One Fluid Absorbs Or Reacts With Another Patents (Class 60/673)
  • Patent number: 9638175
    Abstract: Power systems utilizing at least two heat source streams with substantially different initial temperatures, where the systems include a simple vaporization, separation, and energy extraction subsystem, a recycle subsystem, and a condensation and pressurization subsystem and methods for making and using same.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 18, 2012
    Date of Patent: May 2, 2017
    Inventor: Alexander I. Kalina
  • Patent number: 8950185
    Abstract: The invention relates to a method for converting thermal energy into mechanical work, which comprises imparting thermal energy to a working fluid in a tank. The working fluid in the vapor phase is fed into a device for converting energy into mechanical work. The vaporous working fluid is condensed and cyclically returned in the liquid phase to the tank. A catalytic additive in the form of a catalytic substance or a catalytic mixture of substances in an amount of 0.0000001 to 0.1 wt. % is introduced into the working fluid before or after starting the heating. The additive is a solid, its solution or suspension, or a liquid or its emulsion. The catalytic substance and the ratio of components of the mixture are chosen to prevent or promote decomposition of the substance or the mixture under the effect of high temperature and pressure according to current needs. The method enhances the efficiency of the process and expands its operational capabilities.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 4, 2011
    Date of Patent: February 10, 2015
    Inventor: Igor A. Revenko
  • Patent number: 8763398
    Abstract: A optimized organic thermodynamic cycle system and method include temperature sensors measuring an initial temperature of a coolant medium and a final temperature of a heat source stream to computer control valves to continuously adjust a pressure and a flow rate of a working fluid stream to be vaporized so that a heat utilization of the system is about 99% increasing output by approximately 3% to 6% on a sustained and permanent yearly basis.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 7, 2013
    Date of Patent: July 1, 2014
    Assignee: Kalex, LLC
    Inventor: Alexander I. Kalina
  • Publication number: 20140165566
    Abstract: A method of converting thermal energy into mechanical work that uses a semi-permeable membrane to convert osmotic pressure into electrical power. A closed cycle pressure-retarded osmosis (PRO) process known as an osmotic heat engine (OHE) uses a concentrated ammonia-carbon dioxide draw solution to create high osmotic pressures which generate water flux through a semi-permeable membrane against a hydraulic pressure gradient. The depressurization of the increased draw solution volume in a turbine produces electrical power. The process is maintained in steady state operation through the separation of the diluted draw solution into a re-concentrated draw solution and deionized water working fluid, both for reuse in the osmotic heat engine.
    Type: Application
    Filed: August 13, 2013
    Publication date: June 19, 2014
    Applicant: Yale University
    Inventors: Robert L. McGinnis, Menachem Elimelech, Jeffrey McCutcheon
  • Patent number: 8695344
    Abstract: The present invention discloses systems and methods for converting heat from external heat source streams or from solar energy derived from a solar collector subsystem. The systems and methods comprise a thermodynamic cycle including three internal subcycles. Two of the subcycles combine to power a higher pressures turbine and third or main cycle powers a lower pressure turbine. One of the cycles increases the flow rate of a richer working solution stream powering the lower pressure turbine. Another one of the cycles is a leaner working solution cycle, which provides increased flow rate for leaner working solution stream going into the higher pressure turbine.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 2, 2010
    Date of Patent: April 15, 2014
    Assignee: Kalex, LLC
    Inventor: Alexander I. Kalina
  • Patent number: 8695343
    Abstract: A method and apparatus are described for disposing of salt byproduct from a zero liquid operation, such as a zero liquid discharge desalination plant. The present method and apparatus concern a power generation plant, comprising a salinity gradient power unit (SGPU) comprising a high salinity feed, a low salinity feed, and a mixed water output. The high salinity feed is comprised of salt byproduct from a ZLD operation. The mixed water output empties into a body of water.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 4, 2009
    Date of Patent: April 15, 2014
    Assignee: General Electric Company
    Inventor: Neil Edwin Moe
  • Patent number: 8683803
    Abstract: A method and apparatus for generating power which includes a phase-change media (PCM) that expands upon cooling contained within an expandable capsule if the phase change involves solidification (if phase change is solid-solid, then capsules are not needed), a carrier liquid that does not freeze in the operating temperature range, a heat exchanger, and an engine. Alternatively, the method and apparatus can include a PCM contained within a layer next to the walls of a constant volume container, a working liquid within the container that does not freeze in the operating temperature range, a heat exchanger, and an engine. In both cases, the engine denotes a device that converts the energy in the high-pressure liquid into electrical or mechanical power.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 24, 2008
    Date of Patent: April 1, 2014
    Inventors: Ashraf F. Bastawros, Abhijit Chandra, Tom I-Ping Shih
  • Patent number: 8613196
    Abstract: A new method, system and apparatus for power system utilizing flue gas streams and a multi-component working fluid is disclosed including a heat recovery vapor generator (HRVG) subsystem, a multi-stage energy conversion or turbine subsystem and a condensation thermal compression subsystem (CTCSS), where the CTCSS receives a single stream from the turbine subsystem and produces at least one fully condensed stream.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 21, 2010
    Date of Patent: December 24, 2013
    Assignee: Kalex, LLC
    Inventor: Alexander I. Kalina
  • Patent number: 8534070
    Abstract: Embodiments of the present invention disclose systems and methods for the efficient conversion of solar energy into a useable form of energy using a solar collector subsystem and a heat conversion subsystem. The systems and methods transfer solar energy directly to an intermediate solution and a working solution and indirectly to and between a basic rich solution, a condensing solution, a lean solution and a rich vapor solution. The systems and methods also include condensing the basic rich solution using an external coolant. The systems and methods support a closed thermodynamic cycle.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 2, 2010
    Date of Patent: September 17, 2013
    Assignee: Kalex, LLC
    Inventor: Alexander I. Kalina
  • Patent number: 8490397
    Abstract: A waste heat recovery system includes a Brayton cycle system having an heater configured to circulate carbon dioxide vapor in heat exchange relationship with a hot fluid to heat carbon dioxide vapor. A Rankine cycle system is coupled to the Brayton cycle system and configured to circulate a working fluid in heat exchange relationship with the carbon dioxide vapor to heat the working fluid.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 16, 2009
    Date of Patent: July 23, 2013
    Assignee: General Electric Company
    Inventor: Matthew Alexander Lehar
  • Patent number: 8479517
    Abstract: A vapor power cycle apparatus that mixes part of high-temperature liquid-phase working fluid separated from a liquid-phase portion in a gas/liquid separator with high-temperature gas-phase working fluid extracted from a expander and allows the fluid to exchange heat with low-temperature liquid-phase working fluid from a condenser so as to efficiently recover the heat of working fluid and improve thermal efficiency of the entire cycle. The part of high-temperature liquid-phase working fluid separated from the liquid-phase portion in the gas/liquid separator is extracted, the resultant fluid is mixed in a second absorber with high-temperature gas-phase working fluid extracted from an interstage point in the expander to allow liquid-phase working fluid to absorb part of gas-phase working fluid and the high-temperature working fluid is used to heat low-temperature liquid-phase working fluid in a first heater without passing an extracted portion of high-temperature liquid-phase working fluid through a condenser.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 10, 2010
    Date of Patent: July 9, 2013
    Inventor: Haruo Uehara
  • Patent number: 8464532
    Abstract: Power generation systems and methods are disclosed for use with medium to high temperature heat source stream, gaseous or liquid, where the systems and methods permit efficient energy extraction for medium and small scale power plants.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 3, 2009
    Date of Patent: June 18, 2013
    Assignee: Kalex, LLC
    Inventor: Alexander I. Kalina
  • Patent number: 8464531
    Abstract: The inventive method for converting thermal energy into electricity, high-potential heat and cold consists in evaporating a coolant from a strong solution at a high temperature and pressure in a boiler in such a way that a superheated vapor and a weak solution thereof are formed, in reducing the temperature and pressure of the coolant and solution associated with the interaction thereof with external consumers (sources) of energy, in absorbing the low-temperature coolant in the weak solution in an absorber, in subsequently compressing the strong solution, which is formed during the absorption, by a pump, in heating said solution in a regenerator and in supplying it to evaporation. Prior to absorption, the weak solution is overcooled in a cooler using low-temperature energy sources. A turbine with a generator or a condenser, a control valve and an evaporator are used as a unit for interacting the coolant with energy consumers.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 18, 2007
    Date of Patent: June 18, 2013
    Inventor: Igor Isaakovich Samkhan
  • Patent number: 8459031
    Abstract: A system and method are disclosed for the combined production of power and heat from an external heat source stream, where the system utilizes four basic stream of different compositions to co-generate power and to heat an external heat absorber stream from an external heat source stream.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 18, 2009
    Date of Patent: June 11, 2013
    Assignee: Kalex, LLC
    Inventor: Alexander I. Kalina
  • Patent number: 8281592
    Abstract: A direct heat exchange method and apparatus for recovering heat from a liquid heat source is disclosed, where the method includes contacting a liquid heat source stream with a multi-component hydrocarbon fluid, where the hydrocarbon fluid compositions has a linear or substantially linear temperature versus enthalpy relationship over the temperature range of the direct heat exchange apparatus.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 31, 2009
    Date of Patent: October 9, 2012
    Inventor: Alexander I. Kalina
  • Patent number: 8196406
    Abstract: A method for converting heat energy into mechanical, electrical and/or thermal energy, includes two circuits which are connected one common subsection. The first circuit has an expansion apparatus, and the common subsection is connected to the first and second circuit via a jet compressor. A working medium is routed in the first circuit and a propellant is routed in the second circuit and a mixture of working medium and propellant is routed in the common subsection. The mixture is separated into a working medium stream and a propellant stream in a separation apparatus. The working medium is recirculated into the first circuit and is supplied to an evaporator unit. The evaporated working medium is supplied to the expansion apparatus and subsequently to the jet compressor. The separated propellant is recirculated into the second circuit and is supplied to a collector and is then supplied to the jet compressor.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 10, 2007
    Date of Patent: June 12, 2012
    Assignee: Ecoenergy Patent GmbH
    Inventors: Erwin Oser, Hubert Hamm, Michael Rannow
  • Patent number: 8087926
    Abstract: An oxygen fueled integrated pollutant removal and combustion system includes a combustion system and an integrated pollutant removal system. The combustion system includes a furnace having at least one burner that is configured to substantially prevent the introduction of air. An oxygen supply supplies oxygen at a predetermine purity greater than 21 percent and a carbon based fuel supply supplies a carbon based fuel. Oxygen and fuel are fed into the furnace in controlled proportion to each other and combustion is controlled to produce a flame temperature in excess of 3000 degrees F. and a flue gas stream containing CO2 and other gases. The flue gas stream is substantially void of non-fuel borne nitrogen containing combustion produced gaseous compounds.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 28, 2005
    Date of Patent: January 3, 2012
    Assignee: Jupiter Oxygen Corporation
    Inventors: Brian R. Patrick, Thomas Lilburn Ochs, Cathy Ann Summers, Danylo B. Oryshchyn, Paul Chandler Turner
  • Patent number: 7980079
    Abstract: Power generation systems and methods are disclosed for use with medium to high temperature heat source stream, gaseous or liquid, where the systems and methods permit efficient energy extraction for medium and small scale power plants.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 27, 2008
    Date of Patent: July 19, 2011
    Assignee: Kalex, LLC
    Inventor: Alexander I. Kalina
  • Publication number: 20110131994
    Abstract: A method and apparatus are described for disposing of salt byproduct from a zero liquid operation, such as a zero liquid discharge desalination plant. The present method and apparatus concern a power generation plant, comprising a salinity gradient power unit (SGPU) comprising a high salinity feed, a low salinity feed, and a mixed water output. The high salinity feed is comprised of salt byproduct from a ZLD operation. The mixed water output empties into a body of water.
    Type: Application
    Filed: December 4, 2009
    Publication date: June 9, 2011
    Applicant: GENERAL ELECTRIC COMPANY
    Inventor: Neil Edwin Moe
  • Publication number: 20100212319
    Abstract: A method and apparatus are described for generating power. A first liquid comprising brine from a seawater reverse osmosis desalination process is provided on one side of a semipermeable membrane. This liquid has an osmotic pressure greater than seawater. A second liquid having an osmotic pressure less than seawater is provided on a second side of the membrane. A hydraulic pressure is provided to the first liquid that is less than the osmotic pressure difference between the first liquid and the second liquid so that some of the second liquid flows through the membrane and combines with the first liquid at a lesser rate than would occur without the hydraulic pressure thereby increasing the potential energy in the combined first and second liquids. The combined first and second liquids are delivered to a turbine thereby converting the increased potential energy into useful mechanical energy.
    Type: Application
    Filed: February 24, 2010
    Publication date: August 26, 2010
    Inventor: Mark Donovan
  • Patent number: 7735325
    Abstract: A closed loop system for generating mechanical energy at high efficiencies from hydrogen, fossil fuels, bio-fuels, solar or other renewable and recoverable energy sources. The system can have a heating source, a superheater, an expander, a receiver, a condenser, vacuum pump, or absorber, a desorber, and regenerator with pumps and controls. The heating source and superheater are used to heat a working fluid (including ammonia, other refrigerants, a combination of refrigerants, or steam). A positive displacement liquid/vapor expander expands the heated working fluid to the near saturated or saturated state utilizing a reduced pressure, low-pressure, or sub-atmospheric exhaust sink. A condenser, vacuum pump, or absorber is used to generate the reduced pressure, low pressure, or sub-atmospheric sink. The desorber is used to reconstitute inlet vapor (for reuse) and the regenerator recovers heat generated by the process.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 14, 2006
    Date of Patent: June 15, 2010
    Assignee: Research Sciences, LLC
    Inventors: Frank Ruggieri, Rudolph N. J. Draaisma, David Lackstrom, Napoleon P. Salvail, Clyde R. Zielke
  • Patent number: 7726128
    Abstract: A method for converting heat energy to mechanical energy includes expanding an evaporated working fluid with an expansion device connected to an evaporator. The expansion is carried out in a low-pressure expansion device and the energy contained in the expanded evaporated working fluid can be recycled into the evaporator and utilized for evaporating additional working fluid.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 22, 2004
    Date of Patent: June 1, 2010
    Assignee: Ecoenergy Patent GmbH
    Inventors: Erwin Oser, Michael Rannow
  • Publication number: 20100107634
    Abstract: A method and system for generating power in a vaporization of liquid natural gas process, the method comprising pressurizing a working fluid; heating and vaporizing the working fluid; expanding the working fluid in one or more expanders for the generation of power, the working fluid comprises: 2-11 mol % nitrogen, methane, a third component whose boiling point is greater than or equal to that of propane, and a fourth component comprising ethane or ethylene; cooling the working fluid such that the working fluid is at least substantially condensed; and recycling the working fluid, wherein the cooling of the working fluid occurs through indirect heat exchange with a pressurized liquefied natural gas stream in a heat exchanger, and wherein the flow rate of the working fluid at an inlet of the heat exchanger is equal to the flow rate of the working fluid at an outlet of the heat exchanger.
    Type: Application
    Filed: November 6, 2008
    Publication date: May 6, 2010
    Applicant: Air Products and Chemicals, Inc.
    Inventors: Jianguo Xu, Donn Michael Herron
  • Patent number: 7578139
    Abstract: A controller reduces a rotational speed of a Rankine cycle from a predetermined normal rotational speed during an operation of a compressor in a predetermined state when the controller determines that a predicted refrigerant flow quantity, which is predicted by assuming that the compressor is operated in a sole operation of the Rankine cycle at the predetermined normal rotational speed of the Rankine cycle, exceeds a predetermined flow quantity. The predetermined state is a state that satisfies a predetermined condition, which relates to the sole operation of the Rankine cycle.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 29, 2007
    Date of Patent: August 25, 2009
    Assignees: DENSO CORPORATION, Nippon Soken, Inc.
    Inventors: Michio Nishikawa, Atsushi Inaba, Hironori Asa, Hiroshi Kishita
  • Patent number: 7347049
    Abstract: Disclosed herein is a system for generating energy, comprising a first heat exchanger in communication with a first heat source; wherein the first heat exchanger contacts a transfer fluid that comprises a working fluid and an associating composition; and a first energy conversion device comprising a moving surface, wherein the first heat exchanger is in communication with the moveable surface of the first energy conversion device; and wherein a dissociation of the transfer fluid in the first heat exchanger generates a vapor of the working fluid that contacts the moving surface of the first energy conversion device.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 19, 2004
    Date of Patent: March 25, 2008
    Assignee: General Electric Company
    Inventors: Veera Palanivelu Rajendran, Chellappa Balan, Charles Max Byrd, Bahram Keramati, Todd Garrett Wetzel
  • Patent number: 7204968
    Abstract: Energy in the form of heat is recoverable and controllable in a process that reacts an acid and a base in the presence of steam. The recovered heat energy can be used to vaporize water to form steam which when used in conjunction with a turbine will produce electricity.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 30, 2004
    Date of Patent: April 17, 2007
    Inventor: John V. Reints
  • Patent number: 7096665
    Abstract: Cascading Closed Loop Cycle (CCLC) and Super Cascading Closed Loop Cycle (Super-CCLC) systems are described for recovering power in the form of mechanical or electrical energy from the waste heat of a steam turbine system. The waste heat from the boiler and steam condenser is recovered by vaporizing propane or other light hydrocarbon fluids in multiple indirect heat exchangers; expanding the vaporized propane in multiple cascading expansion turbines to generate useful power; and condensing to a liquid using a cooling system. The liquid propane is then pressurized with pumps and returned to the indirect heat exchangers to repeat the vaporization, expansion, liquefaction and pressurization cycle in a closed, hermetic process.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 3, 2003
    Date of Patent: August 29, 2006
    Assignee: WOW Energies, Inc.
    Inventors: Daniel H. Stinger, Farouk Aslam Mian
  • Patent number: 7019412
    Abstract: A closed loop system for generating mechanical energy at high efficiencies. The system can have a heating source, a superheater, an expander, a receiver, an absorber, a desorber, and regenerator with pumps and controls. The superheater heats a working fluid (a refrigerant or steam). A positive liquid/vapor expander expands a low temperature refrigerant, or steam vapor to the saturated state (having both liquid and vapor parts) utilizing a low-pressure sub-atmospheric exhaust sink. An absorber, generates a low-pressure sub-atmospheric sink using chemosorption which involves the exothermic reaction/absorption of ammonia refrigerant in water. The desorber is used to reconstitute inlet vapor (for reuse) and the regenerator recovers heat generated by chemosorption. The system can meet electrical power needs for residences, businesses or office buildings. The system can supply electrical energy to power grids, and can be an alternative power generation plants.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 16, 2004
    Date of Patent: March 28, 2006
    Assignee: Research Sciences, L.L.C.
    Inventors: Frank Ruggieri, Dave Lackstrom, Napoleon P. Salvail, Rudolph N. J. Draaisma
  • Patent number: 6820421
    Abstract: A new thermodynamic cycle is disclosed for converting energy from a low temperature stream from an external source into useable energy using a working fluid comprising of a mixture of a low boiling component and a high boiling component. The cycle is designed to improve the efficiency of the energy extraction process by mixing into an intermediate liquid stream an enriched liquid stream from which the energy from the external source stream is extracted in a vaporization step and converted to energy in an expansion step. The new thermodynamic process and the system for accomplishing it are especially well-suited for streams from low-temperature geothermal sources.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 23, 2002
    Date of Patent: November 23, 2004
    Assignee: Kalex, LLC
    Inventor: Alexander I. Kalina
  • Patent number: 6817182
    Abstract: High-efficiency combustion engines, including Otto cycle engines, use a steam-diluted fuel charge at elevated pressure. Air is compressed, and water is evaporated into the compressed air via the partial pressure effect using waste heat from the engine. The resultant pressurized air-steam mixture then burned in the engine with fuel, preferably containing hydrogen to maintain flame front propagation. The high-pressure, steam-laden engine exhaust is used to drive an expander to provide additional mechanical power. The exhaust can also be used to reform fuel to provide hydrogen for the engine combustion. The engine advantageously uses the partial pressure effect to convert low-grade waste heat from engine into useful mechanical power. The engine is capable of high efficiencies (e.g. >50%), with minimal emissions.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 4, 2002
    Date of Patent: November 16, 2004
    Inventor: Lawrence G. Clawson
  • Patent number: 6715290
    Abstract: Apparatus and process for distilling a fluid mixture using low temperature glide heat are disclosed. A substantial portion of the glide heat is at a temperature lower than the peak distillation temperature. The disclosure achieves a maximal amount of distillative effect from a given heat source. Applications include absorption refrigeration and absorption power cycles. Referring to FIG. 1, column 104 and desorber 105 distill fluid in conduit 101 using low temperature glide heat. Divider 108 proportions fluid between them.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 31, 2002
    Date of Patent: April 6, 2004
    Inventor: Donald C. Erickson
  • Publication number: 20030221428
    Abstract: A compensation system for a vehicle has a main reservoir, a vapor collector, an expansion tube, a working liquid supplying reservoir and an oil tank. The main reservoir is connected with the vapor collector via a heat absorbing pipe. The expansion tube is connected to the vapor collector. Two turbines are rotatably received in the expansion tube and are connected to a generator. The supplying reservoir is connected to the expansion tube. The oil tank encloses the expansion tube and absorbs the heat of the waste gas dissipated from the engine. Accordingly, the turbines will be actuated to rotate by means of expansion of volume of the working liquid sprayed into the expansion tube to actuate the generator to operate. The waste heat dissipated from the engine of the vehicle can be efficiently reused.
    Type: Application
    Filed: May 31, 2002
    Publication date: December 4, 2003
    Inventors: Yeong-Shyeong Tsai, Shinn-Jieh Wang, Po-Yu Tsai, Lu-Hsing Tsai, Hung-Ming Tsai
  • Publication number: 20030167768
    Abstract: High-efficiency combustion engines, including Otto cycle engines, use a steam-diluted fuel charge at elevated pressure. Air is compressed, and water is evaporated into the compressed air via the partial pressure effect using waste heat from the engine. The resultant pressurized air-steam mixture then burned in the engine with fuel, preferably containing hydrogen to maintain flame front propagation. The high-pressure, steam-laden engine exhaust is used to drive an expander to provide additional mechanical power. The exhaust can also be used to reform fuel to provide hydrogen for the engine combustion. The engine advantageously uses the partial pressure effect to convert low-grade waste heat from engine into useful mechanical power. The engine is capable of high efficiencies (e.g.>50%), with minimal emissions.
    Type: Application
    Filed: December 4, 2002
    Publication date: September 11, 2003
    Inventor: Lawrence G. Clawson
  • Patent number: 6601391
    Abstract: A waste heat recovery system incorporates a contactor for counter current direct heat exchange between a non-condensible gas and a liquid, typically hot water. The water is from a heat source available at the site such as a solar source, a geothermal source, an industrial plant or the like. Hot mainly saturated gas exits from the contactor and drives a motor, typically a turbine. The turbine drive a work consuming device, normally an electric generator. A condenser/separator downstream from the turbine condenses the water vapor and separates the non-condensible gas from the liquid. The liquid from the condenser is preferably recycled or may be discarded.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 19, 2001
    Date of Patent: August 5, 2003
    Assignee: GeoSol, Inc.
    Inventor: Donnie W. Alexander
  • Patent number: 6460338
    Abstract: An absorption waste-heat recovery system includes a high temperature generator for directly receiving a heat medium fluid containing waste heat for recovering heat therefrom and concentrating a solution having an absorbent dissolved therein and generating steam, a low temperature generator for re-concentrating the concentrated solution after reduction of its temperature by heat recovering means in the system by using the steam from the high temperature generator as heat source, an auxiliary generator for introducing the heat medium fluid after its heat recovery at the high temperature generator and again recovering heat therefrom, a condenser capable of condensing steam from the auxiliary generator and steam after the re-concentration of the concentrated solution at the low temperature generator, an evaporator for evaporating the condensed water condensed at the condenser, and an absorber for receiving the concentrated solution from the low temperature generator and the concentrated solution from the auxiliar
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 26, 2001
    Date of Patent: October 8, 2002
    Assignee: Takuma Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Masatoshi Katayama, Takafumi Origane, Kenji Matsuda
  • Patent number: 6434943
    Abstract: A novel pressure-exchange compressor-expander is disclosed whereby a high energy primary fluid compresses a lower energy secondary fluid through direct fluid-fluid momentum exchange. The pressure-exchange compressor-expander utilizes non-steady flow principles and supersonic flow principles to obtain an ejector-compressor which can attain high adiabatic efficiencies while having a simplicity of construction, small size and weight, and the low manufacturing cost. This disclosure includes a fuel-cell pressurization system and humidity control system utilizing the pressure-exchange compressor-expander. The disclosure includes a novel turbo-charger for internal combustion engines incorporating exhaust gas recirculation capabilities. Further, an air-cycle heat pump suitable for aircraft applications is disclosed utilizing the pressure-exchange compressor-expander.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 3, 2000
    Date of Patent: August 20, 2002
    Assignee: George Washington University
    Inventor: Charles Alexander Garris
  • Patent number: 6298665
    Abstract: A power generating device employing hydrogen absorbing alloy and low heat and further comprising: two types of hydrogen absorbing alloys which are able to reversibly absorb and release hydrogen gas and which have different thermal equilibrium hydrogen pressure characteristics; said two types of hydrogen absorbing alloys loaded respectively in a first determined hydrogen absorbing alloy heat exchanger container (1) and a second determined hydrogen absorbing alloy heat exchanger container (2) which are connected ventably to each other; at least two sets of heat generating cycles which employ heat generated when hydrogen gas is moved between said first hydrogen absorbing alloy heat exchanger container (1) and second hydrogen absorbing alloy heat exchanger container (2) provided; a hydrogen compound of one of said hydrogen absorbing alloys at a low temperature side having a higher equilibrium pressure at the same temperature is heated by at least one low quality heat sources (8)(9)(10) having a temperature from 1
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 1, 2000
    Date of Patent: October 9, 2001
    Assignee: World Fusion Limited
    Inventor: Yasuaki Osumi
  • Patent number: 6282900
    Abstract: A calcium carbide based power system for stationary and mobile power plants. The carbide is reacted with water to create heat and acetylene, with the acetylene then being burned to heat a boiler for providing steam to a steam expander. The exhaust of the steam expander is condensed and pumped back into the boiler, first being pre-heated by a heat exchanger using the heat in burner exhaust gas and then in the carbide-water reactor to further pre-heat the boiler makeup water (steam) and to cool the reactor. The system may limit the excess water required for the carbide-water reactor, and provides recovery of the heat given off in the generation and combustion of the acetylene for maximum system efficiency. The system may further provide for preheating the combustion air with waste heat from the exhaust of the steam expander. The system may further provide for preheating the combustion air with heat from the acetylene produced by the reactor, thereby removing moisture from the acetylene.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 27, 2000
    Date of Patent: September 4, 2001
    Inventor: Ealious D. Bell
  • Patent number: 6263675
    Abstract: A method of operating a power generation system is provided. The system includes) a turbine, a regenerative heat exchanger, a vapor generator and a distiller/condenser having multiple condensing elements. The turbine expands a vaporized multicomponent working fluid to produce power. The regenerative heat exchanger transfers heat from a lean hot multicomponent working fluid having a relatively low concentration of a component of the multicomponent working fluid to a rich cool multicomponent working fluid having a relatively high concentration of the component to thereby cool the lean hot multicomponent working fluid. The vapor generator vaporizes the cooled multicomponent working fluid to form the vaporized multicomponent working fluid. The multiple condensing elements of the distiller/condenser condense the expanded multicomponent working fluid to form the lean hot multicomponent working fluid.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 13, 1999
    Date of Patent: July 24, 2001
    Assignee: ABB Alstom Power Inc.
    Inventors: Paul L. Hansen, Paul D. Kuczma, Jens O. Palsson, Jonathan S. Simon
  • Patent number: 6185940
    Abstract: An apparatus and method generates energy and, optionally, produces fresh water using osmotic processes that are driven by energy embodied in the heat of evaporation of water. An osmotic chamber transfers fresh water into a brine solution by osmotic pressure across an osmotic membrane. A mass transfer unit uses the osmotic pressure to maintain a high pressure concentrated brine solution within the osmotic chamber while providing for replenishing diluted brine solution with concentrated brine solution. The volume increase in the concentrated brine solution as it is diluted drives a motor to generate useful output energy. A concentrator uses dry air to concentrate dilute brine solution from the motor to a concentrated brine solution for return to the osmotic chamber.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 11, 1999
    Date of Patent: February 13, 2001
    Inventor: Melvin L. Prueitt
  • Patent number: 6170263
    Abstract: Low grade heat recovered from various sections of an integrated gasification system is used to drive an absorption chilling cycle. In an exemplary embodiment, the recovered low grade heat is used to heat a two component working solution that is pumped through a closed cycle absorption chilling system. The heated working solution is separated into a rich stream and a lean stream. The rich stream is condensed to produce a liquid rich stream that is throttled to reduce its temperature and then evaporated to produce a cooling load. The cooling load may be used for auxiliary cooling needs in the integrated gasification system. The rich vapor stream produced by the evaporating step is mixed with the lean stream to produce a mixed stream, which is cooled in an absorber to produce the working solution for the cycle to be repeated.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 13, 1999
    Date of Patent: January 9, 2001
    Assignee: General Electric Co.
    Inventors: Cedric Chow, Ashok Kumar Anand, Jatila Ranasinghe, David Andrew Stats
  • Patent number: 6155052
    Abstract: A method of operating a power generation system is provided. The system includes a turbine, a regenerative heat exchanger, a boiler, and a superheater. The turbine receives a stream of first working fluid and expands the first working fluid to produce power. The regenerative heat exchanger receives a stream of the expanded first working fluid from the turbine and a stream of second working fluid, for example from the RHE or DCSS of a Kalina type system. The exchanger transfers heat from the expanded first working fluid to the second working fluid to heat the second working fluid and condense the expanded first working fluid. The boiler receives and vaporizes a stream of the condensed first working fluid. The superheater receives and superheats the vaporized stream of first working fluid and the heated stream of second working fluid to form the stream of first working fluid.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 13, 1999
    Date of Patent: December 5, 2000
    Assignee: ABB Alstom Power Inc.
    Inventors: Paul L. Hansen, Paul D. Kuczma, Jens O. Palsson, Jonathan S. Simon
  • Patent number: 6155053
    Abstract: A method of operating a power generation system is provided. The system includes a turbine, a regenerative heat exchanger, and a vapor generator. The turbine receives a stream of working fluid and expands the working fluid to produce power. The regenerative heat exchanger has a plurality of condensing heat exchangers which transfer heat from the expanded working fluid to condense the expanded working fluid. The vapor generator vaporizes the condensed portions of working fluid to form the stream of working fluid. In operating the system, a respective portion of the expanded working fluid is directed to each of the condensing heat exchangers, and the amount of condensed working fluid at at least one of the condensing heat exchangers is regulated.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 13, 1999
    Date of Patent: December 5, 2000
    Assignee: ABB Alstom Power Inc.
    Inventors: Paul L. Hansen, Paul D. Kuczma, Jens O. Palsson, Jonathon S. Simon
  • Patent number: 6141966
    Abstract: A power generating device employing hydrogen absorbing alloy and low heat wherein two types of hydrogen absorbing alloys that can reversibly absorb and release hydrogen gas and have different thermal equilibrium hydrogen pressure characteristics are used and loaded, respectively, in a first hydrogen absorbing alloy heat exchanger container (1) and a second hydrogen absorbing alloy heat exchanger container (2) that are ventilably connected to each other, wherein at least two sets of heat generating cycles are provided that employ heat generated when hydrogen gas is moved between the first hydrogen absorbing alloy heat exchanger container (1) and the second hydrogen absorbing alloy heat exchanger container (2), wherein a low temperature side hydrogen absorbing alloy hydrogen compound that has a higher equilibrium hydrogen pressure at the same temperature is heated by low quality heat sources (8, 9, 10), wherein released hydrogen is absorbed by a high temperature side hydrogen absorbing alloy having a lower equi
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 16, 1998
    Date of Patent: November 7, 2000
    Inventor: Yasuaki Osumi
  • Patent number: 6138456
    Abstract: A novel pressure-exchange ejector is disclosed whereby a high energy primary fluid compresses a lower energy secondary fluid through direct fluid-fluid momentum exchange. The pressure-exchange ejector utilizes non-steady flow principles and supersonic flow principles to obtain an ejector-compressor which can attain substantially higher adiabatic efficiencies than conventional ejectors while retaining much of the simplicity of construction and the low manufacturing cost of a conventional ejector. By virtue of the capabilities of the ejector to compress high volumes of secondary fluid, an ejector refrigeration system utilizing water and other environmentally benign refrigerants is disclosed.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 7, 1999
    Date of Patent: October 31, 2000
    Assignee: The George Washington University
    Inventor: Charles Alexander Garris
  • Patent number: 6119458
    Abstract: A heat transfer process for a liquid (5) using counterflow, direct contact with another, immiscible fluid (1), of differing temperature and density, in the presence of a free floating media bed (7). Heat transfer within the liquid (5) occurring as a consequence of direct contact with the immiscible fluid (1) of differing temperature. The counterflow motion a consequence of buoyancy forces resulting from the different densities of the liquid (5) and immiscible fluid (1). The media bed (7) being of a nature preferentially wetted by the immiscible fluid (1), thereby providing a large film type surface area of the immiscible fluid (1) for direct contact heat transfer with the liquid (5). The free floating nature of the media bed (7) resulting from the materials comprising the media being of a density intermediate between that of the liquid (5) and that of the immiscible fluid (1).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 29, 1998
    Date of Patent: September 19, 2000
    Inventors: James Jeffrey Harris, James William Harris
  • Patent number: 6116028
    Abstract: A method of operating a power generation system is provided. The system includes a turbine, a distiller/condenser, a boiler, and a superheater. The turbine expands a superheated multicomponent working fluid to produce power. The distiller/condenser transforms the expanded multicomponent working fluid into first and second concentration multicomponent working fluids. The first concentration multicomponent working fluid has a first concentration of a component of the multicomponent working fluid. The second concentration multicomponent working fluid has a second concentration of the component which is different than the first concentration. The boiler vaporizes a feed multicomponent working fluid. The superheater superheats the vaporized feed multicomponent working fluid to form the superheated multicomponent working fluid. In operating the system, the temperature of the vaporized multicomponent working fluid is sensed.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 13, 1999
    Date of Patent: September 12, 2000
    Assignee: ABB Alstom Power Inc.
    Inventors: Paul L. Hansen, Paul D. Kuczma, Jens O. Palsson, Jonathan S. Simon
  • Patent number: 6058695
    Abstract: In a combined cycle power system having a gas turbine and one or more bottoming cycle expansion turbines for driving one or more generators, compressor inlet air to the gas turbine is cooled. An extraction is taken from the distillation condensation sub-system of the Kalina cycle and throttled to a lower pressure, with a corresponding temperature drop for supply to a low pressure evaporator in heat exchange relation with ambient air flowing to the compressor inlet to cool the ambient air. The partially evaporated multi-component mixture exiting the low pressure evaporator is returned to the spent vapor stream from the low pressure expansion turbine for combination therewith and condensation. Consequently, compressor inlet air inlet to the gas turbine is cooled, thereby increasing mass flow and turbine output.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 20, 1998
    Date of Patent: May 9, 2000
    Assignee: General Electric Co.
    Inventors: Jatila Ranasinghe, Raub Warfield Smith
  • Patent number: 5950433
    Abstract: A method of implementing a thermodynamic cycle by expanding a gaseous working stream to transform its energy into a useful form and produce an expanded gaseous stream, removing from the expanded gaseous stream an extracted stream, absorbing the extracted stream into a lean stream having a higher content of higher-boiling component than is contained in the extracted stream to form a combined extracted/lean stream, at least partially condensing the combined extracted/lean stream, combining at least part of the combined extracted/lean stream in condensed form with an oncoming working stream including a rich stream having a lower content of higher-boiling component than is contained in the extracted stream to provide a combined working stream, and heating the combined working stream with external heat to provide the gaseous working stream.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 9, 1996
    Date of Patent: September 14, 1999
    Assignee: Exergy, Inc.
    Inventor: Alexander I. Kalina
  • Patent number: 5822990
    Abstract: Converting heat in a primary fluid (e.g., steam) to useful energy by multistage expansion of the primary fluid, heating of a multicomponent working fluid in a separate closed loop using heat of the primary fluid, and expansion of the multicomponent working fluid. The primary fluid in a vapor state is expanded in a first stage expander to obtain useful energy and to produce a partially expanded primary fluid. The partially expanded primary fluid stream is then separated into liquid and vapor components and split into a vapor stream (which is expanded in a second stage expander) and a further primary stream (which used to heat the multicomponent working fluid).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 9, 1996
    Date of Patent: October 20, 1998
    Assignee: Exergy, Inc.
    Inventors: Alexander I. Kalina, Lawrence B. Rhodes