly, the present invention relates to a catalyst used for producing dimethylether comprising a methanol synthesis catalyst produced by adding one or more promoters to a main catalyst comprised of a Cu—Zn—Al metal component and a dehydration catalyst formed by mixing Aluminum Phosphate (AlPO4) with gamma alumina, a method of producing the same, and a method of producing dimethylether using the same, wherein a ratio of the main catalyst to the promoter in the methanol synthesis catalyst is in a range of 99/1 to 95/5, and a mixing ratio of the methanol synthesis catalyst to the dehydration catalyst is in a range of 60/40 to 70/30.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 23, 2007
    Date of Patent: May 28, 2013
    Assignee: Korea Gas Corporation
    Inventors: Young Soon Baek, Won Jun Cho, Yun Bin Yan, Yong Gi Mo, Kyung Hae Lee, Eun Mee Jang
  • Patent number: 8444939
    Abstract: A reactor module for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis having a generally rectangular reactor block with a stack of plates defining flow channels for coolant and flow channels for the synthesis reaction arranged alternately in the block. The synthesis flow channels extend in a generally vertical direction between upper and lower faces of the reactor block and are defined by plates in combination with either bars or sheets such that each channel is of width no more than 200 mm. The coolant flow channels are oriented in the same direction, and communicate through distributor chambers with inlet and outlet ports at side faces of the reactor block. A plant may contain a multiplicity of such reactor modules operating in parallel, the modules being interchangeable and replaceable. The temperature control is enhanced by allowing the coolant flow to be parallel to the synthesis gas flow.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 24, 2008
    Date of Patent: May 21, 2013
    Assignee: CompactGTL plc
    Inventors: Michael Joseph Bowe, Clive Derek Lee-Tuffnell
  • Publication number: 20130090395
    Abstract: A process for recovering heat uses a product stream from a Fischer Tropsch synthesis reactor as the coolant in the same Fischer Tropsch reactor. This stream is then used as the working fluid in an associated organic Rankine cycle. In this manner, the waste heat from the Fischer Tropsch reactor can be efficiently converted into shaft work within the Fischer Tropsch plant. The Fischer Tropsch fluid can then be recycled into the plant product stream.
    Type: Application
    Filed: October 11, 2011
    Publication date: April 11, 2013
    Inventors: Kevin J. DiGenova, George A. Huff, JR., Barbara B. Botros, John G. Brisson
  • Patent number: 8395009
    Abstract: The invention relates to a catalytic composition and to a process for selective methanization of carbon monoxide in hydrogen- and carbon dioxide-containing streams, wherein the active component used is ruthenium and the support material is a lanthanum-cerium-zirconium oxide, and to the use thereof in fuel cell systems.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 31, 2011
    Date of Patent: March 12, 2013
    Assignee: BASF SE
    Inventors: Jochen Steiner, Markus Hoelzle, Heiko Urtel
  • Publication number: 20130041051
    Abstract: The invention relates to a method for producing a methane-rich product gas, in which a starting gas containing hydrogen and carbon dioxide is catalytically methanated under the influence of at least one adjustatable parameter in at least two stages and at least one criterion relating to the composition of the product gas is monitored. The criterion is fulfilled under a condition influencing the method and when the condition changes, a change in the parameter setting that preserves fulfilment of the criterion is affected.
    Type: Application
    Filed: November 11, 2010
    Publication date: February 14, 2013
    Applicant: SOLAR FUEL GMBH
    Inventors: Ulrich Zuberbuhler, Bernd Sturmer, Volkmar Frick, Michael Specht, Martin Buxbaum
  • Patent number: 8354564
    Abstract: A process for producing dry alcohol (including ethanol) that comprises at least one stage wherein a gaseous feedstock, which includes alcohol and water, is contacted with carbon monoxide in the presence of a water-gas shift catalyst, at a temperature sufficiently high so that carbon monoxide and water are consumed and carbon dioxide and hydrogen are produced, thereby removing a portion of the water. The process may include multiple stages; the dry alcohol produced contains 99.5 wt. % or greater of alcohol and 0.5 wt. % or less of water.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 5, 2007
    Date of Patent: January 15, 2013
    Assignee: BHS Technology LLC
    Inventors: Christopher J. Brown, Marian Simo, Vladimir Hlavacek
  • Publication number: 20120329889
    Abstract: The present invention relates to a method of manufacturing a cobalt metal foam catalyst including a metal foam coated with cobalt catalyst powder, a cobalt metal foam catalyst manufactured by the method, a thermal medium-circulated heat exchanger type reactor using the cobalt metal foam catalyst, and a method of producing liquid fuel by Fischer-Tropsch synthesis using the reactor. An object of the present invention is to provide a catalyst, which is used to obtain high liquid fuel productivity even at a low CO conversion ratio because the reaction temperature can be kept stable by controlling reaction heat with high efficiency in Fischer-Tropsch synthesis so that the mass transfer characteristics of a catalyst layer can be improved, and a method of manufacturing the catalyst, a reactor filled with the catalyst, and a method of producing liquid fuel using the reactor.
    Type: Application
    Filed: February 25, 2010
    Publication date: December 27, 2012
    Applicant: KOREA INSTITUTE OF ENERGY RESEARCH
    Inventors: Jung-Il Yang, Jung-Hoon Yang, Chang-Hyun Ko, Heon Jung, Ho-Tae Lee, Hak-Joo Kim, Dong-Hyun Chun
  • Patent number: 8318100
    Abstract: Reactor vessels with pressure and heat transfer features for producing hydrogen-based fuels and structural elements, and associated systems and methods. A representative reactor system in accordance with a particular embodiment includes a first reaction zone and a heat path positioned to direct heat into the first reaction zone, a reactant source coupled to the first reaction zone, and a first actuator coupled to cyclically pressurize the first reaction zone. The system can further include a second reaction zone in fluid communication with the first, a valve coupled between the first and second reaction zones to control a flow rate therebetween, and a second actuator coupled in fluid communication with the second reaction zone to cyclically pressurize the second reaction zone.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 14, 2011
    Date of Patent: November 27, 2012
    Assignee: McAlister Technologies, LLC
    Inventor: Roy Edward McAlister
  • Patent number: 8203023
    Abstract: Novel methods of Fischer-Tropsch synthesis are described. It has been discovered that conducting the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis over a catalyst with a catalytically active surface layer of 35 microns or less results in a liquid hydrocarbon product with a high ratio of C5-C20:C20+. Descriptions of novel Fischer-Tropsch catalysts and reactors are also provided. Novel hydrocarbon compositions with a high ratio of C5-C20:C20+ are also described.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 31, 2008
    Date of Patent: June 19, 2012
    Assignee: Battelle Memorial Institute
    Inventors: Yong Wang, Chunshe Cao, Xiaohong Shari Li, Douglas C. Elliott
  • Patent number: 8202916
    Abstract: An apparatus and method of producing methanol includes reacting a heated hydrocarbon-containing gas and an oxygen-containing gas in a reactor; and adding a relatively cold hydrocarbon-containing gas, to be mixed directly with a mixture of the heated hydrocarbon-containing gas and the oxygen-containing gas, after formaldehyde is formed to inhibit decomposition of formaldehyde in the reactor, to provide a product stream comprising methanol and formaldehyde; and transferring heat from the product stream to the hydrocarbon-containing gas to heat the hydrocarbon containing gas.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 27, 2005
    Date of Patent: June 19, 2012
    Assignee: Gas Technologies LLC
    Inventors: Nathan A. Pawlak, Vladimir I. Vedeneev, Alexander L. Tots
  • Patent number: 8168143
    Abstract: A process and system for producing hydrocarbon compounds or fuels that recycle products of hydrocarbon compound combustion—carbon dioxide or carbon monoxide, or both, and water. The energy for recycling is electricity derived from preferably not fossil based fuels, like from nuclear fuels or from renewable energy. The process comprises electrolysing water, and then using hydrogen to reduce externally supplied carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide, then using so produced carbon monoxide together with any externally supplied carbon monoxide and hydrogen in Fischer-Tropsch reactors, with upstream upgrading to desired specification fuels—for example, gasoline, jet fuel, kerosene, diesel fuel, and others. Energy released in some of these processes is used by other processes. Using adiabatic temperature changes and isothermal pressure changes for gas processing and separation, large amounts of required energy are internally recycled using electric and heat distribution lines.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 3, 2010
    Date of Patent: May 1, 2012
    Inventor: Alexander J. Severinsky
  • Patent number: 8123827
    Abstract: The present invention provides processes for making syngas-derived products. For example, one aspect of the present invention provides a process for making a syngas-derived product, the process comprising (a) providing a carbonaceous feedstock; (b) converting the carbonaceous feedstock in a syngas formation zone at least in part to a synthesis gas stream comprising hydrogen and carbon monoxide; (c) conveying the synthesis gas stream to a syngas reaction zone; (d) reacting the synthesis gas stream in the syngas reaction zone to form the syngas-derived product and heat energy, a combustible tail gas mixture, or both; (e) recovering the syngas-derived product; and (f) recovering the heat energy formed from the reaction of the synthesis gas stream, burning the combustible tail gas mixture to form heat energy, or both.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 23, 2008
    Date of Patent: February 28, 2012
    Assignee: Greatpoint Energy, Inc.
    Inventor: Earl T. Robinson
  • Patent number: 8075856
    Abstract: The present invention is a multiple reaction set for the production of chemicals by equilibrium limited reactions utilizing plate-type or extended surface heat exchangers. The heat exchangers effectively cool the reaction products in order to condense the methanol contained within the reaction products for separation, and also to warm incoming feed reactants prior to entrance of the reactants into a reactor utilized for the production of methanol. The various reactors, heat exchangers, and separators can be formed as separated zones within the enclosed vessels, thereby eliminating the need for separately constructed reactors, heat exchangers, and separators. Multi-stream plate-type of extended surface heat exchangers can be utilized to allow efficient cooling and methanol separation.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 22, 2006
    Date of Patent: December 13, 2011
    Inventors: James Andrew Banister, Anthony Matthew Johnston, Brian S. Haynes
  • Publication number: 20110245356
    Abstract: A bubble column reactor includes a reactor body which contains a slurry having solid catalyst particles suspended in a liquid, an inflow port which is provided at the bottom of the reactor body and allows a synthesis gas including a carbon monoxide gas and a hydrogen gas as the main components to flow into the slurry therethrough, and an outflow port which is provided at the top of the reactor body and allows gaseous hydrocarbons synthesized by a chemical reaction between the synthesis gas and the slurry, an unreacted synthesis gas, and the like to flow out therethrough. The distance in a vertical direction between the liquid surface of the slurry and the outflow port is 1.4 m or more and 10 m or less.
    Type: Application
    Filed: September 25, 2009
    Publication date: October 6, 2011
    Inventors: Yasuhiro Onishi, Yuzuru Kato, Eiichi Yamada, Atsushi Murata, Osamu Wakamura
  • Publication number: 20110160314
    Abstract: The invention relates to a reactor for carrying out an exothermic process comprising a reactor shell, inlets for introducing reactants and coolant into the reactor shell, outlets for removing product and coolant from the reactor shell, at least two reactor tubes, a coolant chamber, and a gas distribution system below the coolant chamber, whereby at least two reactor tubes extend through the coolant chamber to enable fluid communication between the space below the coolant chamber and the space above the coolant chamber, said reactor comprising one or more highly porous catalysts, said catalyst(s) having a size of at least 1 mm and comprising a porous body and a catalyst material, whereby the porous body has a porosity within the range of between 50 and 98 volume %.
    Type: Application
    Filed: December 15, 2010
    Publication date: June 30, 2011
    Inventor: Franciscus Johannes Maria SCHRAUWEN
  • Patent number: 7935734
    Abstract: The disclosed technology relates to a process for conducting a chemical reaction between at least one liquid reactant and at least one gaseous reactant in a process microchannel containing at least one catalyst, the catalyst comprising a solid phase catalyst or a homogeneous catalyst immobilized on a solid. In one embodiment, the process microchannel comprises a processing zone containing one or more structures for disrupting fluid flow and a reaction zone containing one or more structures for contacting and/or supporting the catalyst, the one or more structures for contacting and/or supporting the catalyst containing openings to permit the reactants to flow through the one or more structures and contact the catalyst.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 30, 2006
    Date of Patent: May 3, 2011
    Inventors: Anna Lee Tonkovich, Kai Tod Paul Jarosch, Timothy J. Sullivan, Terry Mazanec, Sean Patrick Fitzgerald, Maddalena Fanelli
  • Publication number: 20110046245
    Abstract: A catalytic reaction module (10) for performing an endothermic reaction such as steam methane reforming, includes separate reactor blocks (12), each reactor block defining a multiplicity of first and second flow channels (15, 16) arranged alternately within the block to ensure thermal contact between the first and second flow channels. The reactor blocks (12a, 12b) may be arranged and connected for series flow of a combustible gas mixture in the first flow channels (15) and also of a gas mixture to undergo the endothermic reaction in the second flow channels (16). This enables the combustion process to be carried out in stages, with the option of cooling the combustion gases between stages, and introducing additional fuel and additional air.
    Type: Application
    Filed: February 10, 2009
    Publication date: February 24, 2011
    Applicant: CompactGTL plc
    Inventors: Michael Joseph Bowe, Clive Derek Lee-Tuffnell, Robert Peat
  • Publication number: 20110039956
    Abstract: The invention is related to the preparation of low-tar syngas from organic wastes and optionally to the preparation of methanol from the syngas or from the separated carbon dioxide. The process is characterized by introducing the secondary raw material comprising preferably solid communal waste, sludge and/or biomass waste into a double-flow one-body generator, comprising an inner pyrolysing, oxidizing and reducing zone and converting the obtained pyrolysis coke, pyrolysis water and tar formed by the aid of the heat content of the gas flowing upwards in the outer gas space by blowing oxygen into the fix-bed, to a raw syngas comprising carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and hydrogen, on the fix bed of the pyrolysis coke and optionally a liquid containing liquid hydrocarbons or a powder of high carbon content are added in order to control the temperature and hydrohalides are removed from the obtained raw syngas on a calcium carbonate bed at 200-700° C.
    Type: Application
    Filed: April 2, 2009
    Publication date: February 17, 2011
    Inventors: Iván Raisz, István Barta
  • Publication number: 20100324158
    Abstract: A reactor module for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis having a generally rectangular reactor block with a stack of plates defining flow channels for coolant and flow channels for the synthesis reaction arranged alternately in the block. The synthesis flow channels extend in a generally vertical direction between upper and lower faces of the reactor block and are defined by plates in combination with either bars or sheets such that each channel is of width no more than 200 mm. The coolant flow channels are oriented in the same direction, and communicate through distributor chambers with inlet and outlet ports at side faces of the reactor block. A plant may contain a multiplicity of such reactor modules operating in parallel, the modules being interchangeable and replaceable. The temperature control is enhanced by allowing the coolant flow to be parallel to the synthesis gas flow.
    Type: Application
    Filed: September 24, 2008
    Publication date: December 23, 2010
    Inventors: Michael Joseph Bowe, Clive Derek Lee-Tuffnell
  • Patent number: 7846417
    Abstract: An ammonia converter and method are disclosed. The reactor can alter the conversion of ammonia by controlling the reaction temperature of the exothermic reaction along the length of the reactor to parallel the equilibrium curve for the desired product. The reactor 100 can comprise a shell 101 and internal catalyst tubes 109. The feed gas stream enters the reactor, flows through the shell 101, and is heated by indirect heat exchange with the catalyst tubes 109. The catalyst tubes 109 comprise reactive zones 122 having catalyst and reaction limited zones 124 that can comprise inert devices that function to both separate the reactive zones, increase heat transfer area, and reduce the temperature of the reaction mixture as the effluent passes through the catalyst tube 109.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 31, 2007
    Date of Patent: December 7, 2010
    Assignee: Kellogg Brown & Root LLC
    Inventors: Shashi P. Singh, David P. Mann, Anant Pisut
  • Publication number: 20100305222
    Abstract: Improved design of a catalytic method and reactor for the production of methanol at equilibrium conditions whereby methanol as it is formed is separated from the gaseous phase into the liquid phase within the reactor without reducing the catalytic activity of the methanol catalyst. This is achieved by adjusting the boiling point or temperature of a liquid cooling agent being in indirect contact with the catalyst particles and by providing a specific ratio of catalyst bed volume to cooling surface area. Thereby, condensation of methanol as it is formed in the gaseous phase takes place for the most at the cooling surface arranged evenly distributed within the reactor and if at all within a very limited region of the catalyst bed.
    Type: Application
    Filed: February 12, 2009
    Publication date: December 2, 2010
    Inventor: Max Thorhauge
  • Publication number: 20100280137
    Abstract: The invention relates to a method and apparatus for producing synthesis gas (7) from biomass (2). The method comprises a step for producing raw product gas (3), and a purifying step comprising several processing steps performed in gas processing means (10, 12, 13, 14) for converting the raw product gas (3) to synthesis gas (7). One processing step is a carbon dioxide removal step for separating carbon dioxide from the stream of raw product gas (3) in a gas processing means comprising a gas purificator (10). The method comprises a step for feeding a stream of the carbon dioxide (9) from the gas purificator (10) to at least one part of the apparatus, said at least one part of the apparatus being selected from: the biomass supply system (4), the gasifier (6) and at least one of the gas processing means (10, 12, 13, 14).
    Type: Application
    Filed: July 18, 2008
    Publication date: November 4, 2010
    Applicant: UPMKYMMENE CORPORATION
    Inventors: Petri Kukkonen, Pekka Knuuttila, Pekka Jokela
  • Publication number: 20100280136
    Abstract: A process for carrying out at least two unit operations in series, the process comprising the step of: (a) directing a feed stream into an integrated assembly which comprises a first microchannel unit operation upon at least one chemical of the feed stream to generate a distributed output stream that exits the first microchannel unit operation in a first set of discrete microchannels isolating flow through the discrete microchannels; and (b) directing the distributed output stream of the first microchannel unit operation into a second microchannel unit operation as a distributed input stream, to continue isolating flow between the first set of discrete microchannels, and conducting at least one operation upon at least one chemical of the input stream to generate a product stream that exits the second microchannel unit operation, where the first microchannel unit operation and the second unit operation share a housing.
    Type: Application
    Filed: September 5, 2007
    Publication date: November 4, 2010
    Inventors: Anna Lee Y. Tonkovich, Robert D. Litt, Timothy M. Werner, Bin Yang
  • Publication number: 20100273900
    Abstract: A hydrocarbon synthesis process (10) includes feeding gaseous reactants (18) into a slurry bed (14), allowing the gaseous reactants (18) to react catalytically, thereby to form liquid and gaseous hydrocarbon products, and subjecting a product mixture comprising liquid product and catalyst particles in a filtration stage to filtration, by passing the liquid product through a filtering medium (30) to separate catalyst particles from the liquid product. The gaseous products are withdrawn (23) and cooled to form a multi-phase product which is separated to produce at least a hydrocarbon condensate stream (88) and a tail-gas stream (84). At least a portion of the hydrocarbon condensate stream (88) is treated (96) to remove oxygenated components therefrom, producing a backflush condensate. From time to time, the filtering medium (30) of the filtration stage is backflushed by passing the backflush condensate through the filtering medium (30).
    Type: Application
    Filed: August 22, 2008
    Publication date: October 28, 2010
    Applicant: SASOL TECHNOLOGY (PROPRIETARY) LIMITED
    Inventors: Paul Jacobson, Philip Alex Vogel
  • Publication number: 20100240780
    Abstract: A method of converting synthesis gas into Fischer-Tropsch products comprises: (a) charging synthesis gas to a reactor comprising a shell, having an inlet nozzle near one end for receiving synthesis gas and an outlet nozzle near the opposite end for discharging products, with a plurality of heat transfer tubes inside the shell, having associated therewith means to pass heat transfer fluids through the inside of said heat transfer tubes to remove heat, and whereby the outside surfaces of said tubes have a layer of Fischer-Tropsch catalyst, (b) converting exothermically on said catalyst layer at least a portion of said synthesis gas to produce heat and Fischer-Tropsch products, (c) removing heat from said catalyst layer by passage of a heat transfer fluid through the inside of said tubes, and (d) recovering Fischer-Tropsch products from said reactor.
    Type: Application
    Filed: March 21, 2010
    Publication date: September 23, 2010
    Inventor: Thomas Charles Holcombe
  • Patent number: 7786180
    Abstract: A process for synthesising methanol comprises the steps of: (i) reforming a hydrocarbon feedstock and separating water to generate a make-up gas comprising hydrogen and carbon oxides, the make-up gas mixture having a stoichiometric number, R, R=([H2]?[CO2])/([CO2]+[CO]) of less than 2.0, (ii) combining the make up gas with an unreacted synthesis gas to form a synthesis gas mixture, (iii) passing the synthesis gas through a bed of methanol synthesis catalyst to generate a product stream, (iv) cooling the product stream to recover a crude methanol stream from the unreacted synthesis gas, (v) removing a portion of the unreacted synthesis gas as a purge gas, and (vi) feeding the remaining unreacted synthesis gas to step (ii), wherein hydrogen is recovered from a portion of the purge gas and the make up gas, and the recovered hydrogen is included in the synthesis gas mixture.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 9, 2006
    Date of Patent: August 31, 2010
    Assignee: Johnson Matthey PLC
    Inventor: Terence James Fitzpatrick
  • Publication number: 20100184874
    Abstract: The present invention pertains to a Process for carrying out a high-speed stop in a Fischer-Tropsch process which comprises providing a feed comprising CO and H2 to the inlet section of a fixed bed reactor comprising a Fischer-Tropsch catalyst, the reactor being at reaction temperature and pressure, and withdrawing an effluent from the outlet section of the reactor, wherein the high-speed stop is effected by blocking provision of the CO and H2 to the reactor, and withdrawing gaseous reactor content from the reactor, the gaseous reactor content being withdrawn at least in part from the inlet section of the reactor.
    Type: Application
    Filed: December 15, 2009
    Publication date: July 22, 2010
    Inventors: Arend HOEK, Thomas Joris REMANS