Plural Blowing Agents For Producing Nonpolyurethane Cellular Products Patents (Class 521/910)
  • Patent number: 7705056
    Abstract: A cannister-based, high solids, low and non-VOC aerosol adhesive and canister based system. The aerosol adhesive typically includes a high solids polymeric base, a hexane or cyclohexane and acetone solvent mixture and a compressed gas dissolved within the solvent. The compressed gas typically includes carbon dioxide, nitrogen, nitrous oxide and air. The aerosol adhesive is adapted to be filled into a cannister including a hose connected to the canister and a spray gun connected to the hose. The system typically includes high solids with a high viscosity. Thus the canister typically maintains high pressures up to 350 psi, but typically at 260 psi while maintaining 325 psi at 130° F., to deliver effective spray patterns.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 2, 2004
    Date of Patent: April 27, 2010
    Assignee: Westech Aerosol Corp.
    Inventor: David W. Carnahan
  • Patent number: 7597818
    Abstract: Mixtures of tetrafluoropropenes with bromofluoropropenes provide compositions that have boiling points within an acceptable range, have good chemical stability, low GWP and are essentially non-flammable.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 27, 2007
    Date of Patent: October 6, 2009
    Assignee: Honeywell International Inc.
    Inventors: Rajiv R Singh, David P Wilson, Ian Shankland, Hang T Pham
  • Patent number: 6960619
    Abstract: Acrylic composition for use in variety of indoor or outdoor sealing applications, where it is required to seal, to fill or to repair cracks, joints, gaps etc. in concrete, masonry, stone, wood or other constructional materials. The composition comprises acrylic based reactionable oligomers and it can be foamed and then polymerized while producing foam with structure suitable for sealing.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 6, 2003
    Date of Patent: November 1, 2005
    Assignee: Acryfoam Ltd.
    Inventors: Oleg Figovsky, Leonid Shapovalov, Raisa Potashnikov, Yury Tzaid, J. Bordado, David Letnik, Aster De Schijuer
  • Patent number: 6902693
    Abstract: Open celled membranes from thermoplastic polymers are prepared from foamed polymer melts by extrusion through a die.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 22, 2002
    Date of Patent: June 7, 2005
    Assignee: Sartorius AG
    Inventor: Rebecca Klötzer
  • Patent number: 6696504
    Abstract: Production of extruded styrene resin foams which are excellent in environmental compatibility and retain highly efficient thermal insulation property and have appropriate strength properties is disclosed which is characterized by using as a blowing agent a blowing agent comprising mainly 40% by weight or more and 85% by weight or less, based on the whole amount of the blowing agent, of at least one ether selected from the group consisting of dimethyl ether, methyl ethyl ether and diethyl ether, and 15% by weight or more and 60% by weight or less, based on the whole amount of the blowing agent, of at least one saturated hydrocarbon selected from the group consisting of saturated hydrocarbons having 3 to 5 carbon atoms. The production is further characterized by providing a more desirable cell structure such as a specified shape of cells or the presence of larger and smaller cells.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 23, 1999
    Date of Patent: February 24, 2004
    Assignee: Kaneka Corporation
    Inventors: Takahiro Hayashi, Osamu Kobayashi, Jun Fukuzawa, Hiroshi Fujiwara
  • Patent number: 6545062
    Abstract: The invention relates to a process for the production of styrene polymers containing water as expanding agent by suspension polymerization of styrene in the presence of an emulsifying auxiliary, the suspending agent being a mixture of water and an organic liquid which is water-miscible and which is virtually a non-solvent for polystyrene and has a boiling point below 100° C.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 11, 2002
    Date of Patent: April 8, 2003
    Assignee: BASF Aktiengesellschaft
    Inventors: Dietrich Lausberg, Klaus Hahn
  • Patent number: 6423757
    Abstract: The invention discloses novel azeotrope-like mixtures of fluorinated compounds which are useful for heating and cooling as heat transfer agents and/or refrigerants. The azeotrope-like mixture comprises: (a) pentafluoropropane; and (b) a hydrofluorocarbon of the formula: CxFyHz, wherein x is 3, 4, 5, or 6 and y and z are each independently 1 or a positive whole number such that the result of y/(y+z) is greater than 0.67.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 31, 1998
    Date of Patent: July 23, 2002
    Assignee: Electric Power Research Institute, Inc.
    Inventors: David P. Wilson, Rajiv R. Singh, Rajat S. Basu, Ellen L. Swan, David Nalewajek
  • Patent number: 6350789
    Abstract: The present invention generally relates to methods for preparing extruded foam products and more particularly to a methods for producing such products with a blowing agent containing 134a and an alcohol.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 30, 2001
    Date of Patent: February 26, 2002
    Assignee: Owens Corning Fiberglas Technology, Inc.
    Inventors: Larry Michael Miller, Raymond Marshall Breindel, Mitchell Zane Weekley, Thomas Earl Cisar, Kerry Jerome Prince
  • Patent number: 6303667
    Abstract: A blowing agent composition includes a blowing agent consisting of liquified carbon dioxide and 1,1-difluoroethane, or a mixture consisting of liquid carbon dioxide and at least one other liquid or pressure-liquified component selected from the group consisting of ethers with a total of 2 to 4 carbon atoms; ketones with 3 to 5 carbon atoms; alcohols with 1 to 5 carbon atoms; aliphatic hydrocarbons selected from the group consisting of propane, butane, pentane, hexane, heptane; cyclic hydrocarbons with 3 to 12 carbon atoms; fluorohydrocarbons selected from the group consisting of trifluoromethane, 1,1,1-trifluoroethane, 1,1,2-trifluoroethane, 1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethane, 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane, 1,1,1,3,3-pentafluoropropane and 1,1,1,3,3-pentafluorobutane; phosphate esters and phosphonate esters containing three C1-C4-alkyl groups optionally substituted by one or more halogen atoms. The composition comprises 5 to 50% by weight of liquid carbon dioxide.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 2, 1997
    Date of Patent: October 16, 2001
    Assignee: Solvay Fluor und Derivate
    Inventor: Werner Kruecke
  • Patent number: 6245823
    Abstract: Method and composition for making an expanded polyethylene material by forming a foamable melt of polyethylene, a nucleating agent, a material which retards migration of alkanes, and a blowing agent which comprises 10 to 100 mole percent ethane. In one disclosed embodiment, the melt is passed through an annular extrusion die to form an elongated tube of extruded material which is then expanded, slit lengthwise and laid flat to form a sheet of the expanded material.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 20, 1995
    Date of Patent: June 12, 2001
    Assignee: Free-Flow Packaging International, Inc.
    Inventors: William D. McIntyre, Roderick R. Alire, Ronald N. Clazie
  • Patent number: 6225364
    Abstract: Disclosed is an extruded, dimensionally stable, closed cell alkenyl aromatic polymer foam. The foam comprises an alkenyl aromatic polymer material greater than 50 percent by weight of alkenyl aromatic monomeric units. The foam has a density of about 16 to about 64 kilograms per cubic meter. The foam has a thickness in cross section of 15 millimeters or more. The foam has a blowing agent composition comprising a primary blowing agent of about 70 to about 95 weight percent 1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethane and a secondary blowing agent comprising about 30 to about 5 weight percent based upon the total moles of the blowing agent composition. The secondary blowing agent being selected from the group consisting essentially of 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, argon, and water. Further disclosed is a process for making the foam.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 1, 2000
    Date of Patent: May 1, 2001
    Assignee: The Dow Chemical Company
    Inventors: Bharat I. Chaudhary, Kyung W. Suh, Andrew N. Paquet
  • Patent number: 6030696
    Abstract: An extruded polyolefin foam in thicknesses of at least about 12 mm and greater of improved compressive strength, extensional viscosity, and reduced aging time and a process for making the foam are disclosed. The foam is prepared using a propane blowing agent. The beneficial properties imparted to thicker grade and plank foams by a propane blowing agent can be achieved with up to as much as 75% by volume of either normal butane or isobutane or both in the blowing agent, depending on the polyolefin selected.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 30, 1997
    Date of Patent: February 29, 2000
    Assignee: Sealed Air Corporation
    Inventor: Shau-Tarng Lee
  • Patent number: 6013689
    Abstract: Provided is a foamable, phenolic resin composition adapted to form a closed-cell phenolic resin foam under substantially atmospheric pressure. The foamable, phenolic resin composition is formulated from a resol resin, a blowing agent, and a bond strength enhancing agent and/or a phenolic resin nucleating agent. The present invention also relates to a method of forming a closed-cell, phenolic resin foam and a closed-cell phenolic resin foam.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 1, 1998
    Date of Patent: January 11, 2000
    Assignee: Jiffy Foam, Inc.
    Inventor: Samuel L. Rader
  • Patent number: 5840212
    Abstract: Rigid foams having improved insulation properties are made by reacting a polyisocyanate with an isocyanate-reactive material in the presence of a blowing agent mixture composed of from about 1 to about 30% by weight of at least one C.sub.2 -C.sub.5 polyfluoroalkane and from about 70 to about 99% by weight of an HCFC, preferably an HCFC selected from chlorodifluoromethane, 1,1-dichloro-1-fluoroethane, 1-chloro-1,1-difluoroethane and mixtures thereof.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 23, 1996
    Date of Patent: November 24, 1998
    Assignee: Bayer Corporation
    Inventor: Herman P. Doerge
  • Patent number: 5800729
    Abstract: The invention discloses novel azeotrope-like mixtures of fluorinated compounds which are useful for heating and cooling as heat transfer agents and/or refrigerants. The azeotrope-like mixture comprises: (a) pentafluoropropane; and (b) a hydrofluorocarbon of the formula: C.sub.x F.sub.y H.sub.z, wherein x is 3, 4, 5, or 6 and y and z are each independently 1 or a positive whole number such that the result of y/(y+z) is greater than 0.67.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 25, 1996
    Date of Patent: September 1, 1998
    Assignee: Electric Power Research
    Inventors: David P. Wilson, Rajiv R. Singh, Rajat S. Basu, Ellen L. Swan, David Nalewajek
  • Patent number: 5762818
    Abstract: Compositions are disclosed which include 1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethane and a propane, tris(trifluoromethyl)amine, trifluoromethylsulfur pentafluoride or fluoroethane. The term propane includes compounds of the formula C.sub.3 F.sub.a H.sub.8-a wherein 0.ltoreq.a.ltoreq.8 as well as cyclic compounds of the formula C.sub.3 F.sub.b H.sub.6-b wherein 0.ltoreq.b.ltoreq.6. These compositions are useful as refrigerants, cleaning agents, expansion agents for polyolefins and polyurethanes, aerosol propellants, heat transfer media, gaseous dielectrics, fire extinguishing agents, power cycle working fluids, polymerization media, particulate removal fluids, carrier fluids, buffing abrasive agents, and displacement drying agents.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 23, 1997
    Date of Patent: June 9, 1998
    Assignee: E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company
    Inventors: Barbara Haviland Minor, Donna Marie Patron, Diana Lynn Klug, Brooks Shawn Lunger
  • Patent number: 5762817
    Abstract: Azeotropic or azeotrope-like compositions of effective amounts of 1,1,1,2,3,4,4,5,5,5-decafluoropentane, 1,1-dichloroethane and an alcohol such as methanol, ethanol, or isopropanol, to form an azeotropic or azeotrope-like composition are disclosed that are useful as cleaning agents, refrigerants, aerosol propellants, heat transfer media, gaseous dielectrics, fire extinguishing agents, expansion agents for polyolefins and polyurethanes and as power cycle working fluids.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 24, 1997
    Date of Patent: June 9, 1998
    Assignee: E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company
    Inventors: Abid Nazarali Merchant, Barbara Haviland Minor
  • Patent number: 5733472
    Abstract: Compositions are disclosed which include 1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethane and a propane, tris(trifluoromethyl)amine, trifluoromethylsulfur pentafluoride or fluoroethane. The term propane includes compounds of the formula C.sub.3 F.sub.a H.sub.8-a wherein 0.ltoreq.a.ltoreq.8 as well as cyclic compounds of the formula C.sub.3 F.sub.b H.sub.6-b wherein 0.ltoreq.b.ltoreq.6. These compositions are useful as refrigerants, cleaning agents, expansion agents for polyolefins and polyurethanes, aerosol propellants, heat transfer media, gaseous dielectrics, fire extinguishing agents, power cycle working fluids, polymerization media, particulate removal fluids, carrier fluids, buffing abrasive agents, and displacement drying agents.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 12, 1996
    Date of Patent: March 31, 1998
    Assignee: E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company
    Inventors: Barbara Haviland Minor, Donna Marie Patron, Diana Lynn Klug, Brooks Shawn Lunger
  • Patent number: 5730894
    Abstract: Compositions of 1,1,2,2,3,3,4,4-octafluorobutane and a compound of the formula selected from the group consisting of a 4-6 carbon linear or a cyclic hydrofluorocarbon or fluorocarbon, a 3-5 carbon fluoroether, a fluorinated alcohol, perfluoro-n-methylmorpholine; and an ether are disclosed.These compositions, which may be azeotropic or azeotrope-like, may be used as refrigerants, in small turbine high speed compressors. They may also be used as refrigerants, cleaning agents, expansion agents for polyolefins and polyurethanes, aerosol propellants, heat transfer media, gaseous dielectrics, fire extinguishing agents, power cycle working fluids, polymerization media, particulate removal fluids, carrier fluids, buffing abrasive agents, displacement drying agents or as an anesthetic.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 16, 1996
    Date of Patent: March 24, 1998
    Assignee: E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company
    Inventor: Barbara Haviland Minor
  • Patent number: 5728315
    Abstract: Azeotrope-like compositions of trifluoromethane, carbon dioxide, ethane, and hexafluoroethane are provided. The compositions of the invention are environmentally desirable for use as refrigerants, aerosol propellants, blowing agents for polymer foam, heat transfer media, and gaseous dielectrics.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 1, 1996
    Date of Patent: March 17, 1998
    Assignee: AlliedSignal Inc.
    Inventors: Rajiv Ratna Singh, Ian Robert Shankland, Roy Phillip Robinson, Hang Thanh Pham, Raymond Hilton Percival Thomas, Peter Brian Logsdon
  • Patent number: 5723509
    Abstract: Azeotropic compositions made up of from about 68.1 to about 69.1% by weight of dimethoxymethane, from about 29.7 to about 30.7% by weight of cyclopentane and from about 0.7 to about 1.7% by weight in which the sum of the weight percents of the components is 100% by weight. These azeotrope-like compositions are useful as blowing agents in the production of polyurethane foams.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 23, 1996
    Date of Patent: March 3, 1998
    Assignee: Bayer Corporation
    Inventors: Joachim Werner, Scott A. Kane, Herman P. Doerge, Eric F. Boonstra, Charles E. Mortimer
  • Patent number: 5667728
    Abstract: An expandable thermoplastic composition is disclosed for extrusion foaming wherein the composition comprises a polyethylene resin and a blowing agent comprising ethane present in an amount of at least about 40 percent or more by weight based upon the total weight of the blowing agent and a different alkane selected from the group consisting of C.sub.1, C.sub.2, C.sub.3, C.sub.4, C.sub.5, and C.sub.6 alkanes and mixtures thereof, wherein the minimum percentage of ethane increases above 40 percent as the arithmetic mean carbon number of the different alkane increases from 3 to 5. A process for extrusion foaming of the composition is also disclosed.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 29, 1996
    Date of Patent: September 16, 1997
    Assignee: Sealed Air Corporation
    Inventor: Shau-Tarng Lee
  • Patent number: 5609954
    Abstract: A strippable pressure-sensitive adhesive and an adhesive material using the same are disclosed, adhesive comprising a highly elastic base polymer whose dynamic modulus of elasticity is in the range of from 250,000 to 10,000,000 dyne/cm.sup.2 at a temperature between ambient temperature and 150.degree. C. with a small rate of change with temperature, having incorporated therein a blowing agent, which adhesive reduces or loses its adhesiveness on expansion or blowing of blowing agent. The adhesive and adhesive material are easily re-applied, is capable of satisfactorily following the shape of an adherent during forming of the adherent, reduces its adhesiveness on heating, and is applicable to various adherents with excellent workability.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 17, 1995
    Date of Patent: March 11, 1997
    Assignee: Nitto Denko Corporation
    Inventors: Kaoru Aizawa, Michirou Kawanishi
  • Patent number: 5605647
    Abstract: A new set of effective, environmentally safe, nonflammable, low-toxicity refrigerants, solvents, foam blowing agents, propellants, and firefighting agents is disclosed. The agents are clean, electrically nonconductive, and have short atmospheric lifetimes, zero ozone-depletion potential, and low global warming potentials. The agents comprise at least one fluoroiodocarbon agent satisfying the general formula C.sub.a H.sub.b Br.sub.c Cl.sub.d F.sub.e I.sub.f N.sub.g O.sub.h, wherein a is between and including 1 and 8; b is between and including 0 and 2; c, d, g, and h are each between and including 0 and 1; e is between and including 1 and 18; and f is between and including 1 and 2, either neat or mixed with additives selected from the group consisting of: alcohols, esters, ethers, fluoroethers, hydrocarbons, hydrofluorocarbons, and perfluorocarbons.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 30, 1994
    Date of Patent: February 25, 1997
    Assignee: Ikon Corporation
    Inventors: Jonathan S. Nimitz, Lance H. Lankford
  • Patent number: 5562861
    Abstract: A new set of effective, environmentally safe, nonflammable, low-toxicity refrigerants, solvents, foam blowing agents, propellants, and firefighting agents is disclosed. The agents are clean, electrically nonconductive, and have short atmospheric lifetimes, zero ozone-depletion potential, and low global warming potentials. The agents comprise at least one fluoroiodocarbon agent satisfying the general formula C.sub.a H.sub.b Br.sub.c Cl.sub.d F.sub.e I.sub.f N.sub.g O.sub.h, wherein a is between and including 1 and 8; b is between and including 0 and 2; c, d, g, and h are each between and including 0 and 1; e is between and including 1 and 18; and f is between and including 1 and 2, either neat or mixed with additives selected from the group consisting of: alcohols, esters, ethers, fluoroethers, hydrocarbons, hydrofluorocarbons, and perfluorocarbons.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 31, 1995
    Date of Patent: October 8, 1996
    Assignee: IKON Corporation
    Inventors: Jonathan S. Nimitz, Lance H. Lankford
  • Patent number: 5562857
    Abstract: Azeotropic compositions made up of from about 65 to about 81% by weight of 1,1,1,3,3-pentafluoropropane and from about 19 to about 35% by weight of 2-methyl butane have been found to be particularly useful as blowing agents for the production of polyurethane foams.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 22, 1995
    Date of Patent: October 8, 1996
    Assignee: Bayer Corporation
    Inventors: Joachim Werner, Scott A. Kane, Charles E. Mortimer, Herman P. Doerge, Eric F. Boonstra
  • Patent number: 5475037
    Abstract: A low density foam having a density less than 15 pounds per cubic foot (240 kg/m.sup.3) is formed from an amorphous polyethylene terephthalate polymer. An expandable resin composition is also disclosed, comprising an amorphous polyethylene terephthalate polymer and a blowing agent mixture comprising a low permeability blowing agent and a high solubility blowing agent. Unexpanded and partially expanded foam particles, impregnated with the blowing agent mixture are disclosed. Numerous methods are disclosed for producing lightweight foams from amorphous polyethylene terephthalate polymers. One such method utilizes an Accumulating Extrusion Expansion System which avoids problems experienced with the prior art when attempting to extrusion expand polyesters.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 1, 1994
    Date of Patent: December 12, 1995
    Assignee: The Dow Chemical Company
    Inventors: Chung P. Park, Gerald A. Garcia, Roby G. Watson
  • Patent number: 5462974
    Abstract: An expandable thermoplastic composition is disclosed for extrusion foaming wherein the composition comprises a polyethylene resin; a blowing agent, which is either ethane or a blend of carbon dioxide and either normal butane, isobutane, propane, ethane, or a mixture of any two or more of these hydrocarbons in admixture with the resin in a ratio of about one part blowing agent to about 10 parts resin; nucleation agent in an amount of from about 0.05 to 0.5 kg per 100 kg of the resin; and glycerol monostearate aging modifier in an amount of from about 0.5 to 5 kg per 100 kg of the resin. A process for extrusion foaming of the composition is also disclosed.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 19, 1994
    Date of Patent: October 31, 1995
    Assignee: Sealed Air Corporation
    Inventor: Shau-Tarng Lee
  • Patent number: 5453454
    Abstract: Process for the production of foam boards having a minimum thickness of 20 mm and a cross-sectional area of at least 50 cm.sup.2 by extruding a mixture of the styrene polymer, from 1 to 10% by weight, based on the styrene polymer, of a blowing agent, wherein the blowing agent contains at least one ether from the group consisting of dimethyl ether, methyl ethyl ether and methyl vinyl ether.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 22, 1994
    Date of Patent: September 26, 1995
    Assignee: BASF Aktiengesellschaft
    Inventors: Gerhard Alicke, Manfred Weilbacher, Bernardo Wolff, Hartmut Heinen, Franz-Josef Dietzen, Reinhold Weber, Manfred Hahn
  • Patent number: 5444102
    Abstract: A new set of effective, environmentally safe, nonflammable, low-toxicity refrigerants, solvents, foam blowing agents, propellants, and firefighting agents is disclosed. The agents are clean, electrically nonconductive, and have short atmospheric lifetimes, zero ozone-depletion potential, and low global warming potentials. The agents comprise at least one fluoroiodocarbon agent satisfying the general formula C.sub.a H.sub.b Br.sub.c Cl.sub.d F.sub.e I.sub.f N.sub.g O.sub.h, wherein a is between and including 1 and 8; b is between and including 0 and 2; c, d, g, and h are each between and including 0 and 1; e is between and including 1 and 18; and f is between and including 1 and 2, either neat or mixed with additives selected from the group consisting of: alcohols, esters, ethers, fluoroethers, hydrocarbons, hydrofluorocarbons, and perfluorocarbons.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 30, 1994
    Date of Patent: August 22, 1995
    Assignee: Ikon Corporation
    Inventors: Joathan S. Nimitz, Lance H. Lankford
  • Patent number: 5409962
    Abstract: Substantially constant boiling blowing agent compositions of 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane and dimethyl ether.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 16, 1991
    Date of Patent: April 25, 1995
    Assignee: E. I. Du Pont de Nemours and Company
    Inventors: Philip L. Bartlett, Joseph A. Creazzo
  • Patent number: 5405883
    Abstract: Disclosed is an ethylene polymer foam structure having enhanced processing and physical properties. The foam structure comprises an ethylenic polymer material and a blowing agent of isobutane and 1,1-difluoroethane. Further disclosed is a process for making the foam structure.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 2, 1994
    Date of Patent: April 11, 1995
    Assignee: The Dow Chemical Company
    Inventor: Chung P. Park
  • Patent number: 5399592
    Abstract: Disclosed is an ethylene polymer foam structure having enhanced processing and physical properties. The foam structure comprises an ethylenic polymer material and a blowing agent. The blowing agent has a primary blowing agent of isobutane and a secondary blowing agent of 1,1,1-trifluoroethane, 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane, or a blend of them. Further disclosed is a process for making the foam structure.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 2, 1994
    Date of Patent: March 21, 1995
    Assignee: The Dow Chemical Company
    Inventor: Chung P. Park
  • Patent number: 5389694
    Abstract: Disclosed is a foamable styrenic polymer gel capable of forming a closed-cell foam structure, comprising: a) a flowable melt of a styrenic polymer material comprising greater than 50 percent by weight styrenic monomeric units and about 0.1 to about 40 percent by weight of oxygen-containing monomeric units based upon the total weight of the styrenic polymer material; and b) a blowing agent comprising about 5 weight percent or more carbon dioxide based upon the total weight of the blowing agent. Further disclosed is a process for making the foam structure. The oxygen-containing comonomer content in the styrenic polymer material enables process operating pressures to be significantly reduced when using carbon dioxide as a blowing agent compared to a styrenic polymer material without comonomer content. The foam structure formed is of low density and of good quality.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 4, 1993
    Date of Patent: February 14, 1995
    Assignee: The Dow Chemical Company
    Inventors: Chau V. Vo, Andrew N. Paquet
  • Patent number: 5380767
    Abstract: Disclosed is a foamable styrenic polymer gel containing an aqueous blowing agent capable of forming a closed-cell, unimodal foam structure. The gel composes in admixture the flowable melt of a polymer composition having greater than 50 percent by weight of a styrenic polymer and a blowing agent having about 1 percent or more by weight water based upon the total weight of the blowing agent. The styrenic polymer has a degree of water solubility sufficient to ensure formation of a unimodal foam structure instead of a bimodal foam structure. The unimodal cell size distribution provides desirable fabricability and machinability characteristics for the foam structure.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 23, 1992
    Date of Patent: January 10, 1995
    Assignee: The Dow Chemical Company
    Inventors: Kyung W. Suh, Andrew N. Paquet
  • Patent number: 5348984
    Abstract: An expandable thermoplastic composition is disclosed for extrusion foaming wherein the composition comprises a polyethylene resin; a blowing agent comprising a blend of about 50% by weight of carbon dioxide and about 50% by weight of either normal butane, isobutane, propane, or a mixture of any two or all three hydrocarbons in admixture with the resin in a ratio of about one part blowing agent to about 10 parts resin; zinc oxide nucleation agent in an amount of from about 0.05 to 0.5 kg per 100 kg of the resin; and glycerol monostearate aging modifier in an amount of from about 0.5 to 5 kg per 100 kg of the resin. A process for extrusion foaming of the composition is also disclosed.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 28, 1993
    Date of Patent: September 20, 1994
    Assignee: Sealed Air Corporation
    Inventor: Shau-Tarng Lee
  • Patent number: 5314926
    Abstract: Blowing agents for use in foamable plastics such as polystyrene, polyvinyl chloride, polyethylene and other non-polyisocyanate-based foams, comprising a mixture of 1,1,1,2,3,3,3-heptafluoropropane in combination with one or more hydrocarbons or partially halogenated alkanes. In one aspect of the invention the hydrocarbon adjuvant is selected from the group consisting of propane, butane, isobutane, n-pentane, i-pentane, neopentane, n-hexane, 2-methylpentane, 3-methylpentane and 2,2-dimethylbutane.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 4, 1993
    Date of Patent: May 24, 1994
    Assignee: Great Lakes Chemical Corporation
    Inventors: Mark L. Robin, Yuichi Iikubo, W. Douglas Register, Richard S. Rose
  • Patent number: 5300534
    Abstract: A process for the production of plastic foams, preferably rigid foams containing urethane groups or urethane and isocyanurate groups, by reactinga) an organic and/or modified organic polyisocyanate withb) at least one relatively high-molecular-weight compound containing at least two reactive hydrogen atoms, and, if desired,c) a low-molecular-weight chain extender and/or cross-linking agent,in the presence ofd) a blowing agent,e) a catalyst and, if desired,f) assistants and/or additives,in which the blowing agent (d) used is at least one vinylfluoroalkane of the formula CH.sub.2 .dbd.CH--C.sub.n F.sub.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 8, 1992
    Date of Patent: April 5, 1994
    Assignee: BASF Aktiengesellschaft
    Inventors: Otto Volkert, Corinne A. Meynard
  • Patent number: 5296516
    Abstract: Use of a ternary blowing agent mixture containing water, HCFC-22, and either or both of methylene chloride or 1,1,1-trichloroethane allows the preparation of rigid urethane and polyisocyanurate foams displaying good dimensional stability and low aged k-factors.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 9, 1992
    Date of Patent: March 22, 1994
    Assignee: BASF Corporation
    Inventors: David C. Krueger, Curtis J. Reichel
  • Patent number: 5294358
    Abstract: A composition including from 40 to 55 mol % of 1,1,1,,2-tetrafluoroethane and from 45 to 60 mol % of methyl chloride; and a composition including from 68 to 75 mol % of 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane and from 25 to 32 mol % of methyl chloride. These compositions are useful as porogenic agents for polystyrene, as refrigerating fluids, and as blowing agents for polyurethane and polyolefin foams.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 30, 1991
    Date of Patent: March 15, 1994
    Assignee: Solvay (Societe Anonyme)
    Inventors: Paul Dantinne, Pierre Barthelemy, Dominique Balthasart
  • Patent number: 5286757
    Abstract: Disclosed is a process for making extruded, closed-cell alkenyl aromatic polymer foam structure having an average cell size of from about 0.3 to about 3.0 millimeters. The process comprises: a) heating an alkenyl aromatic polymer material having greater than 50 percent by weight alkenyl aromatic monomeric units to form a melt polymer material; b) incorporating into the melt polymer material at an elevated pressure a blowing agent comprising at least 50 percent by weight 1,1-difluoroethane (HFC-152a) based upon the total weight of the blowing agent to form a foamable gel; c) cooling the foamable gel to an optimum foaming temperature prior to extrusion through a die; and d) extruding the foamable gel through a die to form the foam structure. Further disclosed is a foamable gel capable of forming an alkenyl aromatic polymer foam structure having an average cell size of from about 0.3 to about 3.0 millimeters.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 24, 1993
    Date of Patent: February 15, 1994
    Assignee: The Dow Chemical Company
    Inventors: Roy E. Smith, Warren H. Griffin, Deborah L. Koesis, Dennis R. Lantz
  • Patent number: 5276063
    Abstract: Disclosed is a process for making extruded, closed-cell alkenyl aromatic polymer foam structure having an average cell size of from about 0.3 to about 3.0 millimeters. The process comprises: a) heating an alkenyl aromatic polymer material having greater than 50 percent by weight alkenyl aromatic monomeric units to form a melt polymer material; b) incorporating into the melt polymer material at an elevated pressure a blowing agent comprising at least 50 percent by weight 1,1-difluoroethane (HFC-152a) based upon the total weight of the blowing agent to form a foamable gel; c) cooling the foamable gel to an optimum foaming temperature prior to extrusion through a die; and d) extruding the foamable gel through a die to form the foam structure. Further disclosed is a foamable gel capable of forming an alkenyl aromatic polymer foam structure having an average cell size of from about 0.3 to about 3.0 millimeters.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 8, 1993
    Date of Patent: January 4, 1994
    Assignee: The Dow Chemical Company
    Inventors: Roy E. Smith, Warren H. Griffin, Deborah L. Kocsis, Dennis R. Lantz
  • Patent number: 5266251
    Abstract: Method for the manufacture of a heat insulating foamed plastic material by foaming of a plastic material or plastic precursor material by means of a blowing agent where a mixture of krypton and xenon is at least partially used as a blowing agent. When using a mixture of krypton and xenon as the blowing agent, the ecological damages, particularly to the ozone layer, caused by the conventional CFC gases are avoided while a good heat insulating capacity is obtained at the same time.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 20, 1992
    Date of Patent: November 30, 1993
    Assignee: Edulan A/S
    Inventor: Torben H. Jensen
  • Patent number: 5244927
    Abstract: Low density styrene polymer foams having highly desirable physical properties are prepared employing as a blowing agent a mixture of carbon dioxide, lower alcohol and water. The cell size can be effectively controlled by controlling the amount of water in the blowing agent mixture, i.e., small cell or large cell foams can be prepared. A process for preparing such foams is also disclosed.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 9, 1992
    Date of Patent: September 14, 1993
    Assignee: The Dow Chemical Company
    Inventors: Tomas I. Binder, Chau Van Vo, Deborah L. Kocsis
  • Patent number: 5244928
    Abstract: Disclosed is a process for making extruded, closed-cell alkenyl aromatic polymer foam structure having an average cell size of from about 0.3 to about 3.0 millimeters. The process comprises: a) heating an alkenyl aromatic polymer material having greater than 50 percent by weight alkenyl aromatic monomeric units to form a melt polymer material: b) incorporating into the melt polymer material at an elevated pressure a blowing agent comprising at least 50 percent by weight 1,1-difluoroethane (HFC-152a) based upon the total weight of the blowing agent to form a foamable gel: c) cooling the foamable gel to an optimum foaming temperature prior to extrusion through a die: and d) extruding the foamable gel through a die to form the foam structure. Further disclosed is a foamable gel capable of forming an alkenyl aromatic polymer foam structure having an average cell size of from about 0.3 to about 3.0 millimeters.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 7, 1992
    Date of Patent: September 14, 1993
    Assignee: The Dow Chemical Company
    Inventors: Roy E. Smith, Warren H. Griffin, Deborah L. Kocsis, Dennis R. Lantz
  • Patent number: 5221492
    Abstract: A binary azeotropic mixture of perfluoropropane or 1,1,1,2,3,3,3-heptafluoropropane and dimethyl ether.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 23, 1991
    Date of Patent: June 22, 1993
    Assignee: E. I. Du Pont de Nemours and Company
    Inventor: Philip L. Bartlett
  • Patent number: 5185094
    Abstract: Ternary mixtures of pentafluoroethane, difluoromethane and tetrafluoroethane are useful as refrigerants, aerosol propellants, heat transfer media, gaseous dielectrics, fire extinguishing agents, expansion agents for polyolefins and polyurethanes, and as power cycle working fluids.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 1, 1991
    Date of Patent: February 9, 1993
    Assignee: E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company
    Inventor: Mark B. Shiflett
  • Patent number: 5182040
    Abstract: The azeotropic and azeotrope-like compositions of 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane and one of 1,1-difluoroethane, 1-chloro-1,1,-difluoroethane, dimethyl ether, perfluorocyclobutane, n-butane, isobutane and 1,1,1,2,3,3,3-heptafluoropropane, and their use as refrigerants, aerosol propellants and blowing agents for polymer foams are disclosed. The azeotropic and azeotrope-like compositions of 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane and one of perfluorocyclobutane and 1,1,1,2,3,3,3-heptafluoropropane are also useful as fire extinguishants.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 28, 1991
    Date of Patent: January 26, 1993
    Assignee: E. I. Du Pont de Nemours and Company
    Inventors: Philip L. Bartlett, Donald B. Bivens, Brooks S. Lunger, Akimichi Yokozeki
  • Patent number: 5180753
    Abstract: Compositions and a process for manufacture are provided for synthetic polymer-propellant systems that form cohesive foamed structures from which aqueous solutions can be expressed, where the useful temperature range over which these structures form is broadened by using a propellant mixture consisting predominantly of a propellant that is a poor solvent for the polymer and has a vapor pressure in the range of 10-35 psig at 20 C in combination with a small amount of a propellant that is a good solvent for the polymer; and where these coherent foamed structures can be formed even with aqueous solutions containing 0 to about 30% alcohol, provided that insoluble fine-particle solids that do not pack and become difficult to redisperse are included in the composition.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 30, 1990
    Date of Patent: January 19, 1993
    Inventors: Lloyd I. Osipow, Dorothea C. Marra, J. George Spitzer
  • Patent number: RE34568
    Abstract: It is an object of the present invention to provide volatile foaming agent compositions for thermoplastic resins capable of producing a thermoplastic resin foam without any shinkage or expansion after foaming.A volatile foaming agent composition for thermoplastic resin according to the present invention comprises 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoro-ethane.As the permeability of 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoro-ethane in thermoplastic resins is smaller than that of the air, volatile foaming agent composition containing 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoro-ethane and other kind of volatile foaming agent having permeability higher than that of the air can be regulated to have the permeability similar to that of the air.Accordingly, the permeating speed of volatile foaming agent from the inside of foam cells to the outside and the permeating speed of substituting air into the foam cells from outside can be balanced and any shrinkage or expansion after foaming can be avoided.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 28, 1992
    Date of Patent: March 22, 1994
    Assignee: Du Pont-Mitsui Fluorochemicals Company, Ltd.
    Inventors: Hiromitsu Fukazawa, Motosuke Ogawa