Moisture Content Or Vapor Pressure Of Gas Patents (Class 73/24.04)
  • Patent number: 10037926
    Abstract: A stack of vertically-connected, horizontally-oriented integrated circuits (ICs) may have electrical connections from the front side of one IC to the back side of another IC. Electrical signals may be transferred from the back side of one IC to the front side of the same IC by means of through substrate vias (TSVs), which may include through silicon vias. Electronic apparatus, systems, and methods may operate to test and/or replace defective TSVs. Additional apparatus, systems and methods are disclosed.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 18, 2016
    Date of Patent: July 31, 2018
    Assignee: Micron Technology, Inc.
    Inventors: Ebrahim H Hargan, Layne Bunker, Dragos Dimitriu, Gregory A. King
  • Patent number: 9964563
    Abstract: A probe cleaning plate is configured to clean the probe plate of an ICT fixture. In particular, the probe cleaning plate is used to support a plurality of probes included as part of the probe plate and enable cleaning of the probe heads of each probe while maintaining support of the probes and minimizing, if not preventing, seepage of cleaning solution and contaminates from to the base of the probes.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 17, 2015
    Date of Patent: May 8, 2018
    Assignee: Flextronics AP, LLC
    Inventors: David Durai Pandian Sam Gunasing, Teh Wee Min
  • Patent number: 9442094
    Abstract: An apparatus and method for noninvasively monitoring steam quality and flow and in pipes or conduits bearing flowing steam, are described. By measuring the acoustic vibrations generated in steam-carrying conduits by the flowing steam either by direct contact with the pipe or remotely thereto, converting the measured acoustic vibrations into a frequency spectrum characteristic of the natural resonance vibrations of the pipe, and monitoring the amplitude and/or the frequency of one or more chosen resonance frequencies, changes in the steam quality in the pipe are determined. The steam flow rate and the steam quality are inversely related, and changes in the steam flow rate are calculated from changes in the steam quality once suitable calibration curves are obtained.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 7, 2012
    Date of Patent: September 13, 2016
    Assignee: Los Alamos National Security, LLC
    Inventors: Dipen N. Sinha, Cristian Pantea
  • Patent number: 9128010
    Abstract: Methods for monitoring scale deposition in a water-containing industrial process are disclosed. In certain embodiments, the water-containing industrial process is an aqueous cooling system. In certain embodiments, the methods incorporate fluorometric monitoring and control techniques along with a piezoelectric microbalance sensor. A particular embodiment of a piezoelectric microbalance sensor is additionally disclosed, along with at least one method for using the particular embodiment that is independent of whether fluorometric monitoring and control techniques are utilized.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 14, 2013
    Date of Patent: September 8, 2015
    Assignee: Ecolab USA Inc.
    Inventors: Arthur J Kahaian, Dmitri L Kouznetsov, John E Hoots, Rodney H Banks, David Ambrose
  • Patent number: 8794018
    Abstract: A system for preventing icing in a conduit, as can occur in an aircraft's air conditioning system, includes at least one sensor for acquiring mechanical oscillations of the conduits, an electronic evaluation unit and an electronic control unit. The sensor is connected to the electronic evaluation unit, which knows characteristics relating to the oscillation behavior of the conduit and is equipped to compare the measured conduit oscillations with these characteristics, and through correlation to interpret them as conduit icing, and in the case of conduit icing to emit a signal to the control unit. If the operation-associated oscillations are inadequate, oscillations can be generated or amplified through an actuator. With this system an icing state within the conduit can be detected without the use of sensors located in the interior cross section of the conduit, which itself serves as a sensitive element.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 23, 2008
    Date of Patent: August 5, 2014
    Assignee: Airbus Operations GmbH
    Inventor: Wolfgang Gleine
  • Patent number: 8652552
    Abstract: The present invention relates to an apparatus for estimating the air humidity within an oven cavity (14) by using ultrasound waves with at least two different frequencies (f1, f2). Said apparatus comprises at least one ultrasound transmitter (10) for generating the ultrasound waves, at least one ultrasound receiver (12) for receiving the ultrasound waves and at least one phase detecting device for detecting the phase (?1, ?2) of the ultrasound wave at the ultrasound receiver (12) relative to the same ultrasound wave with the same frequency (f1, f2) at the ultrasound transmitter (10).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 18, 2010
    Date of Patent: February 18, 2014
    Assignee: Electrolux Home Products Corporation N.V.
    Inventors: Sergey Argudayev, Vladimir Gerasimov, Roberto Giordano
  • Patent number: 8468883
    Abstract: A thermal type fluid flow sensor includes an air flow detecting portion and a temperature detecting portion formed above the same substrate, capable of correcting a humidity, and having a high measuring accuracy at a low cost, and a heat generating resistor, a temperature measuring resistor for the heat detecting resistor, a temperature measuring resistor for detecting an air flow, and a heat generating resistor for detecting a humidity are arranged in a diaphragm formed above a semiconductor substrate, an air cavity layer, and a protecting film above the air cavity layer are formed above the heat generating resistor for detecting the humidity, and the protecting film is provided with plural holes reaching the air cavity layer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 8, 2010
    Date of Patent: June 25, 2013
    Assignee: Hitachi Automotive Systems, Ltd.
    Inventor: Noriyuki Sakuma
  • Publication number: 20130067992
    Abstract: An apparatus and method for noninvasively monitoring steam quality and flow and in pipes or conduits bearing flowing steam, are described. By measuring the acoustic vibrations generated in steam-carrying conduits by the flowing steam either by direct contact with the pipe or remotely thereto, converting the measured acoustic vibrations into a frequency spectrum characteristic of the natural resonance vibrations of the pipe, and monitoring the amplitude and/or the frequency of one or more chosen resonance frequencies, changes in the steam quality in the pipe are determined. The steam flow rate and the steam quality are inversely related, and changes in the steam flow rate are calculated from changes in the steam quality once suitable calibration curves are obtained.
    Type: Application
    Filed: March 7, 2012
    Publication date: March 21, 2013
    Applicant: Los Alamos National Security, LLC
    Inventors: Dipen N. Sinha, Cristian Pantea
  • Publication number: 20120225179
    Abstract: The present invention relates to an apparatus for estimating the air humidity within an oven cavity (14) by using ultrasound waves with at least two different frequencies (f1, f2). Said apparatus comprises at least one ultrasound transmitter (10) for generating the ultrasound waves, at least one ultrasound receiver (12) for receiving the ultrasound waves and at least one phase detecting device for detecting the phase (?1, ?2) of the ultrasound wave at the ultrasound receiver (12) relative to the same ultrasound wave with the same frequency (f1, f2) at the ultrasound transmitter (10).
    Type: Application
    Filed: February 18, 2010
    Publication date: September 6, 2012
    Applicant: ELECTROLUX HOME PRODUCTS CORPORATION N.V.
    Inventors: Sergey Argudayev, Vladimir Gerasimov, Roberto Giordano
  • Publication number: 20120036917
    Abstract: Embodiments of the present disclosure include devices and methods for humidity and temperature sensing. For example, in one embodiment, a sensing device can include a first surface acoustic wave (SAW) component, wherein the first SAW component is a temperature component, a second SAW component, wherein the second SAW component is a humidity component, a third SAW component, wherein the third SAW component is a reference component, and a piezoelectric layer, wherein the first SAW component, the second. SAW component, and the third SAW component are on a surface of the piezoelectric layer.
    Type: Application
    Filed: August 11, 2011
    Publication date: February 16, 2012
    Applicant: HONEYWELL INTERNATIONAL INC.
    Inventors: Viorel Avramescu, Cazimir G. Bostan, Ion Georgescu
  • Patent number: 8060334
    Abstract: An aircraft Ice Detection pitot-static tube is described which uses sensors integrated into the pitot-static tube to determine when and where the pitot-static tube is icing up. Temperature, thermal conductivity and impedance sensor measurements are combined with a mathematical transfer of the impedance sensor output into the complex dielectric plane to identify that the material accreating on the exterior and interior of the pitot-static tube is ice and only ice. Identification of ice realized when the trace in complex dielectric space has a distinctive semi-circular form, which only ice exhibits, with measured values in agreement with reference laboratory data stored in the onboard computer system.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 3, 2010
    Date of Patent: November 15, 2011
    Inventor: Philip Onni Jarvinen
  • Patent number: 8030100
    Abstract: The application relates to a chemical sensor device comprising a substrate (1), a sensor medium (3) formed on the substrate, the sensor medium comprising one-dimensional nanoparticles, wherein the one-dimensional nanoparticles essentially consist of a semiconducting AxBy compound, e.g. V2O5 and detection means (2) for detecting a change of a physical property of the sensor medium e.g. conductivity. The porosity of the sensor medium supports a fast access of the analyte to the sensing material and therefore a fast response of the sensor. The selectivity and sensitivity of the sensor can be tailored by doping the one-dimensional nanoscale material with different dopants or by varying the dopant concentration. Sensitivity of the sensor device to an analyte, preferably an amine, can be increased by increasing relative humidity of the sample to at least 5%.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 26, 2009
    Date of Patent: October 4, 2011
    Assignee: Sony Deutschland GmbH
    Inventors: Isabelle Besnard, Tobias Vossmeyer, Akio Yasuda, Marko Burghard, Ulrich Schlecht
  • Publication number: 20100107735
    Abstract: A gas sensor with instant response uses one or more oscillators while no chemical reactions or other material modifications are involved. Sensor can be used in any application to measure a percent range of gas concentrations, or mass of the absorbed gas.
    Type: Application
    Filed: January 11, 2010
    Publication date: May 6, 2010
    Inventor: Igor Pavlovsky
  • Patent number: 7631538
    Abstract: A method and equipment for measuring vapour flux from a surface (10) e.g. the rate of water loss from human skin, which is useful in the evaluation of the efficiency of the skin/water barrier. It uses a closed cylinder (12), which is placed against the skin and by measuring the temperature and relative humidity within the cylinder by means of sensors (13, 14) positioned adjacent the wall of the cylinder, the water vapour flux can be determined.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 22, 2003
    Date of Patent: December 15, 2009
    Assignee: South Bank University Enterprizes Ltd.
    Inventor: Robert E. Imhof
  • Publication number: 20090260422
    Abstract: An ultrasonic sensor includes a transmitting device, a receiving device, and a circuit device. The circuit device determines that the receiving device receives an ultrasonic wave reflected from an object, when an output voltage of the receiving device is equal to or greater than a first threshold. The circuit device includes a humidity detection section configured to detect an ambient humidity of the transmitting and receiving devices and a threshold adjustment section configured to calculate, based on the detected ambient humidity, a sound pressure of the ultrasonic wave that is received by the receiving device after propagating over a round-trip distance between the ultrasonic sensor and the object. The threshold adjustment section reduces the first threshold, when the output voltage corresponding to the calculated sound pressure is less than a second threshold that is greater the first threshold.
    Type: Application
    Filed: April 16, 2009
    Publication date: October 22, 2009
    Applicants: DENSO CORPORATION, NIPPON SOKEN, INC.
    Inventors: Makiko Sugiura, Yasuyuki Okuda, Takaaki Kawai, Takahiko Yoshida, Hisanaga Matsuoka, Toshiki Isogai, Mitsuyasu Matsuura
  • Patent number: 7531136
    Abstract: The application relates to a chemical sensor device comprising a substrate (1), a sensor medium (3) formed on the substrate, the sensor medium comprising one-dimensional nanoparticles, wherein the one-dimensional nanoparticles essentially consist of a semiconducting AxBy compound, e.g. V2O5 and detection means (2) for detecting a change of a physical property of the sensor medium e.g. conductivity. The porosity of the sensor medium supports a fast access of the analyte to the sensing material and therefore a fast response of the sensor. The selectivity and sensitivity of the sensor can be tailored by doping the one-dimensional nanoscale material with different dopants or by varying the dopant concentration. Sensitivity of the sensor device to an analyte, preferably an amine, can be increased by increasing relative humidity of the sample to at least 5%.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 14, 2006
    Date of Patent: May 12, 2009
    Assignees: Sony Deutschland GmbH, Max-Planck-Gesellschaft zur Foerderung der Wissenschaften e.V.
    Inventors: Isabelle Besnard, Tobias Vossmeyer, Akio Yasuda, Marko Burghard, Ulrich Schlecht
  • Patent number: 7461539
    Abstract: A humidity sensor and a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) therefor, for measuring low humidity levels, and a method for preparing same. The metallic surface of the QCM is electroplated with a hygroscopic layer. The hygroscopic layer preferably includes Manganese. A salt is formed on the hygroscopic layer. The salt is preferably salt of Manganese, and most preferably Manganese Chloride (MnCl2).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 17, 2004
    Date of Patent: December 9, 2008
    Assignees: Elop Electro-Optics Industries Ltd., Ramot at Tel Aviv University Ltd.
    Inventors: Ehud Galun, Galit Zilberman, Vladimir Tsionsky, Eliezer Gileadi
  • Publication number: 20080078233
    Abstract: A sensor senses an environmental condition. The sensor includes a film bulk acoustic resonator that includes a layer of material that causes resonant frequency and/or quality factor shifts of the film bulk acoustic resonator in response to changes in the environmental condition. The environmental condition may be relative humidity and the layer of material may be a moisture absorptive material.
    Type: Application
    Filed: September 25, 2006
    Publication date: April 3, 2008
    Inventors: John D. Larson, Storrs T. Hoen, Annette C. Grot, Richard C. Ruby, Graham M. Flower
  • Patent number: 7270002
    Abstract: A humidity sensor element, a humidity sensor device and a method for manufacturing thereof are provided. The humidity sensor element includes a substrate having a nanocomposite film as sensing material, wherein said nanocomposite film consists of carbon nanotube/perfluorinated polymer with acid functional groups in weight ratio of 0.01-20; and at least a pair of electrodes, which contact with the sensing material at one or both side(s). The nanocomposite film increases the sensitivity of humidity sensor element such that even an infinitesimal amount of moisture can be detected with minimum detection limit of 15.76 ppmv.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 3, 2004
    Date of Patent: September 18, 2007
    Assignee: Industrial Technology Research Institute
    Inventors: Hui Wen Chen, Ren Jang Wu, Yi Lu Sun, Pi Guey Su
  • Patent number: 7238238
    Abstract: A deposition apparatus supplies a reactive gas obtained by vaporizing a liquid material at a vaporizer 30 into a chamber 10 via a processing-gas pipe 40 and forms a thin film on a semiconductor wafer W due to a thermal decomposition of the reactive gas. The deposition apparatus is provided, in the processing-gas pipe 40, with a crystal gauge 51 detecting a pressure Pq under the influence of mist in the reactive gas and a capacitance manometer 52 detecting a pressure Pg under no influence of the mist. The apparatus further includes a gasification monitor 50 detecting a quantity of mist in the reactive gas on the basis of a difference ?P between the pressure Pq and the pressure Pg measured by the crystal gauge 51 and the capacitance manometer 52 in order to prevent deposition defects due to the mist in the reactive gas.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 16, 2004
    Date of Patent: July 3, 2007
    Assignee: Tokyo Electron Limited
    Inventor: Teruo Iwata
  • Patent number: 7096719
    Abstract: An apparatus 10 is provided that measures the speed of sound propagating in a multiphase mixture to determine parameters, such as mixture quality, particle size, vapor/mass ratio, liquid/vapor ratio, mass flow rate, enthalpy and volumetric flow rate of the flow in a pipe or unconfined space, for example, using acoustic and/or dynamic pressures. The apparatus includes a pair of ultrasonic transducers disposed axially along the pipe for measuring the transit time of an ultrasonic signal to propagate from one ultrasonic transducer to the other ultrasonic transducer. A signal process, responsive to said transit time signal, provides a signal representative of the speed of sound of the mixture. An SOS processing unit then provides an output signal indicative of at least one parameter of the mixture flowing through the pipe. The frequency of the ultrasonic signal is sufficiently low to minimize scatter from particle/liquid within the mixture.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 13, 2004
    Date of Patent: August 29, 2006
    Assignee: CiDRA Corporation
    Inventor: Daniel L. Gysling
  • Patent number: 7082810
    Abstract: A gas sensor (10) including a measurement chamber (28) into which a gas GS is flown and a detection element main body (40) facing the measurement chamber (28). The detection element main body (40) includes an element case 42, and a protective film (48) is adhered to a bottom surface thereof. An acoustic matching plate (50) and a piezoelectric element (51) of a substantially columnar shape and a tube body (52) provided in a position surrounding the acoustic matching plate 50 and the piezoelectric element 51 are housed in the element case (42). A filler is then introduced into the element case (42), whereby the acoustic matching plate (50), the piezoelectric element (51), and the tube body (52) are sealed by a filled layer (99).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 6, 2003
    Date of Patent: August 1, 2006
    Assignee: NGK Spark Plug Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Masashi Sakamoto, Yoshikuni Sato, Keigo Banno, Katsuya Otake, Takeshi Morita, Hideki Ishikawa, Noboru Ishida
  • Patent number: 6964196
    Abstract: A system and method for providing resonant movement about a first axis. A functional surface supported by a first pair of torsional hinges is driven into resonant oscillations about the first axis by inertially coupling energy through the first pair of torsional hinges. The resonant movement may be moved orthogonally on the target area by a gimbals portion of the functional surface pivoting about a second axis according to one embodiment. The resonant oscillation of the functional surface is monitored to detect changes in frequency due to mass changes of the functional surface.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 19, 2003
    Date of Patent: November 15, 2005
    Assignee: Texas Instruments Incorporated
    Inventors: Arthur Monroe Turner, Andrew S. Dewa, Mark W. Heaton
  • Patent number: 6938459
    Abstract: The present invention refers to a method of detecting the moisture in an apparatus for treating and preparing food, as well as to a method of treating and preparing food. In the method according to the invention, the current temperature values and speed values of the asynchronous motor driving a gas supply and circulation mechanism are compared to at least one characteristic line which is stored in a computer, and the current moisture in the gas mixture is determined from the deviation ?N of the measured speed from the speed of the stored characteristic line. The present invention also comprises an apparatus for treating and preparing food that, in particular, serves to carry out the method of determining the moisture in a gas mixture.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 27, 2003
    Date of Patent: September 6, 2005
    Assignee: eloma GmbH Grosskuchentechnik
    Inventors: Klaus Grühbaum, Johannes Hillmann
  • Patent number: 6935158
    Abstract: Hydrogen gas sensors employ an epitaxial layer of the thermodynamically stable form of aluminum nitride (AlN) as the “insulator” in an MIS structure having a thin metal gate electrode suitable for catalytic dissociate of hydrogen, such as palladium, on a semiconductor substrate. The AlN is deposited by a low temperature technique known as Plasma Source Molecular Beam Epitaxy (PSMBE). When silicon (Si) is used the semiconducting substrate, the electrical behavior of the device is that of a normal nonlinear MIS capacitor. When a silicon carbide (SiC) is used, the electrical behavior of the device is that of a rectifying diode. Preferred structures are Pd/AlN/Si and Pd/AlN/SiC wherein the SiC is preferably 6H—SiC.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 16, 2001
    Date of Patent: August 30, 2005
    Assignee: Wayne State University
    Inventors: Flaminia Serina, Gregory W. Auner, Ka Yuen Simon Ng, Ratna Naik
  • Patent number: 6881585
    Abstract: In one embodiment, the present method includes the steps of introducing a volume of a sample into a vapor delivery line and volatilizing at least a portion of the volume as it is carried through the vapor delivery line. At least a portion of the volatilized volume contacts a sensor element, which produces a signal that is monitored to reveal information about the sample. All components upstream of the sensor element are substantially free of sorbent materials so that the sample volume does not contact a substantially sorbent material before contacting the sensor element.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 6, 2000
    Date of Patent: April 19, 2005
    Assignee: General Electric Company
    Inventors: Radislav Alexandrovich Potyrailo, James Claude Carnahan, Ralph Joseph May, John Patrick Lemmon
  • Patent number: 6847903
    Abstract: Ice accretion on a probe is detected by determining the change of frequency of a vibrating type ice detector or sensor as ice starts to build up. The rate of change of frequency is determined and is combined with parameters including air velocity and air temperature for providing a signal that indicates liquid water content in the airflow as well as ice accretion on the ice detector.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 28, 2003
    Date of Patent: January 25, 2005
    Assignee: Rosemount Aerospace Inc.
    Inventors: John A. Severson, Kenneth J. Schram
  • Patent number: 6836732
    Abstract: An apparatus and method for ensuring effective and efficient vehicle vapor recovery performance, storage tank system integrity relative to both vapor and liquid containment and for reducing the probability that inaccurate information causes companies to undertake unnecessary, expensive and wasteful loss investigations at gasoline dispensing facilities. A fuel storage and delivery system is transformed from an “open system” communicating directly with the environment to a “closed system” which ensures capture, containment and accurate accounting of both hydrocarbon vapors and liquid phase product.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 26, 2002
    Date of Patent: December 28, 2004
    Assignee: Arid Technologies, Inc.
    Inventor: Tedmund P. Tiberi
  • Publication number: 20040211244
    Abstract: A mechanical breathing aid has first and second inlets respectively connectable to a source of air and a source of oxygen. A mixing location is in gaseous communication with the first and second inlets, at which controlled amounts of air and oxygen from the respective inlets are mixed. An acoustic analyzer operates during a measurement procedure to access a moisture content value for air from the source of air, to generate acoustic velocity-related information from acoustic energy interaction with the breathing gas, and to determine therefrom an oxygen content. The analyzer operates during a calibration procedure to generate acoustic velocity-related information from acoustic energy interaction with air from the source of air, and to determine therefrom an oxygen content value for the air from which is determined a moisture content value for air.
    Type: Application
    Filed: April 13, 2004
    Publication date: October 28, 2004
    Applicant: Maquet Critical Care AB
    Inventors: Erik Cardelius, Ake Larsson, Lars Skoglund
  • Publication number: 20030167823
    Abstract: The present invention refers to a method of detecting the moisture in an apparatus for treating and preparing food, as well as to a method of treating and preparing food. In the method according to the invention, the current temperature values and speed values of the asynchronous motor driving a gas supply and circulation mechanism are compared to at least one characteristic line which is stored in a computer, and the current moisture in the gas mixture is determined from the deviation &Dgr;N of the measured speed from the speed of the stored characteristic line. The present invention also comprises an apparatus for treating and preparing food that, in particular, serves to carry out the method of determining the moisture in a gas mixture.
    Type: Application
    Filed: February 27, 2003
    Publication date: September 11, 2003
    Inventors: Klaus Gruhbaum, Johannes Hillmann
  • Patent number: 6560551
    Abstract: Ice accretion on a probe is detected by determining the change of frequency of a vibrating type ice detector or sensor as ice starts to build up. The rate of change of frequency is determined and is combined with parameters including air velocity and air temperature for providing a signal that indicates liquid water content in the airflow as well as ice accretion on the ice detector.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 18, 2000
    Date of Patent: May 6, 2003
    Assignee: Rosemount Aerospace Inc.
    Inventors: John A. Severson, Kenneth J. Schram
  • Publication number: 20030049176
    Abstract: An adsorbent deterioration determining apparatus can accurately determine a deterioration of an adsorbent in a relatively simple configuration. The adsorbent deterioration determining apparatus determines a deterioration of an adsorbent arranged in an exhaust system of an internal combustion engine for purifying exhaust gases. The adsorbent is capable of adsorbing hydrocarbons and moisture in exhaust gases. The adsorbent deterioration determining apparatus comprises a humidity sensor arranged at a location downstream of the adsorbent in the exhaust system for detecting the humidity of exhaust gases, and an ECU for determining a deterioration of the adsorbent in accordance with a detected output of the humidity sensor at the time a predetermined time has elapsed from a start of the internal combustion engine.
    Type: Application
    Filed: September 5, 2002
    Publication date: March 13, 2003
    Applicant: HONDA GIKEN KOGYO KABUSHIKI KAISHA
    Inventors: Masahiro Sato, Takashi Haga, Norihito Watanabe, Kenji Abe, Tetsuo Endo
  • Publication number: 20020184939
    Abstract: Novel multilaminated nano-engineered devices and methods of forming multi-layer devices that exhibit quantum-confinement effects are disclosed. Benefits of multi-layer sensing, piezoelectric, photonic, biomedical, and thermal devices based on nanomaterials are disclosed. Quantum-confined device layer thickness can be in the range of 1 nm to 10 cm, a preferred thickness being less than 10 microns, and a most preferred thickness being less than 1 micron. Devices can be built using chalcogenides, oxides, nitrides, borides, phosphides, halides, silicates, hydrides, oxynitrides, oxycarbides, and other complex compositions. Sensors for monitoring environmental variables such as chemical composition are disclosed. These low-cost sensors comprise multiple layers in a laminated stack. Very high numbers of sensing layers (e.g., 500) may be incorporated into a single laminated sensor device. The sensors may be produced from nanostructured materials.
    Type: Application
    Filed: December 3, 2001
    Publication date: December 12, 2002
    Inventors: Tapesh Yadav, Clayton Kostlecky, Anthony Vigliotti
  • Patent number: 6439028
    Abstract: A method and equipment for measuring vapor flux from a surface e.g. the rate of water loss from human skin which is useful in the evaluation of the efficiency of the skin/water barrier uses a closed cylinder which is placed with the open end against the skin and the closed end is cooled. By measuring the temperature and relative humidity within the cylinder the water vapor flux can be determined.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 15, 2001
    Date of Patent: August 27, 2002
    Assignee: South Bank University Enterprises Limited
    Inventor: Robert E. Imhof
  • Publication number: 20020100311
    Abstract: An oil in air test apparatus measures the quantity of oil vapor entrained in the air stream from an air compressor used to generate compressed air for a vehicle air brake system. Testing is accomplished while the air compressor is in service and mounted onto the engine of the vehicle. The test apparatus creates back pressure to simulate an operating load on the air compressor, and passes an air stream through a disposable oil in air indicator cartridge to capture oil entrained in the air stream. Visual examination of the indicator cartridge is utilized to determine the operation condition of the air compressor. The test apparatus allows the operator to determine whether or not the quantity of oil vapor carried over in the compressed air is within acceptable warranty tolerances. As a result, unnecessary warranty calls for air compressors which are passing oil within normal tolerances are prevented.
    Type: Application
    Filed: January 7, 2000
    Publication date: August 1, 2002
    Inventors: ESLEY EDDY, JOHN MAYER, MARK D. JOHNSON, JOHN A. KINSLEY, GENE GILBERT
  • Patent number: 6341521
    Abstract: Provided is a process for measuring the amount of impurities in a gas sample filling a laser absorption spectroscopy analysis cell. The process includes calculating the value of a characteristic representative of the absorbance of the gas sample, from a measurement of the gas sample at a single given pressure, and quantifying the impurities on the basis of a predetermined law for the variation of the characteristic as a function of the amount of impurities. The characteristic is the ratio of the difference between the luminous intensity (Iana) of a light beam transmitted through the gas and the luminous intensity (Iref) of the incident beam to the luminous intensity (Iref) of the incident beam. The impurities are quantified on the basis of a value of the coefficient of proportionality between the amount of impurities and the characteristic, determined on the basis of a table of variation of the characteristic as a function of pressure, for a given amount of impurities.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 12, 1999
    Date of Patent: January 29, 2002
    Assignee: L'Air Liquide, Societe Anonyme pour l'Etude et l'Exploitation des Procedes Georges Claude
    Inventors: Mélanie Bartolomey, Jean-Marc Girard, Patrick Mauvais, James McAndrew