Polymer Degradation Patents (Class 526/914)
  • Patent number: 6166156
    Abstract: Halofluorinated alkylene monomers are made by a method comprising the steps of: (a) subjecting a first polymer which is the reaction product of a fluorinated vinyl monomer and a vinyl comonomer to dehydrohalogenation to form a second polymer; (b) treating the second polymer with an oxidizing agent to form an oxidation product consisting of a .alpha., .omega.-dicarboxylic acid or an ester derivative thereof; and (c) treating said oxidation product with a reducing agent to form a reduction product consisting of a a .alpha., .omega.-diol. Preferably, the first polymer has a structure of --[CH.sub.2 CYZ(CF.sub.2 CFX).sub.n ].sub.m -- wherein X and Y=F, Cl or Br; X and Y may be the same or different; Z=H, F, Cl, Br, alkyl or perfluoroalkyl containing from about 1 to about 10 carbon atoms; n=an integer larger than about 1; and m is an integer between about 2 and about 10.sup.5. The .alpha., .omega.-dicarboxylic acids and .alpha., .omega.-diols produced herein can be directly used as polycondensation monomers.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 12, 1998
    Date of Patent: December 26, 2000
    Inventors: Chengjiu Wu, Baopei Xu, James T. Yardley
  • Patent number: 6150478
    Abstract: Liquid catalyst composition is fed to a fluidized bed olefin polymerization reactor through an ultrasonic nozzle, enabling improved control over average catalyst composition droplet size and size distribution, which provides better control over resin particle size. The spray may be surrounded by a shroud of gas which creates a particle lean zone, thus reducing the likelihood of contact by the catalyst composition with existing product particles already suspended in the fluid bed.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 4, 1999
    Date of Patent: November 21, 2000
    Assignee: Union Carbide Chemicals & Plastics Technology Corporation
    Inventors: Arakalgud Venkatapathia Ramamurthy, Clark Curtis Williams
  • Patent number: 5906998
    Abstract: In the decomposition of a polymer containing a urethane linkage and/or urea linkage in the presence of a decomposing agent, the amount of evolved carbon dioxide is measured and the decomposition reaction is conducted until a total amount of evolved carbon dioxide reaches a specified value to obtain a liquid decomposition product. According to the present invention, a decomposition product having constant quality can be obtained in a simple manner.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 20, 1996
    Date of Patent: May 25, 1999
    Assignees: Sumitomo Bayer Urethane Co., Inc., Toyota Jidosha Kabushiki Kaisha
    Inventors: Yuji Hoshino, Takaaki Masuda, Hiroshi Ikuta, Hisao Mitobe
  • Patent number: 5902553
    Abstract: In a method for the depolymerization and reprocessing of material which consists of polyamide 6 waste and/or oligomer-containing polyamide 6 waste and/or oligomer-containing lactam residues and/or oligomer-containing lactam by hydrolysis in a pressure reactor with the addition of water, the material is melted and the melt is conducted continuously at predetermined temperature through the pressure reactor the inside pressure of which is controlled by the dosaged feeding of water or steam.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 28, 1997
    Date of Patent: May 11, 1999
    Assignee: Polymer Engineering GmbH
    Inventors: Karl-Heinz Wiltzer, Peter Lausmann, Baldur Ebert
  • Patent number: 5541275
    Abstract: The invention provides biodegradable vinyl ester copolymers of one or more monomers selected from the group of vinyl esters of unbranched or branched alkylcarboxylic acids having from 1 to 18 carbon atoms, which contain from 0.1 to 40% by weight, based on the total weight of the copolymer, of one or more cyclic ketene acetals selected from the group consisting of 2-methylene-1,3-dioxepane, 2-methylene-1,3-dioxolane, 2-methylene-1,3-dioxane and have a molecular weight>50,000.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 8, 1994
    Date of Patent: July 30, 1996
    Assignee: Wacker-Chemie GmbH
    Inventors: Gerald Fleischmann, Herbert Eck, Alfred Prasse
  • Patent number: 5115058
    Abstract: Photodegradable and biodegradable polymers comprising both ketone functionality and hydrolyzable polymer ester or amide functionality and thermoplastic articles formed therefrom are disclosed.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 6, 1991
    Date of Patent: May 19, 1992
    Assignee: The Dow Chemical Company
    Inventors: Kevin D. Sikkema, Duane B. Priddy
  • Patent number: 4966952
    Abstract: A novel process for providing a thermoplastic polymer having novel thermal characteristics including the critical step of masticating the polymer, either continuously or discontinuously, until the melt index of the polymer is substantially increased.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 29, 1987
    Date of Patent: October 30, 1990
    Assignee: The Hygenic Corporation
    Inventor: John Riaza
  • Patent number: 4882407
    Abstract: A novel process for providing a thermoplastic polymer having unique thermal characteristics including the step of cooling the polymer during extended mastication until the melt index of the polymer is substantially increased.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 18, 1988
    Date of Patent: November 21, 1989
    Assignee: The Hygenic Corporation
    Inventor: John Riazi
  • Patent number: 4727112
    Abstract: The composition of crystalline 1-butene polymer comprising:(a) a crystalline 1-butene polymer containing a 1-butene component as a main component, and(b) a radical-treated crystalline olefinic polymer having (1) a boiling p-xylene-insoluble content of 30% by weight at most and (2) the relation satisfying the following expressionTc.sup.CL -Tc.sup.O .gtoreq.1wherein Tc.sup.CL is the crystallization temperature (.degree.C.) of the radical-treated crystalline olefinic polymer, and Tc.sup.O is the crystallization temperature of the crystalline olefinic polymer before the radical treatment, and(c) the proportion of the radical-treated crystalline olefinic polymer (b) being 0.2 to 100 parts by weight per 100 parts by weight of the crystalline 1-butene polymer (a).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 20, 1987
    Date of Patent: February 23, 1988
    Assignee: Shell Oil Company
    Inventors: Masaki Kohyama, Hiroyuki Hori
  • Patent number: 4727113
    Abstract: The composition of crystalline 1-butene polymer comprising(a) a crystalline 1-butene polymer containing a 1-butene component as a main component, and(b) a radical-treated crystalline olefinic polymer having (1) a boiling p-xylene-insoluble content of 30% by weight at most and (2) the relation satisfying the following expressionTc.sup.CL -Tc.sup.O .gtoreq.1wherein Tc.sup.CL is the crystallization temperature (.degree.C.) of the radical-treated crystalline olefinic polymer, and Tc.sup.O is the crystallization temperature of the crystalline olefinic polymer before the radical treatment, and (c) the proportion of the radical-treated crystalline olefinic polymer (b) being 0.2 to 100 parts by weight per 100 parts by weight of the crystalline 1-butene polymer (a).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 10, 1985
    Date of Patent: February 23, 1988
    Assignee: Shell Oil Company
    Inventors: Masaki Kohyama, Hiroyuki Hori
  • Patent number: 4526958
    Abstract: A seed is supplied to a particle form evaporator to form a seed bed. The rate at which seed is supplied is controlled in response to the temperature of the seed bed. The seed bed can be used to facilitate start-up of the particle form evaporator. Apparatus useful for the inventive start-up process is also disclosed.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 12, 1983
    Date of Patent: July 2, 1985
    Inventor: William R. King
  • Patent number: 4229182
    Abstract: Aluminum is recovered from solid rocket propellant containing a small amount of oxidizer by depolymerizing and dissolving propellant binder containing functional or hydrolyzable groups in a solution of sodium methoxide in an alcohol solvent optionally containing an aliphatic or aromatic hydrocarbon co-solvent and then filtering the solution to recover substantially all the aluminum in active form.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 29, 1978
    Date of Patent: October 21, 1980
    Inventors: Robert A. Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, with respect to an invention of Frosch, Graham C. Shaw
  • Patent number: 4201732
    Abstract: A process for improving the processability of high molecular weight neoprene polymers which comprises treating a solution of said polymers in an organic solvent with an organic peroxide at room temperature in the presence of oxygen to reduce the molecular weight of said neoprene and lower the viscosity of said solution.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 26, 1977
    Date of Patent: May 6, 1980
    Assignee: Pratt & Lambert, Inc.
    Inventors: Leon E. Wolinski, Richard G. Riebling, John H. Edholm
  • Patent number: 4191320
    Abstract: There is disclosed a degradable article made from photodegradable polymeric or plastic compositions comprising at least one organic polymer or copolymer and at least two different aromatic carbonyl photosensitizers.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 27, 1977
    Date of Patent: March 4, 1980
    Assignee: Owens-Illinois, Inc.
    Inventors: Lynn J. Taylor, John W. Tobias
  • Patent number: 4160079
    Abstract: Chloroprene is polymerized in the presence of compounds of the formula ##STR1## where X, Y and Z are selected from the group consisting of oxygen and sulfur, R.sub.1 is a hydrocarbon radical having from 1 to 8 carbon atoms, R.sub.2 is a hydrocarbon radical having from 1 to 8 carbon atoms or is a radical the same as ##STR2## R.sub.3 and R.sub.4 are selected from the group consisting of hydrocarbon radicals having from 1 to 8 carbon atoms or hydrogen with at least one of R.sub.3 and R.sub.4 not being hydrogen and n is 1 to 4.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 9, 1977
    Date of Patent: July 3, 1979
    Assignee: Denka Chemical Corporation
    Inventor: Morris S. Edmondson
  • Patent number: 4156671
    Abstract: Production of a solution of a chloroprene polymer, suitable for use as a component for an adhesive, by dissolving the polymer in a solvent, and heating the solution, adding a free-radical catalyst and contacting the solution with a molecular oxygen containing gas, until the viscosity of the solution is lowered by at least about 10%.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 23, 1976
    Date of Patent: May 29, 1979
    Assignee: E. I. Du Pont de Nemours and Company
    Inventors: Robert W. Keown, John W. McDonald, Jurgen K. Weise
  • Patent number: 4145493
    Abstract: Continuous oxidation of rubbery polymeric hyrocarbons by mixing an oxygen-containing gas and a hot solution of the polymer in an oleaginous solvent at the inlet to a spraying device and spraying the mixture into a hot chamber provides substantially instantaneous oxidation of the polymer and disengagement of gas and liquid and at least the same extent of oxidation as the time consuming oxidation accomplished by sparging such gas into a volume of stirred hot solution.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 1, 1977
    Date of Patent: March 20, 1979
    Assignee: Standard Oil Company (Indiana)
    Inventors: Dennis G. Petrille, George S. Culbertson
  • Patent number: 4125692
    Abstract: Di or polyfunctional macromolecular compounds having a terminal functional group at each end of the molecule are produced by selectively cleaving the carbon-carbon double bonds of an unsaturated polymer by the oxidizing action of a ruthenium tetroxide oxidizing system. The compounds are useful as components in crosslinked plastics materials, in binders for rocket fuels, and as components in tri or polysequential copolymers.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 13, 1977
    Date of Patent: November 14, 1978
    Assignee: Etat Francais represented by the "Delegue General pour l'Armement"
    Inventors: Herve M. Cheradame, Jacques H. Garapon, Christian G. Guizard, Maryvonne Brigodiot
  • Patent number: 4122248
    Abstract: A process for the manufacture of copolymers of ethylene with tert-butyl acrylate and acrylic acid at from 200.degree. to 350.degree. C under pressures above 800 atmospheres using mean residence times of up to at most 100 seconds, in which the reaction mixture obtained from the polymerization is kept for from 2 to 10 minutes at from 200.degree. to 250.degree. C under a pressure of not more than 500 atmospheres. Terpolymers are obtained which may be used as hot-melt adhesives in the form of thin and extremely homogeneous films.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 1, 1976
    Date of Patent: October 24, 1978
    Assignee: BASF Aktiengesellschaft
    Inventors: Klaus Pfleger, Klaus Boettcher, Wieland Zacher, Dirk Juza
  • Patent number: 4097552
    Abstract: Polymer compositions comprising a nitrogenous polymer, especially an acrylonitrile-containing polymer, evolve reduced amounts of hydrogen cyanide on combustion when containing an alkaline earth metal oxide and sulfur.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 20, 1977
    Date of Patent: June 27, 1978
    Assignee: Monsanto Company
    Inventors: Gary L. Deets, Peter Shapras
  • Patent number: 4074033
    Abstract: A process for improving the processability of high molecular weight neoprene polymers which comprises treating a solution of said polymers in an organic solvent with an organic peroxide at room temperature in the presence of oxygen to reduce the molecular weight of said neoprene and lower the viscosity of said solution.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 9, 1976
    Date of Patent: February 14, 1978
    Assignee: Pratt & Lambert
    Inventors: Leon E. Wolinski, Richard G. Riebling, John H. Edholm
  • Patent number: 4072807
    Abstract: Polymers containing internal unsaturation are modified by treatment with an olefin disproportionation catalyst.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 31, 1975
    Date of Patent: February 7, 1978
    Assignee: Phillips Petroleum Company
    Inventors: Carl A. Uraneck, James D. Brown
  • Patent number: 4056665
    Abstract: There are disclosed novel photodegradable polymeric or plastic compositions comprising at least one organic polymer or copolymer and at least two different aromatic carbonyl photosensitizers.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 24, 1974
    Date of Patent: November 1, 1977
    Assignee: Owens-Illinois, Inc.
    Inventors: Lynn J. Taylor, John W. Tobias
  • Patent number: 4052278
    Abstract: Dry non-sticky fine lubricant powders are made by .gamma.-irradiation of unsintered coagulated dispersion grade tetrafluoroethylene polymers and organic dispersions are made by dispersing the irradiated polymer in an organic medium.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 16, 1974
    Date of Patent: October 4, 1977
    Assignee: Imperial Chemical Industries Limited
    Inventors: Michael Trevenen Brown, William George Rodway
  • Patent number: 4051306
    Abstract: There is disclosed the preparation of a degradable polymeric material consisting essentially of an organic polymeric base containing a degradation-promoting amount of a partially degraded organic polymer. The organic polymeric base and the degradation-promoting additive may be derived from the same or different polymers. The invention is especially useful in controlling the environmental deterioration of plastics. The rate of deterioration is a function of the environmental conditions such as light, oxygen, and temperature; the concentration of the additive; and the chemical structure(s) of both the base and the additive.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 12, 1976
    Date of Patent: September 27, 1977
    Assignee: Owens-Illinois, Inc.
    Inventors: John W. Tobias, Lynn J. Taylor, Stuart J. Gaumer
  • Patent number: 4045415
    Abstract: Copolymers of trioxane with cyclic acetals may be prepared by copolymerization of the monomers in solid phase. For this purpose the monomers are first mixed homogeneously in a liquid phase with a catalyst, the mixture is then solidified by cooling and finally polymerized by heating, while maintaining it in a solid phase. The liquid phase mixture is cooled to solidify it immediately after mixing and prior to development of turbidity in the liquid mixture. Cooling can be effected, for example, on a chilled rotating roll. The moulding composition, obtained after having worked up the copolymer as usual, is a suitable material for the preparation of molded semi-finished products and finished articles.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 18, 1975
    Date of Patent: August 30, 1977
    Assignee: Hoechst Aktiengesellschaft
    Inventors: Gunter Sextro, Karlheinz Burg, Klemens Gutweiler, Klaus Durichen
  • Patent number: 4017469
    Abstract: Photodegradable polyolefin compositions are described which comprise from 5 to 500 ppm of iron in the form of an alkali metal, preferably potassium, trioxalatoferrate and from 5 .times. 10.sup.-.sup.5 to 5 .times. 10.sup.-.sup.3 mol per 100 g of polyolefin of a photosensitizing organic compound having a triplet energy of at least 30 Kcal/mol, such as certain aromatic ketones or aldehydes, certain organic nitro derivatives or dyestuffs, or certain aromatic hydrocarbons.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 2, 1974
    Date of Patent: April 12, 1977
    Assignee: Ethylene Plastique
    Inventor: Genevieve Nicoud espouse Le Brasseur
  • Patent number: 4000120
    Abstract: A plastic material such as a polyethylene which is adapted for use in packaging is rendered photodegradable under the direct action of sunlight by mixing therewith an amount, up to 3% by weight, of an additive consisting of 1.2.4.5 tetramethylbenzene.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 24, 1974
    Date of Patent: December 28, 1976
    Assignee: Snam Progetti S.p.A.
    Inventors: Nicola Palladino, Marcello Mazzei, Walter Marconi
  • Patent number: 3994869
    Abstract: Aryl substituted 1,3-diones have been found to be useful as accelerators for the photodegradation of polyolefins.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 18, 1975
    Date of Patent: November 30, 1976
    Assignee: ICI United States Inc.
    Inventors: John A. Gontarz, Charles H. Nelson
  • Patent number: 3994855
    Abstract: A polymer composition and a process for preparing the same are provided which composition is degradable under the action of ultraviolet light and/or sunlight and/or thermally and the polymer component of which comprises thermoplastic polymers or copolymers of .alpha.-olefins, or comprises polystyrene. The composition contains a photolyzable metal compound promoting degradation which is present at least partially in the composition in an extremely finely divided state.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 14, 1975
    Date of Patent: November 30, 1976
    Assignee: AB Akerlund & Rausing
    Inventor: Anders Boberg
  • Patent number: 3993634
    Abstract: Photodegradable compositions based on vinyl chloride polymers containing a ferrocene and an .alpha.-phenylindole as sensitizers to accelerate natural photodegradation and their use in the production of hollow bodies. Said compositions undergo photodegradation appreciably more quickly than known compositions based on vinyl chloride polymers containing solely a ferrocene.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 28, 1975
    Date of Patent: November 23, 1976
    Assignee: Solvay & Cie.
    Inventor: Philippe Burgaud
  • Patent number: 3988406
    Abstract: A method of providing a fibrous thermoplastic resin for depolymerization thereof wherein the fibrous thermoplastic resin is formed into a shaped article having a specific gravity of at least 1/2 of the true specific gravity of the fibrous thermoplastic resin, said shaped article consisting of the fibrous thermoplastic resin mass having on its surface a crusty thin resin layer which may be press-bonded or melt-bonded to the mass. The thus provided shaped article of the fibrous thermoplastic resin can be advantageously employed as a starting material for the depolymerization reaction. In accordance with this invention, the time required for completion of the depolymerization can be greatly shortened as compared with that of the conventional technique and the rate and efficiency of the depolymerization can be greatly improved.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 24, 1975
    Date of Patent: October 26, 1976
    Assignee: Asahi Kasei Kogyo Kabushiki Kaisha
    Inventors: Masafumi Nakamura, Tadahiro Fujii, Hiromi Nagashima, Hiroshi Henmi
  • Patent number: 3983308
    Abstract: A novel process for making polymers degradable by the direct action of sunlight is disclosed. The process is based on the addition to the polymer of a compound having the formula: ##EQU1## in which R.sub.1, R.sub.2, R.sub.3 and R.sub.4 are the same or different and are selected from the group consisting of aromatic radicals with the proviso that one or two of them may be selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, alkyl, cycloalkyl and arylalkyl.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 24, 1974
    Date of Patent: September 28, 1976
    Assignee: Snam Progetti S.p.A.
    Inventors: Nicola Palladino, Marcello Mazzei, Walter Marconi
  • Patent number: 3978033
    Abstract: Difurfurylidene cycloalkanones have been found to be useful as accelerators for the photodegradation of polyolefins.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 23, 1975
    Date of Patent: August 31, 1976
    Assignee: ICI United States Inc.
    Inventors: John A. Gontarz, Charles H. Nelson
  • Patent number: 3976621
    Abstract: A copolymer of ethylene and vinyl alcohol which contains ketoether groups and is photodegradable under the direct action of sunlight is prepared by reacting an ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymer with alpha-diazoacetophenone in the presence of an organic solvent and a catalyst consisting of a Lewis acid.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 24, 1974
    Date of Patent: August 24, 1976
    Assignee: Snam Progetti S.p.A.
    Inventors: Nicola Palladino, Marcello Mazzei, Paolo Bacchin, Walter Marconi
  • Patent number: 3968094
    Abstract: Polyolefins capable of photodegradation are prepared by incorporating in the polyolefin an additive which contains chlorine, bromine, or iodine and an olefinic linkage.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 26, 1974
    Date of Patent: July 6, 1976
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the Secretary of the Department of Agriculture
    Inventors: Bernard Freedman, Martin J. Diamond
  • Patent number: 3968095
    Abstract: Polyolefins capable of photodegradation are prepared by incorporating in the polyolefin an additive which contains chlorine, bromine, or iodine directly linked to the nitrogen atom of an amide or imide group.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 30, 1975
    Date of Patent: July 6, 1976
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the Secretary of Agriculture
    Inventors: Bernard Freedman, Martin J. Diamond
  • Patent number: 3968096
    Abstract: Polyolefins capable of photodegradation are prepared by incorporating in the polyolefin an additive containing chlorine, bromine, or iodine and either a nitrogen or a sulfur group.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 8, 1975
    Date of Patent: July 6, 1976
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the Secretary of Agriculture
    Inventors: Bernard Freedman, Martin J. Diamond
  • Patent number: 3963791
    Abstract: A hydrocarbon polymer, such as high density polyethylene, is rendered photodegradable through the introduction into the polymer chain of photosensitive >C= O groups by reacting the polymer with a compound such as NOCl in the heterogeneous phase in an acid environment so that - NO groups are introduced into the polymer chain which are converted into >N--OH groups and then subjecting the resultant polymer to hydrolysis so that the >N--OH groups are converted into photosensitive >C = O groups.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 15, 1974
    Date of Patent: June 15, 1976
    Assignee: Snam Progetti S.p.A.
    Inventors: Luigi Giuffre, Italo Pasquon, Enrico Cernia, Vittorio Pozzi, Arthur Silvers
  • Patent number: 3959398
    Abstract: Alpha-methyl-p-bromo-styrene prepared by the manipulative steps of brominating poly(.alpha.-methyl-styrene) and subsequently depolymerizing the brominated polymer. The alpha-methyl-p-bromo-styrene has particular utility as a co-monomer for preparing copolymers exhibiting a flame retardancy.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 3, 1974
    Date of Patent: May 25, 1976
    Assignee: The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company
    Inventor: George Jalics
  • Patent number: 3957737
    Abstract: An unsaturated hydrocarbon elastomer with a high molecular weight is reacted upon an oxidizer and a reducer forming a redox couple, in an organic solvent medium in the absence of air or in an aqueous medium, the oxidizer being selected from the group consisting of hydrogen peroxide and organic peroxides, and the reducer being selected from the group consisting of sulphinic acids and their derivatives and of hydrazine and its derivatives.The pasty to liquid materials obtained give, after having been vulcanized and possibly reinforced, elastomeric products.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 24, 1975
    Date of Patent: May 18, 1976
    Assignee: Anvar, Agence Nationale de Valorisation de la Recherche
    Inventors: Rene Pautrat, Jacques Marteau