Gas Column (e.g., Generally Upward Gas Stream, Etc.) Patents (Class 65/513)
  • Publication number: 20150101368
    Abstract: When a lower gauge pressure of a cooling tube part is set at A, and the number of divided units of the cooling tube part is set at N, and a length of each of the divided units of the cooling tube part is set at Li (i=1 to N), and a radius of each of the divided units of the cooling tube part is set at Ri (i=1 to N), and a gas flow rate of a coolant gas passed through each of the divided units of the cooling tube part is set at Qi (i=1 to N), and a viscosity coefficient of a coolant gas is set at ?1, and a radius of an optical fiber is set at r1, and a drawing speed of the optical fiber is set at V1, and a pressure loss of a straight tube part is set at B, and the number of divided units of the straight tube part is set at n, and a length of each of the divided units of the straight tube part is set at LLj (j=1 to n), and a radius of each of the divided units of the straight tube part is set at RRj (j=1 to n), and a gas flow rate of a pressurized gas passed through the straight tube part is set at Qgas, and a
    Type: Application
    Filed: October 9, 2014
    Publication date: April 16, 2015
    Inventors: Norihiro UENOYAMA, Iwao OKAZAKI, Manabu SHIOZAKI, Tadashi ENOMOTO
  • Patent number: 8661856
    Abstract: In an optical fiber manufacturing method, the cooling device and the coating device are connected in an airtight manner and by preventing a cooling gas, flowing inside the cooling device, from flowing into the coating device by a meniscus of resin inside of the coating device, a flow of the cooling gas inside the cooling device is discharged to an outside of an upper end of the cooling device as an upward stream; helium gas as the cooling gas flows into a lower portion of the cooling device and carbon dioxide gas as the cooling gas which is separated from the helium gas flows into a side lower than a position where the helium gas flows in, during the forcible cooling; and a flow rate of the helium gas and a flow rate of the carbon dioxide gas are individually controlled.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 15, 2011
    Date of Patent: March 4, 2014
    Assignee: Fujikura Ltd.
    Inventor: Kenji Okada
  • Publication number: 20130312461
    Abstract: In one embodiment, an optical fiber cooling system includes a first cooling tube oriented substantially in parallel with and spaced apart from a second cooling tube such that an optical fiber pathway is positioned between the first cooling tube and the second cooling tube. The first cooling tube includes a plurality of cooling fluid outlets positioned along an axial length of the first cooling tube which are oriented to direct a flow of cooling fluid across the optical fiber pathway towards the second cooling tube. The second cooling tube includes a plurality of cooling fluid outlets positioned along an axial length of the second cooling tube which are oriented to direct a flow of cooling fluid across the optical fiber pathway towards the first cooling tube.
    Type: Application
    Filed: August 6, 2013
    Publication date: November 28, 2013
    Applicant: Corning Incorporated
    Inventors: Gary Alan Cummings, Samir Khanna, Douglas Gregg Neilson, Thomas Andre Pedersen, Massoud Rahiminejad, Bruce Warren Reding
  • Patent number: 8528367
    Abstract: In one embodiment, an optical fiber cooling system includes a first cooling tube oriented substantially in parallel with and spaced apart from a second cooling tube such that an optical fiber pathway is positioned between the first cooling tube and the second cooling tube. The first cooling tube includes a plurality of cooling fluid outlets positioned along an axial length of the first cooling tube which are oriented to direct a flow of cooling fluid across the optical fiber pathway towards the second cooling tube. The second cooling tube includes a plurality of cooling fluid outlets positioned along an axial length of the second cooling tube which are oriented to direct a flow of cooling fluid across the optical fiber pathway towards the first cooling tube.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 25, 2012
    Date of Patent: September 10, 2013
    Assignee: Corning Incorporated
    Inventors: Gary Alan Cummings, Samir Khanna, Douglas Gregg Neilson, Thomas A Pedersen, Massoud Rahiminejad, Bruce Warren Reding
  • Publication number: 20120260697
    Abstract: In one embodiment, an optical fiber cooling system includes a first cooling tube oriented substantially in parallel with and spaced apart from a second cooling tube such that an optical fiber pathway is positioned between the first cooling tube and the second cooling tube. The first cooling tube includes a plurality of cooling fluid outlets positioned along an axial length of the first cooling tube which are oriented to direct a flow of cooling fluid across the optical fiber pathway towards the second cooling tube. The second cooling tube includes a plurality of cooling fluid outlets positioned along an axial length of the second cooling tube which are oriented to direct a flow of cooling fluid across the optical fiber pathway towards the first cooling tube.
    Type: Application
    Filed: June 25, 2012
    Publication date: October 18, 2012
    Inventors: Gary Alan Cummings, Samir Khanna, Douglas Gregg Neilson, Thomas A. Pedersen, Massoud Rahiminejad, Bruce Warren Reding
  • Patent number: 7946138
    Abstract: An apparatus for adjusting the cooling members located beneath fiberizing bushings is disclosed having the capability of moving each cooling member, or one portion of each cooling member, in a generally vertical direction, and/or in a lateral and/or tilting direction. Also disclosed is a process of using the apparatus to make fibers from molten material including molten glass.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 7, 2006
    Date of Patent: May 24, 2011
    Assignee: Johns Manville
    Inventors: Thomas Kent Thompson, Terry Joe Hanna, Russell D. Arterbum
  • Patent number: 7823419
    Abstract: A furnace for drawing an optical fiber includes a body having an upper and lower openings for supplying a preform and discharging a drawn optical fiber, a heating unit installed in the body for receiving and melting the preform, an atmosphere blocking tube installed to the lower opening for discharging the drawn optical fiber and blocking the optical fiber from the atmosphere, an upper introduction port formed at an upper portion of the body for introducing an inert gas toward the preform and partially discharged outside through a gap between the preform and the upper opening, a central and lower introduction ports formed at central and lower portions for introducing an inert gas into the body, a first flow guiding means for guiding the inert gas introduced through the central introduction port upward and then flowed down along a surface of the preform, and a second flow guiding means for guiding the inert gas introduced through the lower introduction port upward and then discharged outside through the atmosp
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 3, 2009
    Date of Patent: November 2, 2010
    Assignee: LS Cable Ltd.
    Inventors: Sang-Joon Bae, Young-Il Kwon, Joon-Keun Lee, Chul-Min Kim, Myung-Ho Jang
  • Patent number: 7814767
    Abstract: An induction furnace capable of drawing large diameter preforms of up to 130 mm is described. The induction furnace has top and bottom chimneys surrounding the entire preform during operation of the furnace with an inert conditioning gas which is introduced into the top chimney and flows downward through the furnace body and bottom chimney without significant turbulence. A distributor ring inside the top chimney redirects flow from a circumferential direction to a downward direction. The top chimney also includes a resilient seal to releasably hold the top of the preform. The bottom chimney has a smoothly decreasing cross-sectional area preventing turbulence at the furnace exit. The furnace insulation is preferably a rigid self-supporting graphite cylinder. A method of drawing large diameter preforms either to an optical fiber or to a preform of smaller diameter using such a furnace is also described.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 9, 2001
    Date of Patent: October 19, 2010
    Assignee: Prysmian Cavi E Sistemi Energia S.R.L.
    Inventors: Giacomo Stefano Roba, Massimo Nutini, Franco Veronelli
  • Publication number: 20100107701
    Abstract: An optical fiber apparatus and manufacturing method thereof includes: forming a bare optical fiber by melting and deforming an optical fiber preform; cooling the bare optical fiber after the bare optical fiber forming step by passing it through a flow channel of a cooling unit through which cooling gas flows; and forming a protective coating layer by supplying a molten resin to a periphery of the bare optical fiber after the cooling step thereby forming an optical fiber. The cooling gas flowing toward a vertically lower end of the flow channel is blocked by the molten resin used to form the protective coating layer, and carbon dioxide gas is supplied toward the flow channel from a position which is vertically below the supply position of the cooling gas and vertically above the blocking position of the molten resin.
    Type: Application
    Filed: April 29, 2009
    Publication date: May 6, 2010
    Applicant: FUJIKURA LTD.
    Inventors: Kenji OKADA, Shingo MATSUSHITA
  • Patent number: 7677060
    Abstract: A method for manufacturing an optical fiber by drawing an optical fiber preform softened by heating, includes cooling the optical fiber at a cooling rate of not more than 4000° C. per second at a temperature of 1200 to 1400° C. of the optical fiber; and cooling the optical fiber at a cooling rate of not more than 8000° C. per second at a temperature of 850 to 1200° C. of the optical fiber. A drawing rate of the optical fiber is not less than 1000 meters per minute.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 20, 2005
    Date of Patent: March 16, 2010
    Assignee: The Furukawa Electric Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Masato Oku, Takashi Suzuki
  • Patent number: 7153115
    Abstract: An optical fiber cooling tube includes an internal cavity through which an optical fiber passes and a set of injection passages that are distributed along the tube, open into the cavity, and are oriented in a contraflow direction relative to the direction in which the optical fiber moves.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 4, 2003
    Date of Patent: December 26, 2006
    Assignee: Alcatel
    Inventors: Aurélien Leon, Denis Tschumperle, Olivier Schuepbach, Jean-François Bourhis
  • Patent number: 7137279
    Abstract: A cap assembly for collecting cooling gas from a coolant chamber tube is disclosed. The cap assembly having connecting means and outlet means extending from its side walls being generally shaped and sized for detachable mounting on the body of the cooling gas chamber tube. The cap assembly is also employed in a hot optical fiber process which is being cooled by helium.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 3, 2004
    Date of Patent: November 21, 2006
    Assignee: The BOC Group, Inc.
    Inventors: Yaping Lu, Arthur I. Shirley, Neeraj Saxena, Paul A. Propsner, Lip Yee Lee
  • Patent number: 6845637
    Abstract: An apparatus and method for curing a coating applied to an optical fiber. A water-jacketed UV lamp is provided adjacent a first reflector. An optical fiber is drawn between a second reflector opposite the first reflector and at least one quartz plate, while a cross flow of a cooling gas is passed around the optical fiber. Apertures may be formed in the second reflector for passing the cooling gas while the optical fiber is passed between the second reflector and the at least one quartz plate. Alternatively, two or more quartz plates may be provided and the cooling gas and the optical fiber passed between the quartz plates. The cooling gas experiences laminar flow.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 22, 2002
    Date of Patent: January 25, 2005
    Assignee: Alcatel
    Inventors: Bob J. Overton, Peter Stupak, Sammy G. Breeding
  • Publication number: 20040194513
    Abstract: A coolant system for cooling a fiber includes a heat exchanger with an internal passage disposed between a fiber inlet and fiber outlet to cool the fiber moving through the internal passage. A plurality of chambers are disposed within the internal passage, and at least one fluid medium flows within at least a portion of the internal passage, and at least one adjustable seal is positioned within the internal passage to form a partition between two adjacent chambers. A gas analyzer communicates with at least one chamber of the internal passage to extract a fluid sample from the chamber and to measure a concentration of a gas in the extracted fluid sample. A controller communicates with the analyzer and controls at least one of the adjustable seal and the flow rate of fluid medium within the internal passage based upon the measured concentration.
    Type: Application
    Filed: January 28, 2004
    Publication date: October 7, 2004
    Inventors: Frederick W. Giacobbe, Ovidiu Marin, Joseph E. Paganessi, M. Usman Ghani, Martin Theriault
  • Patent number: 6715323
    Abstract: The present invention relates to a method and apparatus for cooling an optical fiber during the drawing process of said fiber. In particular the present method for cooling an optical fiber comprises flowing a cooling gas onto the optical fiber wherein the flow direction of the cooling gas is substantially transversal with respect the longitudinal axis of the fiber. It has been found that by employing a flow of cooling gas being substantially transversal to the longitudinal axis of the drawn fiber, the cooling efficiency of the fiber may be substantially improved.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 19, 2000
    Date of Patent: April 6, 2004
    Assignee: Pirelli Cavi E Sistemi S.p.A.
    Inventors: Giacomo Stefano Roba, Roberto Pata
  • Patent number: 6644069
    Abstract: An end heating and processing method of an optical fiber preform. In this method, an optical fiber preform is processed by heating and melting an end of a vitrified optical fiber preform including a core portion and a cladding portion formed on an outer circumference thereof to process the end having a shape for drawing as an optical fiber.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 14, 2001
    Date of Patent: November 11, 2003
    Assignee: The Furukawa Electric Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Yukio Kohmura, Masahide Kuwabara, Kiyoshi Arima, Yasuhiro Naka, Shinpei Todo
  • Publication number: 20030205066
    Abstract: A method and apparatus are described for efficient and economical cooling of drawn optical fibers prior to coating with resins. Optimum cooling is achieved employing a tubular cooling device with multiple cooling stages using gaseous coolants. A first stage uses a gas essentially free of helium while a second stage uses a helium-containing gas. The cooling apparatus includes a tubular device having a longitudinal axis, an inlet and outlet for passage of a drawn optical fiber, a wall extending transverse to the longitudinal axis of the cooling device dividing the space between the inlet and outlet into at least two cooling compartments, where the wall has an aperture to allow for passage of the fiber, means for passing gaseous coolant into the compartments, a jacket surrounding the compartments defining a space to circulate a cooling fluid, and porous means for minimizing flow-induced vibration of the fiber.
    Type: Application
    Filed: January 28, 2003
    Publication date: November 6, 2003
    Inventors: M. Usman Ghani, Ovidiu Marin, Philippe Queille
  • Publication number: 20030188556
    Abstract: An optical fiber cooling tube includes an internal cavity through which an optical fiber passes and a set of injection passages that are distributed along the tube, open into the cavity, and are oriented in a contraflow direction relative to the direction in which the optical fiber moves.
    Type: Application
    Filed: April 4, 2003
    Publication date: October 9, 2003
    Applicant: ALCATEL
    Inventors: Aurelien Leon, Denis Tschumperle, Olivier Schuepbach, Jean-Francois Bourhis
  • Publication number: 20030136157
    Abstract: What is disclosed is a cooling unit with a sealing cap, for high speed optical fiber drawing in an optical fiber drawing process. The cooling unit includes: a cooling body through which the optical fiber drawn in high speed passes and in which heat exchange is performed by provided helium gas; and a sealing cap mounted on upper and lower ends of the cooling body, wherein at least more than one supplying member of ring type are provided in an inside of the sealing cap more than one time along progress direction of the optical fiber, for providing flow rate of reverse direction opposite to external air introduced along the drawing optical fiber so that the influence of the external air is minimized.
    Type: Application
    Filed: December 30, 2002
    Publication date: July 24, 2003
    Inventors: Hyun-Ju Lee, Ki-Tae Jung
  • Patent number: 6546758
    Abstract: A method and device for reducing the temperature of an optical fiber wherein a housing body is provided a plurality of inner cooling chambers which are-, partitioned from each other by a plurality of partition walls. An axial through hole extends through each of the inner cooling chambers from an upper end of the housing body to a lower end of the housing body for the axial passage of an optical fiber therethough. A plurality of gas injection holes corresponding to the inner cooling chambers are provided in a side wall of the housing body for injecting gas into the inner cooling chambers. A plurality of coolant pipes through which a liquid coolant is circulated extend through each of the inner cooling chambers from the upper end to the lower end of the housing body. The coolant pipes are disposed between the gas injection holes and the axial through hole so that the gas which is injected into the inner cooling chambers via the gas injection holes is not blown directly against the fiber.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 16, 2000
    Date of Patent: April 15, 2003
    Assignee: Alcatel
    Inventor: Olivier Schuepbach
  • Patent number: 6474109
    Abstract: The invention relates to a device for drawing optical fibers from a preform, comprising: a furnace comprising a tube for heating one end of said preform to the drawing temperature thereof, which tube comprises: i) a central tube, ii) an upper extension tube connected to the lower part of said central tube so as to obtain a gas tight seal against an ambient atmosphere exterior said furnace, wherein the upper extension tube comprises an inlet for an inert gas in the top region of the upper extension tube, as a result of which the preform and the fiber to be drawn therefrom are surrounded by an inert gas, iii) a lower extension tube connected to said upper extension tube in such a manner that a gas tight seal against an ambient atmosphere exterior said furnace is obtained, iv) a tube outlet connected to said lower extension tube, means for drawing the fiber, means for supporting the preform in the furnace.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 13, 2000
    Date of Patent: November 5, 2002
    Assignee: Plasma Optical Fibre, B.V.
    Inventors: Marinus Jacob deFouw, Antonius Henricus Elisabeth Breuls
  • Publication number: 20020100296
    Abstract: Disclosed is a system for drawing an optical fiber for controlling polarization mode dispersion. A furnace is provided for uniformly heating an optical fiber preform in the drawing system mounted to an optical fiber draw tower. The furnace comprises: (a) a main body; (b) a sub-body placed coaxially with the main body and having a diameter smaller than that of the main body; and (c) an upper gas feeding section over the main body, wherein the upper gas feeding section includes a first hollow rotary body having at least one slit in the inner surface thereof along the longitudinal direction of an optical fiber and at least one opening extended in the direction of the center, whereby a gas artificially/periodically creates non-contact polarization to the optical fiber by the first hollow rotary body. Effective non-contact control can be carried out about polarization mode dispersion of the optical fiber.
    Type: Application
    Filed: October 17, 2001
    Publication date: August 1, 2002
    Inventors: Sung-Koog Oh, Jin-Han Kim
  • Patent number: 6370920
    Abstract: An apparatus and method for curing a coating applied to an optical fiber. A water-jacketed UV lamp is provided adjacent a first reflector. An optical fiber is drawn between a second reflector opposite the first reflector and at least one quartz plate, while a cross flow of a cooling gas is passed around the optical fiber. Apertures may be formed in the second reflector for passing the cooling gas while the optical fiber is passed between the second reflector and the at least one quartz plate. Alternatively, two or more quartz plates may be provided and the cooling gas and the optical fiber passed between the quartz plates. The cooling gas experiences laminar flow.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 28, 1999
    Date of Patent: April 16, 2002
    Assignee: Alcatel
    Inventors: Bob J. Overton, Peter Stupak, Sammy G. Breeding
  • Patent number: 6338259
    Abstract: An apparatus and process for cooling a quartz tube used in fabrication of an optical fiber preform by modified chemical vapor deposition. The apparatus has a nozzle ring supplied with a coolant. The nozzle ring has at least two vent sections that are be separatable for detaching the quartz tube from a lathe during processing, and a plurality of vents formed along the inside of the two vent sections for ejecting the coolant.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 15, 1997
    Date of Patent: January 15, 2002
    Assignee: SamSung Electronics Co., Ltd.
    Inventor: Jin-Seong Yang
  • Patent number: 6321573
    Abstract: In a known process for the manufacture of an elongated porous SiO2 preform, SiO2 particles are deposited on the mantle surface of a cylindrical carrier rotating about its longitudinal axis. The SiO2 particles are formed by means of a plurality of deposition burners which are arranged, at a distance from one another, in at least one burner row extending parallel to the longitudinal axis of the carrier. The burners are moved in a repeated cycle back and forth along the forming preform and between turnaround points where the direction of their motion is reversed. Measures are taken in the process to prevent or reduce overheating of the preform in the turnaround point regions. These measures can lead to variations in the rate of deposition.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 9, 1999
    Date of Patent: November 27, 2001
    Assignee: Heraeus Quarzglas GmbH & Co. KG
    Inventors: Hans-Georg Fritsche, Udo Peper, Frank Neubauer, Hartwig Schaper, Jürgen Röper
  • Publication number: 20010023598
    Abstract: An end heating and processing method of an optical fiber preform. In this method, an optical fiber preform is processed by heating and melting an end of a vitrified optical fiber preform including a core portion and a cladding portion formed on an outer circumference thereof to process the end having a shape for drawing as an optical fiber.
    Type: Application
    Filed: February 14, 2001
    Publication date: September 27, 2001
    Applicant: The Furukawa Electric Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Yukio Kohmura, Masahide Kuwabara, Kiyoshi Arima, Yasuhiro Naka, Shinpei Todo
  • Patent number: 6253575
    Abstract: Helium recycling for optical fiber manufacturing in which consolidation process helium is recycled either directly for use in consolidation at high purity or recycled at lower purity adequate for usage in draw or other processes having a lower helium parity. Integrated processes for recycling helium from two or more helium using processes in the optical manufacturing process are also described. Substantial helium and cost savings are recognized.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 5, 2000
    Date of Patent: July 3, 2001
    Assignee: Corning Incorporated
    Inventor: Paul A. Chludzinski
  • Patent number: 6029476
    Abstract: A method and apparatus for manufacturing optical fibers provided with hermetic coatings, wherein the bare fiber made from a heated preform advances through a stream of reactive gaseous medium which flows at a constant speed in the direction of advance of the fiber, which is then accelerated, and which is finally removed remote from the fiber by a stream of inert gas flowing in the opposite direction from the direction of the stream of reactive gaseous medium. Application is to manufacturing optical fibers for telecommunications.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 13, 1998
    Date of Patent: February 29, 2000
    Assignee: Alcatel
    Inventors: Jean-Fran.cedilla.ois Bourhis, Jean-Pierre Bloas, Patrick Mac Kenzie, Max Matau
  • Patent number: 5897682
    Abstract: A coated optical fiber is produced by the steps of cooling through a cooling assembly an optical fiber obtained by drawing, heating and spinning an optical fiber base material and thereafter coating the optical fiber with a resin wherein a gas mixture including an He gas and possible ambient air is sucked out of the cooling assembly and purified to collect the He gas to be a recovery gas of He which is to be recycled to the cooling assembly together with a pure He gas, but the gas mixture sucked out of the cooling assembly is compressed and stored until the gas mixture reaches a predetermined pressure or more and then purified when it reaches the predetermined pressure while the compressed gas mixture is returned to an upstream side of a compressor which serves to compress the gas mixture so that the flow quantity of gas suction varies in accordance with the flow of He gas supplied to the cooling assembly whereby the gas mixture from the cooling assembly is prevented from lowering an He gas concentration of t
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 27, 1996
    Date of Patent: April 27, 1999
    Assignee: The Furukawa Electric Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Hisashi Koaizawa, Tsuneo Suzuki
  • Patent number: 5897681
    Abstract: To draw an optical fiber (10) from one end of a glass preform (9) which is heated to above the glass softening temperature at least in that area, a gas (21) flows around the preform (9) into a furnace space (16) during the drawing process and subsequent feeding of the preform. During the feeding, the areas that are adjacent to the drawing end of the preform (9) pass through gas zones in which the helium content of the furnace gas increases in the drawing direction.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 18, 1997
    Date of Patent: April 27, 1999
    Assignee: Alcatel
    Inventors: Hans-Jurgen Lysson, Anne Dieumegard, Arnaud Mairesse
  • Patent number: 5637130
    Abstract: A furnace and method for drawing an optical fiber is provided. The furnace included a furnace core chamber in which a preform is inserted into the chamber through the upper end thereof and a drawn optical fiber is pulled out of the chamber through an opening positioned at the lower end thereof. The furnace also includes a gas-supply means for introducing an inert gas into the furnace core chamber to thus establish an inert gas atmosphere within the chamber, and a heater for heating the preform so that the lower part of the preform is molten and drawn into the optical fiber, which is positioned around the outer periphery of the furnace core chamber. The furnace further includes an inner furnace core tube, which is positioned within the furnace core chamber and which has a cylindrical part whose lower part is communicated to the opening of the furnace core chamber and a funnel-like part which is positioned on the upper end of the cylindrical part.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 13, 1995
    Date of Patent: June 10, 1997
    Assignee: Sumitomo Electric Industries, Inc.
    Inventors: Katsuya Nagayama, Kohei Kobayashi, Hiroaki Ohta, Ichiro Tsuchiya
  • Patent number: 5568728
    Abstract: A filament cooler suitable for cooling freshly drawn optical fibre preparatory for being coated with a protective plastics coating has a water-cooled body member provided with a through hole opening out abruptly into a succession of spherical chambers in which a cyclonic gas flow is induced by the tangential injection of helium.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 13, 1995
    Date of Patent: October 29, 1996
    Assignee: Northern Telecom Limited
    Inventor: Gary S. Sapsford